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THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



OK THE 



State Horticultural Society 



OK 



MISSOURI. 



1888. 



THIRTYPIRST ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT NEVADA, DECEMBER 5, 6 AND 

7, 1888, ALSO, 

SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT OREGON, JUNE 5, 6 AND 7, AND 

OTHER PAPERS. 



L. A. GOODrvlAN, Secretary, Westport, NIo 




JEFFERSON CITY, MO.: 

TRIBUNE PRINTING COMPANY STATE PRINTERS AND BINDERS. 

1889. 



...•^^* 



THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT ,.^^ ..... 

i L I B R K R Y . ; 



OK THE 



m 



State Horticultural Society 



OK 



IVEISSOURI. 



LIBRARY 

1888. NEW YORK 

BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



THIRTYHRST ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT NEVADA, DECEMBER 5, 6 AND 

7, 1888, ALSO, 

SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING HELD AT OREGON, JUNE 5, 6 AND 7, AND 

OTHER PAPERS. 



L. A. G00DM:AN, Secretary, \A^estport. WLg. 




JEFFERSON CITY, MO.: 

TKIiU'NF. IKINTING COMPANY STATE I'KINTERS ANP BI.NDERS, 

1S89. 






MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



To His Excellency^ David R. Francis : 

The report of our work, of the moneys expended and of the local societies organized by 
our society for the year 1888 is respectfully submitted. 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary, 

Westport, Mo., 1889. 



City of Jefferson, March 27, 1889. 
To the Commissioners of Public Printing: 

I require for use of Horticultural Society 3,000 copies of Report of State Horticultural 
Society, 2,000 copies bound in cloth, 1,000 in paper, which I desire printed as per accompany- 
ing sample. Respectfully, 

LOWELL A. GOODMAN, 

Approved : State Secretary. 

A. A. Lf.sueur, Secretary of State. \ 

J. M. Seibert, State Auditor. >■ Commissioners of Public Printing. 

ROBT, McCuLLOCH, Register of Lands. ) 




MAJ. Z. S. RAGAN, Independence, Mo. 



OFFICERS ELECTED FOR THE YEAR 1889. 



President, 
J. C. EVANS, Harlem. 

Vice-President, 
N F. MURRAY, Elm Grove. 

Secretary, 
L, A. GOODMAN, Westport 

Treasurer, 
X). S. HOLMAN, Springfield. 



LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



George Hussman Napa, Cal. 

T. T. I.yon South Haven, Mich. 

C. W. Murtfeldt Kirkvvood, Mo. 

Hon. N. J. Colman St. Louis. 



LIST OF LIFE MEMBERS. 



J. C. Evans Harlem. 

L. A. Goodman Westport. 

D. M. Dunlap , Fulton. 



LIBRARY 
NEW YOPk^ 

STODING COMMITTEES. botanical 

GARDEN 



Orchards, 
\V. G GANG, Olden ; CHAS. PATTERSON, Kirksville ; HENRY SPEER, Butler. 

Vineyards, 

G. E, MEISSNER, Bushburg ; JACOB ROMMEL, Morrison ; C. TEUBNER, Lexington. 

* 
Small Fruits. 

S. MILLER, Bluffton ; J. N. MENIFEE, Oregon ; HENRY SCHNELL, Glasgow. 

Stone Fruits, 
G. W. HOPKINS, Springfield; D. F. EMRY, Carthage; JACOB MADINGER, St. 

Joseph. 

Vegetables, 
Prof. J. W. CLARK, Columbia ; W. A. SMILEY, Boonville ; J. A. DURKES, Weston. 

FloTsjers, 

HANS NIELSON, St. Joseph ; ROBT. S. BROWN, Kansas City ; MRS. MARIE RODE- 

MYER, Cf.ntralia. 

Ornamentals, 
Prof. M. G. KERN, St. Louis ; MRS. C. I. ROBARDS, Butler ; R. E. BAILEY, Fulton, 

Entomology , 
MISS M. E. MURTFELDT, Kirkwood ; DR. A. GOSLIN, Oregon ; H. SHEPLEY, 

Nevada. 

Botany, 
Prof. H. W. SPECKING, Boonville ; Prof. G. C. BROADAEAD, Pleasant Hill ; B. F. 

BUSH, Independence. 

Nomenclature, 
T. W. GAUNT, Maryville ; J. B. WILD, Sarcoxie ; A. AMBROSE, Nevada. 

New Fruits, 
F. LIONBERGER. Hugo ; A. H, GILKESON, Warrensburg ; W. P. STARK, Louisiana. 

Ornithology, 

CLARK IRVINE, Oregon ; C. W. MURTFELDT, Kirkwood ; W. H. THOMAS, La- 
Grange. 

Injurions Fungi, 
B. T. GALLOWAY, Washington ; Prof. W. TRELEASE, St. Louis. 

Packing and Marketing Fruits, 
E. T. IIOLLISTER, St. Louis; C. C. BELL, Boonville; C. THORP, Weston. 



CONSTITUTION 



OF THE 



MISSOURI SFATE HORITCULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Article I. This association shall be known as the Missouri State 
Horticultuatal Society. Its object shall be the promotion of horticul- 
ture in all its branches. 

Art. II. Any person may become a member of this society upon 
the payment of one dollar, and membership shall continue on the pay- 
ment of one dollar annually. The payment of ten dollars at any one 
time shall constitute a person a life member, and honorary members 
may be elected at any regular meeting of the society. And any lady 
may become a member by giving her name to the secretary. 

Art. III. The officers of this society shall consist of a President, 
Vice President, a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall be elected by 
balk>t at each regular annual meeting, and whose terms of oflfice shall 
begin on the first day of June following their election. 

Art. IV. The elective officers of this society shall constitute an 
Executive Committee, at any meeting of which a majority of the mem- 
bers shall have power to transact business. The other duties of the 
officers shall be such as usually pertain to the same officers of similar 
organizations. 

Art. V. The regular meetings of this society shall be held annu- 
ally on the first Tuesday in December, except when otherwise ordered 
by the Executive Committee. Special meetings of the society may be 
called by the Executive Committee, and meetings of the committee by 
the the President and Secretary. 

Art. IV. As soon after each regular annual meeting as possible, 
the President shall appoint the following Standing Committees ; and 
they shall be required to give a report in writing, under their respective 
heads, at the annual and semi-annual meetings of the society of what 
transpires during the year of interest to the society : Orchards, Vine- 
yards, Stone P'ruits, Small Fruits, Vegetables, Flowers, Ornamentals, 
Entomology, Ornithology, Botany, Nomenclature, New Fruits, Injurious 
Fungi, Packing and Marketing Fruits. 

Art. VII. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present at any regular meeting. 



LIST OP MKBMERS AND CORRESPONDENTS GIUEN BY COUNTIES. 



ADAIR COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

(Meets second Saturday of each month.) 

R. M. Brashear, President Kirksville. 

Charles Patterson, Vice President " 

W. O. Patterson, Secretary " 

J. W. Gill, Treasurer " 

J. M. Kellogg Bullion. 

R. B. Frisbie " 

L. Bartholomew Kirksville. 

F. M. Harrington 

F. S. Northrup 

H. J. Bailey 

Josiah Wright 

Henry J. Otto 

J. W. Parker 

Jno. Patterson 

D. G. Jacobs 

Thos. Dodson 

J. S. Erwin 

J. P. Claypool 

Jno. Rice 

M. B. Foncannon 

Wm. Morrow Bullion. 

King Collett. . . __ Kirksville. 

Wm. Spencer " 

Henry Eckert " 

E. A. Patterson " 

I. H. Pidgeon Kirksville. 

Wm. Orr 

Wesley Leech " 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Abel Stuckey Millard. 

S. A. Adams Sublette. 

G. W. Morrow Kirksville. 

Jesse Hardin " 

J. W. VVaddill Brashear. 

Jacob Wait Laplata. 

Jacob LautE Millard. 

D. A. Ely Sublette. 

Columbus Rice Sperry . 

ANDREW. 

Wm. Ent Savannah. 

Gtl. Segessemann Amazonia. 

J. Zimmerman " 

W. S. King 

S. K. Falkner Whiteville. 

T. F. Miller Avenue City. 

ATCHISON. 
Geo. Stock Rockport. 

AUDRAIN. 

B. F. Wild Benton City. 

BARRY. 

J. C. Davis Cassville. 

Isaac Stapleton Seligman. 

BATES COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets third Saturday of each month. 

C. I. Robards, President Butler. 

J. B. Durand, First Vice-President Prairie City. 

A. C. Skinner, Second Vice-President Butler. 

Henry Speer, Secretary and Treasurer " 

O. 1. Welton, Chaplain '• 

S. N. Frederick " 

W. H. Holloway and wife " 

A. C. Skinner and wife .^ • ' 

Wm. Wilson ' " 

M. Ryan " 

D. W. Thompson and wife " 

Squire Innis and wife .... " 

J. F. Boyd " 

H. H. Flesher " 

J. J. McKee " 

J. R. Hartman and wife '' 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 



Dan McConiiell and wife Butler. 

C. Gumming 

Caleb Richardson 

James Smith " 

T. J. Duncan ' " 

W. H. Kelley " 

E. P. Henry and wife " 

Mrs. C. I. Robards " 

Mrs. Henry Speer " 

Miss Ida Crume 

Miss Annie Duncan 

J. W. Brooks and wife Pleasant Gap. 

Wm. Hubbard 

H. B. Francis and wife Mulberry. 

J. W. Hall 

D. R. Braden and wife " 

S. F. McCutchen 

J. L. Rankin and wife " 

S. W. Lorimer 

Geo. F. Mitchell 

J. B. Durand and wife Prairie City. 

Fred Fix and daughters " 

W.H.Ballard 

David C. Forbes Vinton. 

Thomas Irish and wife Rich I till. 

Daniel Cresap and wife , " 

Chas. C. Darnell Rich Hill. ' 

N. H. Wieman 

J. S. Rogers 

Ed. F. Henry and wife " 

A. Haworth and wife " 

Abner Wix " 

C. W. Wilder Lone Oak. 

Wm. Stephens and wife " 

Johnson Hill Virginia. 

A. E. Page Reynard. 

J. M. Williams 

Joel Pratt and wife Hudson. 

Elias Leonard and wife " 

L. M. Rich 

T.U.Day 

G. W. Johnston and wife Sprague. 

Leroy Taylor and wife " 

C. E. Ferguson and wife " 

L. Hibbs and wife " 

S. R. McCoun and wife " 

John Hornback and wife " 

J. P. Allen 

J. B. Newberry and wife Spruce. 

J. M. Compton 

Wm. White 

H. O. Ilaynes and wife _ Rockville. 

Moses Wineland Mlona, 



10 MISSOURI STATE I lORTICLfl/n'RAI, SOCIETY 



BARTON COUNTY HORTICTLTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets first Saturday of each month. 

C. H. Fink, President Lamar. 

M. M. Spear, Vice-President " 

D. B. Hayes, Secretary and Treasurer " 

S. G. Avery " 

C. H . Shepley Nashville. 

W. H. Thrapp Milford. 

R. Brown Lamar. 

BOONE. 

Prof. J. W. Sanborn and wife Columbia. 

Prof. J. W. Clark and wife , 

Mrs. Marie Rodenmyer Centralia. 

H. J. Waters Columbia. 

J, H. Smith 

W. A. Stowers Centralia. 

D. A. Robinet Millersburg. 

BENTON. 

F. Schwettman Lincoln. 

W. G. Matthews Fanfield. 

f 

BOLLINGER. 

David L. Phelps Lutesville. 

L. R. Johnson Patton. 

BUCHANAN. 

Jacob Madinger and wife , St. Joseph. 

S. N. Cox and wife " 

H. T. Kelsey 

N. P. Summer and wife '' 

J. W. Fleeman " 

Hans Nielson and wife 

L. Zaigler 

W. Hafferlie -. 

L. G. Munger " 

J. L. McAleer 

Hon. Joseph Grubb " 

Chris. Diegel " 

J. C. Bender .' 

W. Wiedman 

H. Keene 

John Hall, box 301 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 11 

Karl Wiedman St. Joseph. - 

J. Krischner and \\ if r " 

Gilbert Blake 

Wm. Schott 

N. P. Nelson Wallace. 

BUTLER. 

J. T. Tubb Poplar Bluff. 

G. W. Register 

Dr. Sheldon 

CALDWELL. 
Wm. McCray Cowgill. 

CALLAWAY. 

R. E. Bailey Fulton. 

D. M. Dunlap " 

J. W. Mclntyre ' • 

S. W. Holland " 

Dr. R. T. Murphy New Bloomfield. 

CAMDEN. 

W. G. Brown Linn Creek. 

P. King 

CAPE GIRARDEAU. 
G. G. Kimmel Cape Girardeau. 

CARROLL. 
W. S. Crouch Carrollton. 

CASS. 

Prof. G. C. Broadhead Pleasant Hill. 

W. B. Mandy Harrisonville. 

T. J. Schatz and wife ■ Lone Tree. 

C. J. Hostetter East Lynne. 

W. G. Downing Belton. 

CEDAR. 

E. Listen Virgil City. 

CHARITON. 

G. W. Dewey Keytesville. 

Hon. Lucius Salisbury Salisbury. 

CHRISTIAN. 
J. K. Weaver Ozark. 



12 MISSOURI STATE IK )UTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CLAY. 

J. C. Evans and wife Harlem. 

Dan Carpenter Barry. 

N. Givens " 

Dr. J. M. Atkins " 

A. D. Barnes and wife " 

J. P. Wagner " 

J. B. Johnson and wife " 

Z. Todd and wife Harlem. 

Sam'l Dooley Barry, 

Chris. Schroeder " 

D. T. Bronaugh " 

Conrad Aul ". Smithvillc. 

T. J. Nance Prosjiect Hill. 

CLINTON. 

Worley Shinn Lathrop. 

W. L. Culver Grayson. 

E. L. Pollard .... Cameron. 

COLE. 

Fred. Yost Jefferson City. 

COOPER. 
See Central Missouri Horticultural Society. 

CRAWFORD. 

L. G. Grover Cuba. 

Dan Curtis " 

N. Jones " 

DeKALB. 
E. A. Sylvester Osborne. 

DADE. 
Jesse Hiatt Lockwood. 

DENT. 

E. T. Butler Salem. 

W. T. Lyle " 

DAVIESS. 

Woodruff Nursery Gallatin. 

DALLAS. 

S. A. Latimer Town. 

J, W. Shantz Buffalo. 

M. L. . Reynolds Buffalo. 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS, 13 



BRANKLIN. 

J. Bagby & Son New Haven. 

J. A. Trail 

C. W. English Sullivan, 

E. E. Stines Oakfield. 

J. T. Perkins Boles. 

GASCONADE. 

V. Fleischer Gasconade Cit)'. 

Rommel & Sohlie Morrison. 

Stone tlill Wine Co Hermann. 

Henry Henze " 

GENTRY. 

N. C. Schultz King City. 

Mrs. E. B. Haven Berlin. 

GRUNDY. 

P. H. Yakey and wife Trenton. 

B. F. Lehew and wife '• 

Warren Harris and wife " 

Thos. Luke and wife " 

E. B. Cooper and wife ; " 

Jos Sibbit, Tindall. 

P. S. Wynne Edinburg. 

John Ream Trenton. 

F. M. Cantwell Gait. 

J. Horner Trenton. 

S. W. Elmore 

F. Dunlap 

J. Wolze and wife Muirton. 

B. A. Barnes and wife Trenton. 

Wm. Donelson and wife " 

GREENE COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
Meets first Saturday of each month. 

W. E. Sheffield, President Springfield. 

J. Kirchgraber, Vice-President 

D. S. Holman, Secretary 

Henry Scholton and wife 

D. S. Holman and wife 

J. Kirchgraber and wife . . 

M. J. Roundtree and wife 

E. II. Lair and wife 

W. H. Ritter and wife 

J. M. Doling and wife 



14 MISSOURI STATE IIORTICUI.tCrAL SOCIETY. 



W. E. Shcfilcld and wife Springfield. 

H. II. Park and wife 

R. (j. Parker and wife " 

Prof. E. M. Shepherd 

E. R. Shijiley and wife , 

C. II. Russell and wife " 

L. M. Hill and wife 

Jacob Bell and wife " 

G. F. Maitland and wife 

Jonathan Moore " 

Geo. Sawyer " 

Ed. Quinn 

J. B. McCullah 

W. C. Freeman Brookline. 

John Bradford Springfield. 

John Alexander " 

G. W. Hopkins 

I.R.Lane 

Eddie Holman " 

J. M. Kelley 

T. J. Roundtree 

John Pearce " 

R. S. Nash 

M. L. McClure 

S. H. Epley 

Wm. Schultz ' 

W. H. Vaughn 

Josiah Zink " 

G. F. Tippin " 

B. F. Fielder 

Jas. Dumars " 

J. G. Puller 

W. H. Guyon 

Jos. Quinn " 

Fred. Mutz ' 

C. B. McAfee 

Mrs. Wade Burden " 

Mrs. Chas. Goffe " 

Mrs. Al. Demuth " 

Mrs. J. M. Adams " 

Mrs. Judge Griger '* 

Mrs. A. I. Ross 

Mrs. Jennie Prother •' 

Mrs. Dr. Roberson " 

Mrs. Dr. Ross " 

Miss Emma Kirchgraber , " 

Miss Rosa Holman " 

Miss Sudie Holman " 

Miss Lizzie Roundtree " 

Miss Julia Swarr " 

Miss Mollie Hopkins " 

Miss Ella Hopkins " 

H. J. Edwards North Springfield. 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 15 

HARRISON. 
Isaac M. Neef Bolton. 

HENRY COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
Meets first Saturday in each month. 

M. G. Condon, President Clinton. 

M. L. Bonhan, Vice-President " 

J. M. Pretzinger. Secretary " 

W. A. Hastin, Treasurer " 

W. H. Roberts " 

H. F. Buris 

G. R. Lingle 

J. C. Kistler " 

E. G. Green ' 

J. \V. Faytor 

M. F. Day " 

F. J. Lingle 

J. A. Helman 

Ed. Barnhart " 

John Drach " 

HICKORY. 
Chris. Gerber Wheatland. 

HOLT COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
Meets first Saturday of each quarter. 

r 

N. F. Murray, President Elm Grove. 

J . N. Menifee, Vice-President Oregon. 

W. R. Laughlin, Secretary Elm Grove. 

C. Hoblitzell, Treasurer " 

Linville Murry " 

George Meyer Oregon. 

T. J. Krech 

J. W. Maple and wife " 

D. Barbour " 

John Bond " 

John Callow , " 

S. Huiatt " 

D. Huiatt " 

William Brodbeck 

G. F. Luckhardt 

H. Iloltgreve 

T. C. Dugan 

W. R. Vining « 

Dan Shultz 

S. B. Lukens " 

Robert Montgomery and wife " 

Mrs. T. Smith 



1(5 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



S. Hlanchard and wife Oregon. 

T. 15. Curtis 

J. M. Howard 

Henry Hughs 

Dr. A. Goslin and wife 

Clark Irvine and wife 

II. A. Danl<ers and wife Corning. 

J. \V. Davis New Point. 

N. F. Murray and wife Oregon. 

J. N. Menifee and wife " 

MOUND CITY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets first Saturday of each month. 

D. II. lirowning, President Mound City. 

G. P. Skeels, Vice-President 

J. M. Hasness, Secretary " 

M. Houston, Treasurer ". " 

S. V. Richardson 

V. Butrick " 

F. Donian 

J. Dunkelberger " 

Ed. Richards , 

W. A. Long 

J. G. Norman 

I. D. Newton 

W. M. Hamsher 

Jacob Mumni " 

J. R. IJrink 

J. S. Kyle , . 

E. A. Welty 

M. Herron 

P. P. Welty 

Jacob Grosbeck " 

N. M. Bradley 

W. 11. Leitenbtrger " 

W. Holderman 

M. M. Smith 

G. R. Mclntyre 

J. M. Hoblitzell 

W. C. Andes 

T. W. Miller 

J. Vanderventer ■ " 

J. M. Tracy 

Jas. Criswell " 

M. J. Bennett 

W. W. Frazer 

H. Walker 

D. P. Porter 

W. H. Paxton 

F. M. Parrett 

N. Brownning " 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 17 



L. B. Felix Mound City. 

W. II. Drake 

H.C.Smith ' 

John Bickel .* 

Chris. Finkman 

H. R. Stewart ' 

C. M. Mosher ' 

C. Schultz 

HOWARD. 

R. T. Kingsbury Estill. 

A. S. Wolcott Fayette. 

A. McCray 

Henry Schnell Glasgow. 

HOWELL COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets second Saturday of each month. 

E. F. Hynes, President West Plains. 

J. A. Truax, Secretary " 

Mr. Harber and wife " 

Dr. H. T. Smith 

H. M. Crouch 

G. W. Burrell Brandsville. 

R. S. Hogan West Plains. 

W. E. Norman Willow Springs. 

A. Harrison and wife Olden. 

G. L. Sessen West Plains. 

W. G. Gano and wife " 

L. G. Atkins 

S. P. Connor Willow Springs. 

W. R. Graham West Plains. 

J. D. Cole 

A. S. Wright 

A. G. Bascom " 

T. J. Shinkle Burk. 

J. L. Eblen West Plains. 

T. J. Simpson " 

A. A. Bishop • " 

E. McClintock 

Ilayden Bros " 

J. T. Williams 

J. E. Frazer Burnham. 

Mr. Truax West Plams. 

JACKSON. 

G. Peffer Independence. 

L. L. Seller and wife " 

L. M. Sea and wife " 

n. F. Bush ' < 

II. R. — 2. 



18 MlSStJURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SUCTETV. 



George J. Uod Greenwood. 

A. J. Baker Westport. 

C. E. Kern and wife " 

S. E. Ward ^. . 

L. A. Goodman and wife " 

J. B. Wornall " 

F. Eslinger and wife " 

James C. White 

J. A. Bayles and wife Lee's Summit. 

M. Butterfield " 

G. Threlkald Kansas City. 

F. D. Adkins and wife " 

J. W. Kidwell and wife 

R. S. Brown and wife " 

J. K. Cravens and wife " 

J. H. Lewis and wife Blue Springs. 

William Byers Kansas City. 

H. W. Jenkins Lee's Summit. 

JASPER COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets first Saturday of each month. 

Bennett Hall, President Carthage. 

Jonathan Ames, Vice-President " 

Z. T. Russell, Secretary and Treasurer " 

J. E. Twitchell 

J. J. Williams 

Judge Jno. Hornback " 

A. C. Carson " 

N. Owen 

A. W. St. John 

P. Jackson 

J. B. Wild Sarcoxie. 

J. M. Davidson " 

H. W. Wild 

J. Carnahan " 

I. N. Johnson Jasper. 

J. D. Daily " 

Thos. Batebenner. Carthage. 

L. C. Amsden " 

C. A. Emry " 

Mrs, S . M. Livermore " 

P. Finn and wife 

W. C. Downs 

Mrs. E. M. Klein 

S. M. Wilson 

F. M. Briggs 

Mrs. L. Ash 

T. C. Apple , " 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 19 



Judge Thos. Seals Jasper, 

Jessie Ilayden Carthage. 

J. R. Hill 

Jas. Eastridge ... " 

Jas. Pine 

F. A, Hubbard 

S. Hyde 

Mrs. E. M. Nevin 

J. W. Towsley 

J. Benjamin " 

Z. T. Clements " 

Hon. J. Fountain Carterville. 

J. B. Gilbrath 

W. W. Sewell Carthage. 

Rev. E. J. King Marionville. 

D. W. Allen and wife Carthage. 

G. T. Russell and wife, ' ■ 

H. D. Smith and wife 

J. Schallenberger and wife " 

d\ F. Emry and wife 

J. Ames and wife " 

B. Hall and wife 

B. \V. Speece 

A. G. Blood 

W. S. Shuler • " 

J. A. Banks 

J. C. Teas 

G. M. Feebach 

Miss Mary Emry " 

Walter Buchanan " 

Nicholas Siebert " 

Z. Freeman Joplin. 

F. A. Hazen Dudenville. 

JEFFERSON. 

W. S. Jewelt Crystal City. 

G. E. Meisner Bushburg. 

JOHNSON. 

Prof. Geo. L. Osborne Warrensburg. 

A. H. Gilkcrson '* 

M. J. Staiey 

W. M. Mohler " 

J. J. Cockrell 

M. G. Mullins Centerview. 

Mohler & Son Cornelia. 

J. E. Thompson Henrietta. 

KNOX. 
Peter Dailing Baring. 



20 iMISSOURT STATE HORTICULTURAL S()CIET^' 



LAFAYETTE COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
Meets first Saturday of each month. 

Dr. \V. A. Gordon, President Lexington. 

U, G. Phelzing, Vice-President " 

C. Teubner, Secretary " 

G. M. Catron, Treasurer " 

H. S. Van Anglen Waverly. 

John Aull Lexington. 

Phil. Marshall " 

W. M. Poge " 

A. A. Leseuer " 

Ethan Allen 

Fred Neet 

R. T. Russell 

Zack W. Wright 

James Aull ' 

C. F. Lane .^ 

W. K. McChesney .' " 

Robt. H. Smith 

Dr. J. B. Alexander " 

Robt. A. Hicklin 

John S. Blackwell 

Mrs. Florida Graddy " 

Mrs. M. V. Gordon 

Mrs. Cerelia Thomas " 

Mrs. Jeannie F. Schultz 

J. P. Coen, Jr 

T. Green 

LACLEDE COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Meets first Saturday of each month. 

A. Nelson, President Lebanon. 

Mrs. J. G. Lingswieller, Vice President " 

E. B. Kellerman, Secretary " 

D. R. Diffendeffer, Treasurer 

A. Nelson and wite " 

•]. G. Lingswieller and wife " 

I. Haskinson and wife " 

M. W. Serl and wife " 

Erwin Ellis and wife " 

Harry Nelson " 

Laura Nelson " 

J. M. McCombs and wife " 

W. I. Wallace and wife " 

J. M. Billings and wife " 

Sam Keller and wife '" 

Homer Nelson and wife " 

J. L. Strain and wife " 

Rosa Lee Strain ' ' 

Mary Strain " 

E. B. Kellerman and wife " 



(c 
<1 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDEKTS. 21 



Amos S. Knight and wife Lebanon. 

A. Lumm " 

James Jeffries and wife " 

T. L. Case and wife 

J. L. Pinkerton and wife 

T. L. Rubey and wife 

G. W. Bradfield and wife 

B. D. Dean and wife 

A. R. Jones and wife 

Evelyn Jump 

C. C. Draper and wife 

Jennie Ellis " 

Harrison Bowman and wife " 

Josie Bowman " 

J. M. Herndon and wife " 

D. R. Diffendeffer and wife ' * 

Mamie Diffendeffer " 

A. R. Humphreys and wife " 

Alf Case and wife ' ' 

George Worster and wife " 

J. T. Talhaferro and wife " 

Belle Talhaferro " 

M. W. Johnson and wife " 

R. M. Hamill and wife 

J. C. Wallace and wife " 

J. W. Wallace and wife " 

D. C. Wallace and wife 

Bird Palmer 

C. A. Bantley , 

Gov. J. W. McClurg 

Cora Whittlesey 

Susie Travis " 

J. D. Bonar and wife " 

J. W. Farris and wife " 

Ella Farris 

Eva Wester 

Kate Wester 

W. D. Noel and wife 

Jehu West 

Ada Steinberg " 

J. T. Bradshaw and wife " 

Lyda Bradshaw " 

Mamie Bradshaw " 

L. D. Gleason and wife " 

Fannie Gleason " 

Libbie McCurdy " 

Abbie McCurdy " 

J. D. Faulkner and wife " 

Archie Dean " 

Jennie Apperson '* 

Kittie Pierson " 

Ida Shumaker " 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Frankic Worslor Lebanon. 

J. P. Nixon and wife 

W. H. Owen and wife 

H. T. Wright and wife 

Harriet Sargent " 

Dean Martin and wife 

E. B. Stratton and wife '' 

P . H. Fortier 

T. B. Burley and wife 

Mr. T. A. Booton 

Clara Booton 

Jessie Booton 

Rebecca Mustard 

A. Jump and wife " 

C. W. Dunn and wife. 

R. E. McKnight and wife " 

Russell Todd and wife 

J. F. Hogan and wife " 

R. J. Love and wife " 

H. N. Dale and wife " 

E. J. Sheehy 

S. C. Demuth " 

H. D. Wedge and wife 

C. Hanson and wife 

L. L. Beckner and wife ■ 

Daniel Beckner and wife " 

E. L. Greenleaf " 

J. H. Fulbright and wife " 

Robt. Blickensdorfer and wife '. " 

M. T. Blickensdorfer " 

I. L. Newkirk and wife 

R. P. Bland and wife " 

H. C. Kirk and wife " 

W. R. Mcllwain and wife 

Tom Monroe and wife 

Bert Strattan and wife 

LAWRENCE. 

Alfred Johnson Pierce City, 

L. L. Allen 

W. K. Irvine ■ Chesapeake. 

LEWIS. 

W. G. Downing Canton. 

E. Burrows 

Frank Harlan 

W. H. Thomas LaGrange. 

H. C. Kirschbaum Tolona, 

Lewis Schneider LaGrange. 

LINCOLN. 
A. M. Shultz Moscow Mills. 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 23 



LINN COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

( Meets first Saturday of each quarter.) 

Ralph Smith, President Laclede. 

Joseph Gamble, Vice-President Brookfield. 

R. W. Davis, Treasurer " 

A. P. Crosby, Secretary " 

James Hall 

G. W. Martin 

Danforth Chinney " 

W. D. Crandall 

W. L. Laing " 

A. P. Wolverlon Sleadville. 

J. W. Turner * 

S. A. Field 

A. P. Swan Bucklin. 

O. S. Fay Boomer. 

J. B. Christy Browning. 

LIVINGSTON. 

J. W. Green Chillicothe. 

E. J. James Dawn. 

MADISON. 

A. A. Blumer Fredericktown. 

F, Scheute " 

B, A. Cahoon 

MACON. 

Green Bros Macon City. 

J. M. Randall Callao. 

MARIES. 
D. W. Tainter Vienna, 

MARION. 

Wray Brown Hannibal. 

W. H. Davis 

J. M. Calvert. Warren. 

MERCER COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

( Meets second Tuesday of each quarter.) 

R. J. Lewis, President Princeton. 

J. L. Ward, Vice President 

J. A. Kennedy, Secretary Ravenna. 

W. V. King, Treasurer Princeton. 

O. M. Bell 

Miss G. Hall 

M. Earley 

K. R. Way man and wife " 



24 MISSOURI STATE IIORTICULTURAI- SOCIETY. 



J. IT. Burrows Gainesville. 

V. M. Harper 

B. F. Bushong Goshen City. 

R. H. King 

D. L. Spencer Princeton. 

W. A. Loe 

S. Wayman 

W. V. King 

Mrs. R. J. Lewis Ravenna. 

Mrs. J. A. Kennedy " 

MILLER. 

N. J. Shepherd . . .• Eldon. 

J. N. Babcock '. . .' Aurora Springs. 

J. H. G. Jenkins Glean. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

H. J. Deal Charleston. 

L. Danforth 

MONROE. 

J. D. Hawkins Paris. 

W. E. Flanders " 

Wm. Vincent " 

MONITEAU. 
R. A. Snorgrass Tipton. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
(Meets first Saturday of each month.) 

F. Lionberger, President Hugo. 

W. Loane, Vice-President " 

F. Gutmann, Secretary " 

Miss F. Gutmann, Treasurer 

J. Drumonds and wife 

D. P. Taylor " 

Ch. Hauser 

Ch. Laney " 

Fred Utz " 

M. Thornhill " 

J. S. Chapin Montgomery City. 

J. I. Foreman 

Oliver Loane Hugo. 

R. H. Mansfield and wife New Florence. 

Geo. H, Logan " 

R. F. Lytle 

Karl Smalzried Hugo. 

Thos. Logan " 

F. Kimmich 

S. Drumonds 

Hermann Willi ■ Montgomery City. 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 25 



W. C. Price Jonesburg. 

Dr. Foreman " 

Geo. II. Otto New Melle. 

John Jeffers and wife New Florence. 

Henry Kohrmann, Jr Americus. 

Christ Grabenstein Hugo. 

Fred Grabenstein 

Ed. Loane .... 

Mrs. F. Lionberger 

Mary Thornhill 

Mrs. J. Drumonds 

Mrs. F. Gutmann 

Ella Lytle 

Bertha Grabenstein 

Carolina Utz ' 

Fredericka Gutmann 

Carolina Gutmann ' 

Mary Drumonds 

HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Judge S. Miller Bluffton. 

J. J. Gentry Big Spring. 

MORGAN. 

Caleb Gunn Versailles. 

NEW MADRID. 

C. C. Thomas Pt. Pleasant. 

NEWTON. 

H. Yaeger Neosho. 

C. A. Richard 

NODAWAY. 

T. W. Gaunt Maryville. 

J. I. Hill 

E. A. Spickerman " 

OREGON. 

Ben. Gunn Alton. 

S. W. Gilbert Thayer. 

OSAGE. 

Christ Meyer Byron. 

J esse Moore Linn. 

OZARK. 
Wm. Mahan Almartha. 



26 MISSOURI STATE HORTJCULTURAL SOCIETY . 



PETTIS. 

F. G. Tevibner Sedalia. 

Mrs. G. E. Dugan " 

J. II. Monsese Beaman. 

Phil. Pfeiffer Sedalia. 

J. Laney Green Ridge. 

Ed. Brown Sedalia. 

G. H. Shepard LaMonte. 

F. A. Sampson Sedalia. 

PLATTE. 

J. A. Baldwin Parkville. 

D. C. Knighton " 

J. A. Durkes and wife .' Weston. 

C. Thorp and wife " 

J. J. Blakely and wife Platte City. 

D. S. Johnson Parkville. 

W. R. Keller Weston. 

F. Hollied 

G. P. Reichard " 

S. K. Graden Parkville. 

PIKE. 

Rev. E. D. Pearson and wife Louisianna. 

Mrs. W. E. Jackson 

T. E. Whitlock " 

S. C. Hassler 

J. R. Fry 

Stark Bros " 

T. J. McDonnald Clarksville. 

M. J. Jones Frankford. 

POLK COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 
(Meetings held last Saturday in each month.) 

G. W. Williams, President Humansville. 

P. Linley, Vice President " 

J. L. Strader, Secretary " 

Wm. Frejfc, Treasurer " 

I. W. Washburn 

W. A. Moore 

L. Bennett • 

Aaron Gage 

S. Phillips 

W. Rains 

J. B. Warren, M. D 

W. Herrall 

B. Williams " 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS 



27 



PHELPS COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



( Meets every Saturday on or before full moon.) 

Robt. Merriwether, President RoUa. 

W. A. Via, Vice-President " 

W. W. Southgate, Secretary " 

T. J. Jones, Treasurer " 

R. T. Parker \ 

A. Neuman, V Ex-Committee " 

O. D. Castleman, ) 

M. M. Case " 

Wm. Rober 

Alex Sea " 

C. D. Sanford " 

D. W. Malcolm ' " 

A. S. Long , " 

R. L. Johnson 

C. R. Millard " 

S. B. Rowe " 

J. D. Carpenter 

T. M. Jones " 

Theo. Stimson 

Jas. McClure " 

Wm. Shinneman 

Ch. Rhoem " 

W. J. Powell " 

S.H.Hubert " 

J. G. Hutchinson " 

Wm. Foest " 

J. B. Sulley " 

E. W. Bishop " 

P. M. Gaddy " 

E. A. Bolles " 

H. Franz 

E. Soest " 

J. W. Huffman " 

F. Huffman 

R. H. Black " 

Jos. Campbell 

E. C. Bland " 

L. F. Parker " 

Wm. Ten Eycke 

A. Emory 

F. E. Doud " 

G. Allen " 

J.Williams " 

W. Dawson 

F. Mathias 

G. R. Miller " 



28 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PUTNAM. 

J. T. Scott St. John. 

J. McAnally Mendota. 

RALLS. 
R. Dalton , SavertoH. 

RAY. 

S. B. Beal Vibbard. 

Alex. Maitland Richmond. 

RIPLEY. 
J. G. Hancock Doniphan. 

ST. CHARLES. 



Chas. Golterman Foristelle. 

C. T. Mallinckrodt St. Charles. 

C. Wenker Augusta. 

R. H. Parks St. Charles, 

ST. CLAIR. 

Wm. Hook Lowry City. 

Mr. & Mrs. G. S. Allison Johnson City. 

W. H. Penix Appleton City. 

ST. LOUIS. 

Sanders & Reneke St. Louis. 

P. M. Kiely 

E. T. Hollister 

H. Michel 

Miss Mary E. Murtfeldt Kirkwood. 

J. P. Wagner Florissant. 

Isidor Bush St. Louis. 

Levi Chubbuck " 

J. M. Jourdon " 

Geo. H. Gill Kirkwood. 

S. M. Bayles St. Louis. 

Robt. Brent 

\V. H. Avis 

G. Long Pattonville. 

P. W. Viehman Central. 

J. J. Keller 

H. J. Weber & Son Gardenville. 

Henry King, 720 Garrison Ave St. Louis. 

St. Louis Automatic Refrigerator Co " 

Miss A. Chapman Wellston. 

Miss H. Whitney, 2907 Agnes Ave St. Louis. 



LIST OF MEMBERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 



29 



SALINE. 

J. T. Stewart Blackburn. 

V/m. Folck Marshall. 

C. M. Williams Slater. 

SCHUYLER. 
G. W. Morton Glennwood. 

SHANNON. 
Jas. McKinney Eminence. 

SHELBY, 

Jas. Hanley Shelbina. 

H. G. Bruce 

J. Mitts Clarence. 

STODDARD. 
Chas. Stokes Dexter City. 

TANEY. 
M. J. Smith Brown Branch. 

TEXAS. 
J. C. White Houston. 

VERNON COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

(Meets first Saturday of each month.) 

A. Ambrose, President Nevada. 

J. H. Logan, Vice-President 

J. G. Kinder, Secretary 

Per. Swainson, Treasurer 

J. H. Donley 

J. Kennedy 

John W. Hickman 

M. P. Manon 

O. B. Nichols 

M. V. B. Page 

E. A. Hunt 

M. C. Paterson 

J. N. Edwards 

V. Phillips 

H. Shepley 

J. A. Logan 

R. W. Mitchel 

C. S. McEntire 

J. E. Logan 

W. H. Litson 



30 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

L. E. Moslcy Nevada, 

B, F. Hatton 

W. H. Pamion 

F. Hall 

W. W. Modie 

C. Coonrod " 

W. A. Bucknor 

E. E. Bean 

W. M. Bumbarger " 

R. B. Speede 

H. C. Swan 

W. Herrick 

R. W. Crockett 

E. M. Cline 

L. N. Kennedy 

T. W. Todd " 

Geo. M. Kinder 

L. H. Barmelee 

H. A. Ensign 

C. Thompson " 

T. T. Taylor 

Jacob Faith Montevallo. 

O. H. P. Hastens Nevada. 

Wm. Comer " 

L. Crouse " 

J. D. Mitchel 

J . W. Plaise Wood P. O. 

D. L. Woods Nevada. 

C. Jerval 

Chas. Robinson St. Louis. 

Dr. E. R. Morerod Schell City. 

WARREN. 

J. E. Yocum Warrenton. 

Polster Bros Wright City. 

WASHINGTON. 

Phil Rush Mineral Point. 

WAYNE. 

A. Zeitinger Zetonia. 

Plenry Griffing Piedmont. 

G. M. Barnett 

S. A. Bales 

WEBSTER. 

D. N. Mitchell ' Marshfield. 

T. L. Montgomery 

Geo. Lewis Northview. 

E. Bazley Seymore. 

P. Dearth 



LIST OF MEMIiERS AND CORRESPONDENTS. 31 



WRIGHT. 

A. D. Hanks Mansfield. 

S. W. Anderson .... Mt. Grove. 

J. E. Elliott Cedar Gap. 

MISSOURI VALLEY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, K.\.NSAS CITY, MO. 

(Meets third Saturday of each month.) 

J. C. Evans, President .... Harlem, Mo. 

E. Taylor, Vice-President Edwardsville, Kas. 

F. Holsinger, Secretary Rosedale, Kas. 

Ct. F. Espenlaub, Treasurer " 

F. Holsinger and wife " 

G. F. Espenlaub and wife " 

Prof. G. E. Rose 

S. S. Ely and wife 

S. S. Hogue and wife Westport. 

J. C. Dickinson and wife '* 

L. A. Goodman and wife " 

J. C. Evans and wife Harlem. 

Z. Todd and wife '" 

I. Orwick 

C. Shroeder " 

C. E. Kern and wife Kansas City 

I. D, Gregg and wife " 

W. A. Gosnell and wife " 

J. K. Cravens and wife " 

J. W. Kidwell and wife " 

J. D. King 

S. C. Palmer 

Jesse Ray " 

J. C. Blair 

M. Butterfield Lees Summit. 

Dan Carpenter Barry. 

J. A. Bayles and wife Lees Summit. 

T. L. Hogue Glenn P. O. , Kas. 

J. A. Durkes and wife Weston. 

E. Lindscy Westport. 

Harvey Hughs and wife Rosedale, Kas. 

CENTRAL MISSOURI FRUIT-GROWERS ASSOCIATION, BOONVILLE, COOPER 

COUNTY, MO. 

Meets first Saturday of each quarter. 

II. M. Meyers, President Boonville. 

R. T. Kingsbury, Vice-President Eslell. 

W. P. Tompkins, Second Vice-President , . . Boonville. 

C. C. Bell, Secretary 

Fred. J. Boiler, Treasurer " 



32 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



John Vicrtel Hootiville. 

C. J. Fiddler 

Henry Uimiile 

H. Roberts 

C. J. Ingersoll 

O. Carville 

L. Geiger, Sr 

L. Geiger, Jr 

H. Wooldridge 

Joe Glahn 

J. E. Elliott 

Will. Givens 

John Neef 

Frank Necf 

L. Smith 

A. Walter 

W. A. Smiley 



FOREIGN MEMBERS. 



P. Underwood N. Lawrence, Kas. 

E. J. Holman Leavenworth, Kas. 

Dr. J. Staymen 

F. Wellhouse Fairmount, Kas. 

E. F. Stephens Crete, Neb. 

G. S. Downend Sibley, Iowa. 

E. C. Robinson Portland, Maine. 

Thos. Fargher La Porte, Ind. 

H. M. Hoffman Leavenworth, Kas. 

J. W. Preston Blue Mound, Kas. 

Perry Nixon Cherryvale, Kas. 

A. II. Griesa Lawrence, Kas. 

Sam' 1 Grondyke Eugene, Ind. 

D. J. Purdy Mason City, Iowa. 

Nat. Stephens Forney, Texas. 

J. L. Simpson Tongonoxie, Kas. 

J. A. Sloan Wakefield, Kas. 

D. M. Swaar Lancaster, Pa. 

L. A. Garrett Humboldt, Kas. 

Louis Erb Memphis, Tenn. 

G. C. Davis Bentonville, Ark. 

Ben Davis " 

C. J. Warren Black Rock, Ark. 

S. W. Horner Council Grove, Kas. 

B. C. Warfield Sandoval, III. 

E. W. Campbell Yates Center, Kas. 

John Keith Bakersfield, Cal. 

Chas. Guild Dallas, Texas. 

Maj. H. Soule Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Emil Baur " 

M. B. Sturges Des Moines, Iowa. 

German Roth Toluca, Mexico. 

W. L. Pillsbury Champaign, 111. 



Missouri State Horticultural Society. 



SUMMER MEETING, HELD AT OREGON, UPON INVITATION OF THE HOLT 
COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, JUNE 5, 6 AND 7. 



The following account taken from the Holt Coiiuty Sentinel shows 
the enthusiasm of our meetint^s : 

"The grandest event in the history of our beautiful little city was 
the meeting of the State Horticultural Society, which convened in this 
city on Tuesday evening last, and remained in session until Thursday 
evening. The people of Oregon and those in the county for miles around 
'had anticipated the event for weeks, and consequently when time ap- 
proached for the coming of our visitors, all our people were only happy 
to say, 'Welcome, thrice welcome.' 

" Much* interest has been manifested on the part of our people, and 
the various committees have been ' up and doing' their whole duty to 
make the stay of the visitors a pleasant one. The latch strings of our 
homes have been on the outside and our citizens bent on making the 
fruit-growers feel at home among us. Our city never presented a love- 
lier appearance and the skillful touches of the decoration committee 
only added beauty and attractiveness. 

" A more suitable place in our state could not have been selected 
for this meeting — a city which is a veritable orchard, in a county second 
to none in our state for fruit growiftg. A large and commodious court 
house for the place of meeting, a lovely park covered with a beautiful 
carpet of blue grass, abundant shade, in the heart of the city, amidst a 
hospitable and intelligent people. 

"The circuit court room, the place selected for the meeting, was 
tastefully and abundantly decorated with pictures, paper tapestry, bunt- 

H. R.— 3. 



;^4 MISSOURI STATl. IK )K'I1( UI.TUKAL SOCIETY. 

ing and i\a^s, and the ladies and gentlemen of the committee did them- 
selves and the society honor in the fine display of flowers and the beauty 
and harmony of the arrangement of the room. These alone could but 
tell the welcome visitor that our people was of a refined and intelligent 
class — that the town, like the people, made it a delightful place to hold 
the Semi- Annual Meeting of the Missouri Horticultural Society. 

" Tuesday was a beautiful day and our guests began to arrive from 
the afternoon trains and were taken charge of by the reception commit- 
tee. Messrs. Hoblitzell, Montgomery and O'Fallon, who readily assigned 
the visitors to their quarters. The remainder of the afternoon was pass- 
ed in seeing the sights, getting acquainted and telling one another all 
they knew, and what they had seen while passing through the western 
portion of the Platte Purchase. 

"Tuesday evening our cornet band opened the exercise by discours- 
ing several excellent selections on the campus, which soon brought our 
people to the court house and by 8 o'clock the house was filled to over- 
flowing with as proud a set of Oregonians as ever assembled. The 
room was brilliantly lighted and the decorations only added beauty and 
interest to the occasion. 

" The fifteen windows were draped with cream cheese cloth, looped 
with sprigs of evergreen. From the four center columns were suspended 
ropes of evergreens and flowers with paper tapestry connecting with the 
large center chandeliers, which were trimmed with the same. The alcove 
was arched and draped with cheese cloth lamberquins with a band of 
evergreen and flowers for the border. Above the arch of the alcove 
was a field of blue on which in letters of white were the words, ' Welcome 
Horticulturalists.' On each side of the speaker's stand were iron flower 
stands, well laden with blooming plants, among which was a blooming 
cactus from Mrs. Frederick's collection — a playing spray furnishing the 
flowers with moisture. Pictures of fruit, scenery' and stock were hung 
upon the beautiful white walls. On the. east side wall was the following 
motto in red, especially dedicated to Dr. Goslin, ' Raise Strawberries 

with a o .' Just below this was a large bowl in which was a spoon 

marked 'A Goslin ' Opposite to this on the Vv'est side wall was the fol- 
lowing : ' Plant Taters in the Dark of the Moon.' On the outside of the 
court house, mid-way over the walk between the gate and the north 
entrance, was suspended a large bunting flag ; from the north gate over 
the street was suspended the word, ' Welcome' in large two foot bronze 
letters. Another large thirty foot flag was suspended across the street 
from the Odd Fellows building. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 35 

• 

The decorations were in charge of Dr. J. T. Thatcher, and a more 
excellent selection on the part of the society could not have been chosen. 
He was ably assisted by D. L. Nipher, John Greene, and the Misses Bon- 
nie Brodbeck, Emma Roecker, Lulu Dobyns, Gracie Hinde, Mamie 
Fry, and Ida Pinkston. 

" Mr. Evans, President of the State Society, who has held the gavel 
of this organization for the past fifteen years, called the meeting to or- 
der, when our 'Choral Union' sang ' Sing Praises.' This organization is 
composed of our best musical talent and has already earned a reputation 
second to none in this portion of the state, and one of which all our peo- 
ple are proud. Its membership consists of the following gentlemen and 
ladies : W. R. Hoffmann, director ; C. O. Proud, D. Zachman, tenors ; 
Mrs. Philopceno H .ffmann. Misses Gracie Hinde, Anna Spoerle, sopranos ; 
Misses Mamie Fry, Lulu Dobyns, Nettie Nies, altos ; Messrs. Daniel 
Kunkel, J. W. Kieff, and H. E. Denny, basso ; Miss Minnie Holtz, organ- 
ist ; Prof. John Horn, violinist. 

" Reverend Roberts of the Presbyterian church of this city offered a 
most earnest and fervent prayer, Then the 'Choral Union' rendered the, 
* Song of the Hop Pickers.' 

' In behalf of the people of Oregon and of Holt County, our May or 
H. T. Alkire, greeted our guests in the following : 



ADDRESS OF WELCOME. 



Ladies and Gentlemen of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri, 
and Visiting Members from other Societies and States : — 

In behalf of the good people of our little city, I bid you welcome, 
ihricc welcome, to Oregon, and Holt County. It is a gratification to us 
to have you come amongst us. and we shall endeavor to show our 
appreciation of your visit by throwing wide open our doors and kindly 
inviting you to partake of our hospitalities. We hope that in coming 
to Oregon you will not expect to find a great metropolitan city with all its 
railroad interests and union depots, its factories employing a thousand 
workmen, cable cars, and electric railways — for we have no such things 
here-but, instead of finding a great metropolis with all these interests cen- 



36 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tcrcd therein, we trust that you may be satisfied to view us as we are — a 
nice little inland, 'Orchard City" of about i,6oo souls ; a city surround- 
ed by as fine a farming country as there is upon the face of the globe ; a 
city situated in a climate as healthy as that of California ; a city having 
educational facilities which are absolutely unexcelled by any in the north- 
west ; a city of neat residences, beautiful parks, happy homes, and a 
solid business interest ; a city of thrifty, honest, sober, industrious, 
intelligent and hospitable people. A city whose people are in sym- 
pathy with your work — aye, a city whose people are in sympathy 
with every work that has for its aim the enlightenment the 
and elevation of the human race, or the advancement of in- 
terests of any honorable business or employment. So, we assure 
you now, that we are in full accord with your aims ; with all the laud- 
able efforts being put forth by you in this work, and with that grand in- 
dustry itself, which you have the honor to here represent. 

We recognize in horticulture, one of the most ancient and useful 
employments ; a wide field for investigation and improvement — an art 
school at which we could all become students with profit to ourselves. 
We acknowledge and concede that there is no calling known to civil- 
ized man than stands upon a higher elevation in the estimation of the 
people of this country than docs your own ; and that there is none 
other in which health, integrity, morality and good citizenship predom- 
inate over their opposites, in as large a ratio as they do among 
yourselves, and other tillers of the soil. We realize that all 
means of subsistence must needs come, either directly or indirectly, 
from the soil of the earth ; and we have learned to regard the great 
lines of commerce, carrying the varied products of the soil to the mar- 
kets, of this country, not as overshadowing in importance the producing 
interests, but as auxiliary thereto — as the arteries of a nation conduct- 
ing its life blood from part to part. A nation has two great natural 
sources of wealth : the soil of the nation and the brain of the nation ; 
and it is only upon the proper combination of the two — the proper ap- 
plication of the powers of the brain to the thorough cultivation and 
intelligent nurturing of the soil, that the sustenance, the prosperity and 
even the life itself, of the nation must forever depend. Nature gives 
the mind talent but not skill — to the soil fertility but not fruit. Thought 
makes the mind productive, and cultivation makes the soil productive — 
but the two must be combined in order that the best results may follow. 
We need the application of thought to horticulture made more general 
in our state — we need a thorough waking up upon the question of the 
importance of this great industry to the material prosperity of our state 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 37 

— and wc hail with dclii^ht your organized effort to bring about just 
such a desirable state of affairs as this. The more the farmer, the 
orchardist, the gardener, or the florist shall labor with his brain, the less 
he will be obliged to labor with his hands, and we hope that this or- 
ganization of yours may soon be able to make us all realize that fact. 

Horticulture implies perfection in methods of tilling the soil, and 
we should never be satisfied with any degree of proficiency in our work 
until that perfection is reached. The horticulturalist lives in a great 
labratory, with important chemical operations constantly going on 
around him , and in order to combat the evil and successfully turn to 
useful account the good elements, he should have some knowledge of the 
processes of chemistry. Insects and plants are also continually around 
and before him ; and it is important that he should understand the 
habits of the one and the qualities of the other in order that, on the one 
hand he may avoid damage, and that, on the other hand, he may secure 
profit. There are a great many things that the horticulturist should 
know in order that he may be enabled to reap the best results from his 
work — in fact, he should be as near all wase as it is possible for the 
helpless mortals of this earth to be. 

As it is so necessary then for the successful prosecution of our 
work as horticulturists that we be thoroughly informed — that we 
study and investigate as fully as possible into wonders and mys- 
teries of nature and creation — so we should be willing students, 
ready to gather information from every source that is open to in- 
quiring minds ; observation, interrogation, experiment and scientific 
investigation. Neither should we be selfish in matters of this kind, 
and hide our lights under a bushel ; but on the contrary, when 
success has crowned our efforts we should inform our neighbor by what 
avenue that success came, and interchange ideas with him upon the 
various matters which concern us both — just as you of this society have 
met here to-day to do. It is by such means as these that we all become 
more enlightened upon questions concerning our business. The farmer 
proper has his Grange, the physician his Medical Association, the 
preacher his Conference, the lawyer his Alliance, the laborer his Union 
League — and so, it is meet that the great horticultural interests of our 
state should be looked after by just such an organization as this one of 
yours has so thoroughly proven itself to be. Organization among you 
becomes a mutual benefit to your state and to yourselves. " United we 
stand, divided, we fail," was in years agone engraved upon the coat-of- 
arms of our state as the especial motto of Missourians ; and that the rep- 
resentatives of any idea or industry must unite in order that they may 



38 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Stand up against the storms of opposition and the tendencies of organi- 
zation toward disintegration has been so often forcibly illustrated within 
the memories of us all that it must needs now be accepted as a truism. 
As things are constituted in this world, evil has a spontanous growth and 
comes unsought, while good only comes from civilizatign and deter- 
mined effort. We see this forcibly illustrated in the inclination of pes- 
tiferous weeds to grow in our fields and gardens to the detriment of 
useful plants ; and in the proneness of the human race to err despite the 
constant efforts put forth — at least by its better element — to do only 
that which is right. So, if we would accomplish the greatest good in any 
calling we must persist in on r efforts, and let reverses only stimulate us to 
still greater exertion. This is the only way by which we can completely 
revolutionize "fogyism" in the State of Missouri and convince our broth- 
ers that vegetables and fruits are just as desirable products as are hogs and 
corn. 

Already the attention of the people in some part? of this state is 
being rapidly turned to horticulture — and as a permanent occupation, 
too — and the time is sure to come in the quite near future when all of 
our now unproductive hillsides will be crowded with vineyards, straw- 
berry beds, ras^Dberry vines, blackberry canes, currant bushes, flower 
beds, and vegetable gardens. Do you ask what can be done with all 
the enormous amount of horticultural products that will be thrown upon 
the market when this state of affairs come to exist .'* If so, the answer 
must suggest itself to you the moment you glance at a map of this 
country and note our geographical location thereon. We are situated 
almost in the exact center of the United States. Almost equidistant be- 
tween Maine and San Francisco — between Manitoba and the Gulf. We 
have immediate railroad communicaton with all points north, northeast, 
west, and northwest. Our early fruits and vegetables of all kinds matur- 
ing,as they do here fully a month earlier than the same varieties mature 
a distance of but a twenty hours run north of us, will find a ready and 
permament market there at comparitively ruinous prices to them, possi- 
bly, but certainly, at very remunerative, even enriching prices to us. 
And neither is this all ; but just as soon as we shall succeed in produc- 
ing these articles in sufficient abundance to justify the outlay, we feel 
sure that we can safely depend upon it, that the railroad companies will 
provide more efficient service and more rapid transit than we have even 
now, for tnese products to those markets which so eagerly and impa- 
tiently awaits them. 

Our late fruits, such as apples and pears, always sell well in this same 
territory, — as they do also in Kansas, Nebraska, and other prairie states 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON, 39 

— in fact, throughout the southwest and south — even to the Gulf of 
Mexico. Also, the East consumes enormously of our apple crop, and 
large quantities are annually shipped to England and other European 
countries. But a very small portion of the world, it must be remembered, 
is adapted to the gr >\vth of fruits, indigenous to the temperate zone, and 
but a comparatively small portion of this zone itself gives anything like 
surety to the growth of desirable fall and winter fruits. This gives us an 
advantage which is of no inconsiderable importance to us, furnishing us 
an assurance, as it does, that a market we shall always have for such 
products — and, within easy reach of our doors. An assurance which 
at once becomes a thing of great value to us, if but properly cared for at 
our hands. 

And neither should we consider and look upon these immediately 
resulting financial benefits as the only matters which should be considered 
by us as horticulturists, — aye, or by the people generally in this country 
in whatever fields of labor they may be employed as the great and only 
desiderata of their lives. We owe our first duty, of course, to " keeping 
the wolf from the coor; " but we owe a secondary duty to our country, 
and a duty which is no less, at least than third in importance, is ourselves. 
We all must become wearied at times from some extended struggle in 
combatting with the realities of life, and are sorely in need of a diversion. 
At. such times it does us great good to go from our fields, from our coun- 
ters, Irom our offices and from our work-shops, to those dear retreats 
which we have learned to call our homes ; — and there take a stroll, if 
seasonable, among the flower plants, along the shady paths in our yards, 
or through the vegetable gardens or orchards, conversing pleasantly with 
our loved ones, and thus diverting our minds for a while from our strug- 
gles with the world. It is but natural for us to delight in the beautiful 
in nature and art — to enjoy the flavor of fruits, the odors and colors of 
flowers, and to be attracted by the charms of music, pictures and poetry; 
and we should not entirely neglect and forget in our race for wealth and 
power, all these pleasures and natural inclinations, and force them into 
a condition of perverted, dwarfed and stunted growth. These things are 
just as necessary to our physical and mental well-being, as is that of fin- 
ancial prosperity to the accumulation of wealth. 

But, I fear that I have already consumed too much of your valuable 
time — realizing, as I do, that some of you have traveled a great many 
miles in order that you might be here, and that you have but a limited 
time to stay — and realizing, furthermore, that you are here for the purpose 
of consulting together upon matters of concern to yourselves as horticult- 
urists, and not for the purpose of listening to speeches — and now hojjing 



40 MISSOURI STATE HOKTICULPUKAL SOCIETY. 



that your deliberations may be as satisfactory and pleasant to yourselves 
as we are sure they will be instructive and edifying to us, again in the 
name of the Holt County Horticultural Society, and in the name of the 
citizens of Oregon. I bid )ou a sincere, hearty welcome to our midst, and 
cheerfully extend to you the freedom of our municipality. 

President Evans, in behalf of the State Society, responded in the 
following brief and terse language : 

Your Honor ^ the Mayor and Citizens of Oregon: 

It gives me much pleasure at this time and in behalf of the Mis- 
souri Horticultural Society, to say that I thank you for this most hearty 
welcome. We have not only heard your words of welcome ; but, sir, 
we see on every hand acts and demonstrations of the good people here 
that say "welcome." We have come to your beautiful and prosperous 
city in the great Northwest of Missouri in the Loess Hills of the famous 
Platte Purchase, famous once for the Indian and the game he hunted, 
famous now for its good people and their surroundings, and as a 
part of the great Northern Fruit Belt of Missouri. We come as mem- 
bers of Horticultural Society, representing all sections of a great and 
well diversified state. We come to exchange ideas with your people 
that we may learn of each other how better to advance and develop 
the interests of our calling. When we decided to come to Oregon to 
hold a meeting we thought it might work a hardship on those living in 
the east and south of the state, but realizing the great and growing im- 
portance of your section as a fruit growing region, we could not long 
hesitate to come. 

Again thanking you for this most cordial welcome, let us strive 
together to make our meeting profitable to us all. 

"Come With the Rise of the Lark" was rendered by the Choral 
Union. 

Secretary Goodman announced that the government having appro- 
priated $15,000 for the establishment of experimental stations, and that 
the sum was now ready to be drawn upon, announced the following 
committees : 

Experimental Station. — Messrs. D. S Holman, C. C. Bell, N. F. 
Murray, C. W. Murtfeldt antl Dr. Goslin. 

Fruit Exhibit at St. Louis. — Messrs. W. R. Laughlin, J. A. Durkes, 
A. Ambrose. 

Final Resolutions. — Messrs. C. W. Murtfeldt, Charles Patterson, S. 
W. Gilbert. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 41 

Local Fruit Exhibit. — J. N. Menifee, L. R. Taft, Jacob Mapel ; 
Mesdames MontL^omery, O'Fallon and Bonnie Brodbeck. 

Miss Anna Luckhardt, a late graduate of our normal school, was 
then introduced and read the following pleasing essay on 

HOME. 



BY MISS ANNA LUCKHARDT. OREGON, MO. 



The word home is full of tender meaning. It abides in every lan- 
guage and is lisped by every tongue. It has a mystic power that sinks 
deep into memory. It is the central spot of earth, around which crys- 
talizes the sweet or sorrowful experiences of life. The tendrils of 
youthful hearts, so firmly wrap themselves about the memories of home, 
that the lapse of years or the deadening strain of distance cannot separ 
rate them. Love is the golden cord that binds the hearts of humanity 
together and links the human and divine. We can easily trace the source 
of love to our homes. It is there that affections meet and fuse them- 
selves into a sacred unity. The noblest impulses of our nature here re- 
ceive their strongest exercise, and blending into parental sympathy 
create the hallowed and lasting ties of earth. Joy dwells in the word 
itself. Poetry encases it as a precious jewel. Sages have coined it into 
undying song. No other music has such power to thrill the soul as the 
song of "Home, Sweet Home." This wail of a melancholy soul was 
written in the life blood of one who, wandering in the streets of a foreign 
city, gazed with unspeakable yearning across the wild waste of water to 
the sunny south land of his childhood days." 

In all well constituted minds, home is always associated with mt)ral 
and social excellences. The higher men rise in the scale of being the more 
delicate and appreciative they are; the more refined and cultured they be- 
come, the more sacred and endearing arc the domestic tics. The 
Arab or wild man of the forest may care but little for the domestic rela- 
tions, the instinct for home is but rudely developed. But the Chris- 
tian man of delicate heart and cultured mind loves home in proportion 
to the delicacy of his iesthetic sense and his moral worth, I le knows it 



45 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

is the fertile soil where best ^row the seeds of morality, the garden of 
truth and virture, the wholesome condition for religion and purity; and 
that private worth and public character are moulded within her sacred 
})rccincts. 

To be happy at home should be the ultimate goal of our ambition ; 
it should be the end toward which every enterprise tends ; it should be 
the fragrance of social harmony and the inspiration of all labor. As 
has been beautifully said: "If love reign not there; if charity spread 
not her downy mantle over all ; if peace prevail not ; if contentment be 
not a meek and merry dweller therein ; if virture rear not her beautiful 
children and religion come not in her white robe of gentleness to lay 
her hand in benediction on every head the home is not complete." We 
all build for ourselves ideal homes. Let us strive to realize those ideals. 
Not many years ago, where now millions of happy homes rear their 
heads and sing praises to God, stood dense forests in whose solitary 
midst the tread of man was never heard, where once vast and fertile 
plains stretched away as far as the eye could reach toward the western 
mountains where earth and sky seemed to meet and things material be- 
came things ethereal, is now the scene of a great and busy people; where 
once wild and useless vegetation grew rank, and the poisonus serpent 
lurked to sting the heel of the innocent passer by, now a world of grain 
jostle to the caress of the prairie wind and golden harvests nod in the 
vernal sun ; where formerly the wild flower, the seedlings of centuries — 
God's own beautifiers, shed their aroma, now the fragrance of the clover 
blossom freight the air and lowing herds breath contentment. 

The music of industry resound from hill and dale and prosperity 
blesses the millions. These are marks of honest toil. The instinct for 
home so deeply planted in our nature, has called into existence these 
beneficient institutions and reared this mighty nation on the intelligence, 
morality and refinement of home. " 

Man was created with an instinctive love for the beautiful, a capac- 
ity and longing for the refinements of taste and feeling. With these he 
can fit and furnish home with forms and hues that are pleasant to the 
eye. 

The trees climb over the ridges of hills in glittering troops to catch 
the first light of the morning and to wave their green banners in the 
glow of the setting sun. They woo the clouds from afar and make the 
heavens dissolve in rain when the harvest is dying for water. Flowers 
adorn and chasten the festivities of home with emblems of innocence 
and love. There is nothing in the paintings of the great masters or the 
most costly and elaborate decorations of architecture to be compared 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 4^ 

with the simple grace and the perfect harmony of a flower which the 
poorest can cultivate in the humblest home. 

Music is an accomplishment usually valuable as a home enjoyment. 
The purest and loftiest emotions the heart ever feels on earth are 
awakened by music, and the soul is wafted away to the mansions of rest 
upon waves of song. 

If our homes are the embodiment of comfort and liberal taste, the 
central sun of a bright and social atmosphere amid the perfume of beau- 
tiful flowers, life will flow on in deep and untroubled serenity and joy 
and love reign supreme. 

Professor Taft, of the State Agricultural College at Columbia, was 
then introduced and read a highly interesting paper on "The Value of 
Experimental Stations to Horticulture." The Professor showed of what 
value this department will be to the agriculturist and horticulturist in 
securing pure seed, testing of novelties in fruit, seeds, plants and scions, 
forestry, shade and ornamental trees. He feared the appropriation by 
the government would prove inadequate, but hoped that good results 
would come by the combining of the various departments. The letter 
was a highly interesting one, and on motion of Mr. Murtfeldt, the paper 
was referred to the committee on experimental stations. 

Miss Cora Fry, the recitationist, was then introduced and recited 
" Farmer Brown " in her very best style. The little Miss was cheered 
most heartily by the delighted audience. 

At the conclusion of this number, Mr. W. R. Laughlin of Elm Grove 
was called upon and read an amusing yet highly interesting paper on 
" Reminiscences." It is impossible for us to give a creditable synopsis 
of this excellent production. His tribute to Mr. " Smiley" Shepherd of 
Putnam county, Illinois, the first grower of the grape in the west, was 
truly a worthy tribute and the manner in which he treated the " fraud " 
peddler of nursery stock, showed the speaker to be " not afraid " to give 
his opinion of this class of " sharks." 

The evening's program was closed with a violin solo by Prof. John 
Horn, assisted on the organ by Miss Maggie Perkins, " A Day's March 
Nearer Home." This was a number greatly enjoyed by the large audi- 
ence and the professor won fresh laurals by the exquisite execution of 
this piece. 



44 . MISSOL'Rl STATl'; IK )UriCULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VALUE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS TO HORTICULTURE. 



BY rKOK. L. R. TAFT, OF COLUMHIA, MO. 



Until within the last hundred years, the art of Horticulture has at 
best been but an empirical one. 

The gardeners were aware from experience, that certain operations 
were necessary, in order to produce the best results, but they knew noth- 
ing of the physiology of these plants, or of the relations which soil, 
moisture, and air bear to their growth. 

It was not until the close of the past century that Priestly and 
Lavosier pointed out their connection, and a few years later that Sir 
Humphrey Davy called attention to the atmosphere as a source of 
nitrogen for plant growth. 

The results of their investigations were not generally known until 
Liebig in 1840, brought them to the notice of the public. 

At first, of course, the teachings of Liebieg were not generally ac- 
cepted, a French chemist, Dumas, among others, asserting that the 
mineral constituents were mere accidental features of the plant economy. 

Although Liebig was in error in some of his conclusions, yet all of 
the present methods of fertilizations are based on his assumption 
that for the complete development of plants, varying proportion of cer- 
tain elements are required. 

This period has been regarded as the beginning of a new era in the 

story of agricultural and its kindred arts. 

Among the noted workers^were Liebig, who from his own experi- 
ments and those of others, showed conclusively the relations between 
plants and the soil, and the importance of the mineral constituents ot 
plants, and Boussingault, who in his labratory, and upon his experi- 
mental farm in Alsace, worked out many important problems in plant 
and animal physiology. 

In 1848, Sir John B. Laws, began on his farm at Rothamstead, the 
series of experiments which has made his name so famous. 

This brings us down to 1850, when the first experimental station 
under government patronage was founded at Mockern, Germany, and 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 45. 

placed under the charge of Emil Wolf. The value of the work done 
here soon became appreciated, and stations sprang up all over Europe, 
until to-day, there are nearly two hundred — Germany alone having over 
fifty, with one hundred and fifty agricultural colleges, most of which are 
under government patronage, while others are supported by individuals 
and agricultural societies. Although some of these European stations 
engage in a general line of experiments, most of them perform only 
special work. Many of them arc merely control stations, having in 
charge the supervision of the fertilizer and seed trade, in which work 
they save to the farmers of Europe, at a slight expense, millions of 
dollars annually, by preventing adulteration and securing a guaran- 
teed quality. Others are forage stations, whose work it is to test the 
grasses and various forage plants, in order to learn their value on differ- 
ent soils and in various stations. Experiments with cattle feeding and 
dairying with fertilizers, and in animal and plant physiology, occupy 
the attention of others. For several years horticulture as a distinct art, 
received but little attention at the hands of the investigators. 

Gradually, however, the importance of experiments in the field be- 
came recognized, and to-day, we have stations devoted to forestry 
and grape growing, while half a dozen devote their attention to test- 
ing and experimenting with fruits and vegetables. Most of the experi- 
ments conducted in this country up to the present time have been 
carried on at the so-called ' land grant ' or agricultural college. Al- 
though the principal objects of these institutions, as set forth in the 
act of congress, which established them, is to teach, yet as it also pro- 
vides for publishing the results of experiments, we may infer that it was 
the design of the founders, that they also conduct experiments. 

Many of the colleges, either from their own funds derived from 
the income of the government grant, or from appropriations of their 
respective* states, have done much valuable w^ork. 

The Missouri Agricultural College, under its present Dean, has 
sent out over thirty bulletins, extending over a large field of labor, which 
perhaps have been more quoted than any other. 

They have, to a considerable extent, shaped the experiments in 
other states, and have done more to bring Missouri to the notice of the 
farming public, not only of this country, but of Europe, than anything 
else. 

The work too ha% been done without the expenditure of a single 
dollar, either from the college or state, the ordinary receipts of the farm 
alone being available for this work. 



46 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Several of the states, amon<,r them, Connecticut, New Jersey, South 
Carolina, New York, Massachusetts, and Ohio, established stations by 
special annual appropriations, of from three to twenty thousand dollars. 

The first three were merely fertilizer stations, but the others, in ad- 
dition, furnished valuable results in the field of horticulture, stock feed- 
ing, botany, and in field experiments with fertilizers. 

The passage of the Hatch Bill during the present year, giving to 
each agricultural college $15,000 annually, to be used in experimental 
work, has greatly increased the field of usefulness of these institutions, 
and if the money is properly used, will enable them to be of great assis- 
tance to the farmers of the country. 

Most of the states having colleges in active operation have organi- 
zed the station into from five to seven departments, and placed the 
work of each in charge of the heads of the corresponding departments 
in the college, thus securing the services of specialists, who are on 
the ground, and are well informed as to the wants of the state. 

This is of especial importance in the work in agriculture and horticul- 
ture, as a person unacquainted with the land selected for the work will 
not be able to lay out his plats in an intelligent manner, and a year or 
two would be lost in attempting to manage the land, and the crop, be- 
fore accurate results would be reached. 

The Missouri Agricultural College has established its station upon a 
plan similar to that employed in many European countries. 

The ofificers and the work have been made distinct from the col- 
lege proper. Forty acres of land have been set apart for experimental 
work, new buildings have been erected, new sets of tools and teams 
purchased, and work commenced. 

While the other stations of the country have been organized from 
performing experiments in several lines of work, the Missouri Station, 
patterning after those of Germany, will confine itself to a si^igle line of 
work. Selecting the corn as one of the most important crops, it has 
been arranged to carry out an exhaustive study of the corn plant. 

With this much as introductory, let us come to the subject in hand 
and consider the value of experiment stations to horticulture. Nearly 
all of the stations of the country have organized with a Director, 
Agriculturist Horticulturist, Chemist, Botanist, Entomologist, Veteri- 
narian, Meteorologist, and with a varying number of assistants. 

It will be seen that with the exception ^i the agriculturist and 
veterinarian, the work of all these will be valuable to the horticulturists 
of the country. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 47 



The appropriation of $15,000, when divided among all of the 
branehes of work, will be seen to be inadequate for the purpose if the 
best work is to be done. After paying the director's salary, providing 
for the printing of the bulletins and reports and for the general expenses, 
hardly $I0,000 will be left for the real work of experimenting, which 
partitioned among the six or seven lines of work, gives hardly enough 
to pay the salaries of the chief workers, let alone the assistants and 
running expenses. 

In view of this fact, most of the states, in order to answer as far as 
possible all calls upon them, have, as mentioned above, united the station 
with the college work, and have also combined several of the depart- 
ments, as horticulture and botany, botany and entomology, horticulture 
and entomology, or even all three. 

Considering the amount of money available, it would seem that 
this is the best plan. 



THE HORTICULTURIST. 



The work generally laid out for the horticulturist includes, first, 
seed testing. The value of this is at once apparent, and if carried out 
properly, will be of great importance not only to the farmer, giving him 
an opportunity to have his seed of corn, wheat and other grains tested, 
so that he may not run the risk of losing his crop on account of using 
worthless seed, but w ill be of still greater value to the horticulturists 
of the state, as, if it is known that the station is to test the seed, it will 
certainly have an influence in restraining the seedsmen from sending 
out old and worthless seed. 

In Europe the seed trade is under the control of the experiment 
stations, much as is the fertilizer trade in the older states of this country, 
and by this work alone, millions of dollars are saved to the farmers. 

Not only should their germinating qualities be tested, but the 
purity of the seed should be examined into. The practice of intro- 
ducing " novelties, " at prices much above those of standard varieties, has 
gi\ en rise to more or less adulteration, while, as the business is now 
conducted, from want of care in growing, gathering or putting up the 



48 . MlSSOUkl STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

seed, it is next to impossible to obtain seed that is absolutely pure. 
If the business were under state control, the seed dealer would not only 
take more care to send out pure seed, but it they found that their seed 
was jud^^ed by its quality, they would give more attention to seed 
breedin<T and the selection of their seed stock. 

Following close upon the last work mentioned, is the testing of the 
novelties in vegetables and fruits. Each year a long list of new varieties 
is sent out, and it is important that their value be ascertained, the 
synonyms weeded out, and that seeds, plants or scions of promising 
varieties be sent to approved parties in different portions of the state, 
who will try them on their soil and in tlicir climate, and report to the 
station, whence the results can be sent out to the people. This work alone 
will be worth thousands of dollars to the fruit grower in the matter of 
the new varieties of strawberries, as they will be saved from wasting 
their money in buying plants at high prices, which a years trial will 
prove to be worthless. The conservatism of the farmer and their disincli- 
nation to receive advice from " them book fellers, " will in fact be all that 
will limit the good that can be done. 

When farmers will allow the agents to sell them Turner raspberries 
and Amsden peaches, as such, at one dollar each, it shows that they 
need enlightenment. 

If the experiment station can convince the farmers of the state of 
the folly of buying stock, often worthless, from traveling tree agents at 
prices ten times as great as standard varieties can be bought for, and 
induce them to purchase tested varieties from the local and presumably 
reliable nursery, or to send direct to some well known firm at a distance, 
the saving to the state in this alone will be equal in one year to all that 
the horticultural work of the station will cost in one hundred years. 

Testing of new varieties of shade and ornamental trees, shrubs, 
vines and evergreens, can also be made a valuable feature of the work. 

The origination of new varieties, by crossing or hybridizing, or the 
improvement of old ones by selection and cultivation, also affords an 
important field of work. Implements, machinery, and various methods 
of preparing the soil for crops may be tested. Studies may also be 
made of the best methods of preparing the seed, of planting, cultivating, 
pruning and managing the different crops. 

Although it may seem foolish to talk about using fertilizers in a 
state where not one farmer in a thousand makes any pretense to save 
and apply his stable manure, and we believe it worse than folly to advo- 
cate the use of commercial fertilizers for ordinary farm crops, except 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 49 



perhaps in a special way, it does seem probable that they can be used 
in connection with stable manure, by the horticulturist in the production 
of certain crops. 

In the raising of early vegetables and in fruit growing, fertilizers 
can be made of use. For the former, they furnish a ready supply of 
plant food before the plants can obtain it either from the soil or manure, 
while mineral manure promotes the strong, firm growth of trees and 
small fruits, and the development of fruit rather than leaf buds. In ad- 
dition to this work a new and almost unoccupied field is open, in testing 
the effect of plant food of various kinds on the quality of fruits and 
vegetables. 

The subject of forestry should receive considerable attention. 
Thousands of acres of waste land in the state could be planted in valuable 
timber trees, and would yield a far larger income than is derived from 
the average cultivated land of the state, and would do it with a very 
small outlay. The work of experimenting with timber trees and of ex- 
citing an interest in forestry from an economic standpoint, could easily 
occupy the attention of one man. 



THE BOTANIST. 



The botanist can be of service in the a^jricultural as well as in the 
horticultural work. ' He can test the economic value of various grasses 
and forage plants, study the weeds and the best methods of eradicating 
them, as well as the structural and physiological characteristics of 
plants in general, in order, that knowing these, we may work in harmony 
with the vital functions of such as are useful to us, and in opposition 
when the plants are to be treated as weeds. 

The work of studying the various parasitic plants also properl}- be- 
longs to the botanist. The fungi and algne, although often spoken of as 
" insects," are really microscopic plants, which feed in, or upon the tissues 
of other plants and animals. They are commonly known as mildews, 
rusts, smuts, blights, rot, bacteria, etc. Their effects have long been 
noticed, and in some years they have caused untold millions''of damage, 
but until within the last few years, their nature has not been understood. 

H. R. — 4. 



50 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The botanist, by studying their liabits and methods of development, and 
learning- their hosts, can intelligently recommend remedies which will do 



much to check their ravages. 



THE CHEMIST. 



The chemist will be chiefly occupied with analysis required by the 
work of the agriculturist and horticulturist, and in such other work as 
may be determined by the director. So far as the horticulturist is con- 
cerned, the chemical work required will be confined to analasys of fer- 
tilizers, and of such fruits and vegetables as his work may require. 



THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



The entomologist will make a study of the beneficial as well as in- 
jurious insects, and if possible, point out remedies which will destroy the 
latter. 

The station entomologist names and prescribes remedies for 
such insects as may be sent to the station, and test such insecticides 
and machines for applying them as come to his notice, or that his inge- 
nuity can invent. 

The great need now so far as the subject of entomology is con- 
cerned, is not to discover new remedies, but to induce the horticulturists 
and farmers to fight those already known, making use of such remedies 
as have been recommended in the past. When they can be induced to 
cross arms with the bugs, and engage in a " fight to the death," then 
will the entomologists have accomplished their purpose. It is the 
farmers who are backward. The agricultural press and the reports of 
the horticultural society and of the board of agriculture, have for years 
contained remedies for the destruction of the more common insects, but 
how many farmers make use of them ? 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 51 

What proportion of the farmers attempt to destroy the codling 
moth, although the arsenic remedies have been going the rounds of the 
press for seven or eight years ? 

With the limited means, it will be impossible to obtain an ento- 
mologist who will be able to devote liis time to work in the field, but a 
station entomologist performing the work indicated above, and who keeps 
before the public the importance of fighting the pests, will be able to do 
a very valuable work for the farmers and horticulturists. 



THE METEOROLOGIST. 



The science of meteorology is so in its infancy that the predictions 
are only approximately correct, but if a series of observations can be 
made, in a few years our weather prophets will have a mass of statistics 
at hand from which they can draw conclusions that can be relied on, and 
the farmers can so regulate their work as to be prepared for rain or 
drought, heat or frosts. 

With the stations organized in a manner similar to that pointed out, 
and working in the fields indicated, the horticulturists can obtain 
a vast amount of good from them, but the real \-alue of experiment 
stations to horticulture, will depend fully as much upon the fidelity and 
intelligence with which the horticulturalists make use of the results of 
the experiments as upon the real work done by the stations. 



ROADSIDE TREES. 



BY W. R. LAUGHLIN, ELM GROVE, MO. 



Allowing Missouri to be square, and 250 miles by 250 miles, and 
roads on every section line, we have within the state, more than 60,000 
miles of country roads. 



MISSOURI STA'IK IK^R riCUI/rUKAL SOCIKTY. 



The matter of the trees that shall be along side of the roads is 
one of very great importance for the benefits they bring to the roads as 
lines upon which to travel, and for the refining, educating, cultivating 
effect they may have upon the people who pass over them, and those 
who live beside them. 

In the state of Missouri what a variety has the country over which 
we travel upon our common roads. 

Crowned hill top and spread out valley; slopes whose outlines 
mingle as we look; varied shapes and endless variety of forms; vale and 
intervale; mornings and evenings; lights and shadows when the sun is 
low; masses of woods and the too open prairie; the winding way along 
the ridge; the ascents and descents over the rolls, and the right lines 
across the river bottoms; the farm house with its orchard and its yard; 
the narrow wooded valley where a few yards is the measure of our vis- 
ion, and the elevation from whence rivers and cities are seen and vast 
expanses are spread out before our eyes. The tender tints of the leaves 
in spring, the strong, deep greens of the foliage in midsummer and the 
gorgeous colors of the great massing of autumn leaves when they paint 
themselves for the time of their passing away. 

What may not the roadsides .of Missouri be made to be in the 
future if only the right ones of nature's trees are left standing, and 
millions more of trees are well chosen and planted, the right tree in 
the right place. 

In the forests we may read the record of centuries, plainly written, 
to tell us which is most beautiful and longest lived; while nature's 
groupings around us on every hand are a wide open volume of free in- 
struction in landscape gardening. 

We have transplanted many of these forest trees and know how to 
handle them successfully. Our experiments and experiences with the 
evergreens and larches cover a period of more than thirty years. We 
have tried them in Missouri for a generation and have already learned 
them well enough to call them into use on our grounds and along on 
our highways. 

TREES SHOULD NOT 
be planted too thickly along our lines. Our roads must not be too 
much shaded, e'se they will not dry so soon, and we will have them 
muddy most of the time. The sunshine and the air must have a proper 
chance at the road beds. 

Most of these roadside trees should be trimmed well up, so that the 
shining sun and moving air may do their proper work, and that the 
views may not be shut off. A group here on the top of this hill or 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 53 

yonder in the valley; a tall growing tree or trees that shall serve as a 
land mark for leagues away. Low, clumpy trees clustered around long 
larches, tall elms, or even while it shall last, around a Lombardy poplar. 
Avenues along which shall be that beauty that comes of variety and 
contrast in size, form, shades of color and differences of leaves of all 
the kinds and infinite millions in number. 

OUR ELMS 
are of a vaHety of marked styles from the spreading, almost weeping, 
White Elm, to the tall Red Elm that sways so easily in the winter's gale, 
or waves its leaf laden boughs so gracefully to the passing summer 
breeze. 

The Burr Oak with its sturdy body and its wide spread top of large 
leaves, the Red and the Scarlet Oaks, with their prolonged season of their 
own particular beauty of colors and of forms may well find many a place 
here and there among our wayside trees. 

The Ash, beautiful, clothed or naked, should have a frequent place. 

The Sugar Maple can scarcely be planted too much or in too 
many places. 

An occasional Sycamore with its white arms, its fine foliage, and 
its bark that peels off for a curiosity, will be in good taste. 

A few Kentucky Coffee trees are well when they will be in their 
appropriate place. 

Wild Cherry trees, one in a place, on rich soil, will grow into beau- 
tics in a few years, and last a long time. 

Chestnut trees have much to recommend them — especially the nuts 
they bear. 

Both Black and White Walnuts may have a few places on the best 
soil, low down, for their fruit particularly. 

The heavy, strong growing Austrian Pine, the tall, lithe, graceful 
and most beautiful White Pine, the Red Pine, the tall Norway Spruce, 
with its peculiar form, and its own beauty for the year around; the White 
Fir, with its silvered leaves, the Red Cedar, at home everywhere, and 
rarely out of place, and perhaps a few others would fill out my list of 
evergreens. 

THE LARCHES, 
especially the European Larch, sending heavenward its long, tapering 
body, carrying its even growth of many short limbs beautiful in its sum- 
mer dress, and in its winter undress, may be either on a hill, a slope, or a 
valley. 

There is material enough from which to preserve, or to build, vast 
beauty and utility all along the 60,000 miles of roads in Missouri. In 



54 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

many places, for long distances the natural forest only needs to be reg- 
ulated. 

This spring I spent a week sixty miles north of this place in Iowa, 
where thirty years ago the country was an almost unbroken wild prairie. 

Much, very much has been done there in planting trees along the 
streets and by the waysides; but the mistakes have told fearfully against 
what might have been. The miserable Box Elders have passed away. 
The Soft Maple, for this purpose is an essential failure. The Cotton- 
wood is planted no more on road or on street; but such trees as I have 
named here are there to stay. 

Let us remember that in this matter of trees beside the roads, 
we are planting or saving for generations, yes, for centuries to come. 

W. R. LAUGHLIN. 



MISSOURI AND CALIFORNIA FRUITS COMPARED. 



Mr. Editor: — Will you allow a common farmer to say a few com- 
mon words in your most valuable paper. What I say shall be garnished 
with the truth and no fictitious boom. 

Why is it that apple or fruit lands in Holt county or Missouri are 
so much cheaper than the orange or fruit lands of California.'' I see in 
their papers and learn from persons who have been there that they ask 
from $500 to $1,500 per acre for land set in orchard. I believe the 
apple orchard in Holt county is a better investment than an orange 
orchard in California. The apple is the most substantial fruit in the 
world. I believe " the apple is the fruit of the tree that was given to 
Adam for our meat." Allow me to quote Mr. L. A. Goodman, the secre- 
tary of our State Horticultural Society, who has just returned from Cal- 
ifornia. I give it in his own words as it appeared in Colman's Rural 
World: ist. — Their land costs a great deal more. 2nd. — The water 
costs as much as some of our land. 3rd. — Their markets are much far- 
ther off than are ours. Taking all in all, I am satisfied that a man can 
make just as much money in a good market apple orchard in propor- 
tion to the money invested here in Missouri, as he can in California. 
Now, this being the case, why is it that our lands are so cheap.^ We 
can raise small fruits cheaper than they can, with the exception 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 55 

probably of the prune, plum and raisin grape, and we have a 
market here at home. What fruits we ship the railroads and 
express companies carry at reduced rates. We can raise all the 
necessaries of life right here at home, while the orange belt of 
California has to ship a great deal of theirs from Missouri, such as hams, 
corn and potatoes. We can all live without oranges, but none can live 
without the substantials. A few years ago there were 170 car loads of 
apples shipped from the depot at Forest City alone. There are eleven 
shipping points in Holt county. Even allowing that the orange sells for 
a third or even a half more than our apples in our market, then compare 
the cost of their land, the constant labor necessary in their orchard, the 
wrapping their oranges each in paper and the long distance they have to 
ship (as there are so few used that they have to ship them, as it were, all 
over the world,) to find a market. I say compare all this with the small 
amount of labor we give our orchards with a market right here at home, 
not over a few hundred miles away; unless they sell their oranges for 
more than double as much as our apples in our market, they do not 
realize as much as we do off our apples. 

As we are nearly as far north as apples will do well and the popu- 
lation north and northwest of us is daily increasing, as the apple is a 
healthy diet, every family will use more apples every year. With the 
increase of consumption we will always have a market close at home 
though the raising may increase tenfold. I would certainly prefer a good 
market apple orchard in Holt county to an orange orchard in California. 
You can't keep oranges but a few weeks, so they have to be shipped to 
the commission merchant and then wholesaled to retail dealers, which 
adds to the cost. If they are not sold soon they rot and are sold very 
low. This all comes off the producer. We can take a car of apples 
and sell it out in almost any small town, and ihey will keep Irom six to 
ten months. Families and retail dealers will buy from five to a thousand 
bushels. In 1882, Messrs. Pope & Shawbut, commission merchants of , 
Mankato, Minnesota, shipped forty-eight car loads from Forest City, 
Holt County, Missouii. They shipped fifty-five or sixty carloads from 
this neighborhood, all for their own trade. In 1886, the firm of Crowell 
& Martin, of Sioux City, Iowa, shipped thirty-eight car loads from For- 
est City, Holt County, Missouri; they altogether shipped sixty car loads 
that year from this part of the county for their own trade. Now there 
are about 115 or 120 car loads of apples to be disposed of by two firms 
alone. Now, how many cars of oranges would it be safe for them to 
ship in so short a time? Could they store them away and sell in the 
spring same as apples.-* I think they would be rather a mussy msse- 



56 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



About a }'car ago I shipped a lot of small apples to Beal <Sr Co., commis- 
sion merchants at Omaha, Nebraska. They sold for $8 and $9 per bar- 
rel. Men who have large apple orchards say $100 would be a small average 
to the acre. In 1882 my orchard, (trees 15 years old) averaged over 
$200 to the acre, (460 bushel.) I measured all my apples that year. 
Apples sold that year at 50 to 65cts. per bushel, so you see my estimate 
is not over-drawn. Since 1882 I have had three very fair crops and two 
very small crops, owing to four very severe winters and four very dry, hot 
summers, and my orchard had borne full crops in succession for ten or 
twelve years ; of course, all things must have rest. With as good a crop 
this year as in 1882 (and the prospect is equally as promising), I am satis- 
fied that m)' orchard has averaged since 1882 $100 to the acre, which 
would pay the interest at ten per cent, on $1,000 ; at eight per cent, on 
$1,250, and at six per cent, on $i,666|. This will bring our orchards to 
California prices. We will say our apple orchards only average $50 per 
acre ; this will pay interest on $500 at ten per cent., on $625 at eight 
per cent., and on $833 at six per cent. It looks to me that money could 
in no way be better invested than to set out orchards on our cheap lands 
in Holt County, since we have by experience learned what apples are the 
most profitable and best suited to our climate and soil. The amount 
per acre can be largely increased. I have it from good authority that 
Missouri took all, or nearly all, the largest premiums on apples at the 
World's Fair in New Orleans in 1884, Holt County being represented by 
about three barrels. At our State Meeting at Boonville last winter, N. 
F. Murray, of Holt County, Missouri, took first premium on largest and 
best collection of apples and the first premium of five best winter varie- 
ties and first premium on best new variety for market (the Babbitt), also 
quite a number ot plate premiums. Dr. Goslin, of Holt County, also 
took quite a number of plate premiums. In 1886 the Kansas City Fair 
awarded N. F. Murray first premium on largest and best display of fruit 
by any one individual ; also first premium on best five winter varieties. 
Mr. N. F. Murray also made an exhibit of Holt County peaches at the 
great fruit .show held in St. Louis in 1880 by the Mississippi Valley 
Horticultural Society ; large premiums were offered and nineteen States 
were represented. Michigan had a fine display of peaches made by their 
State Horticultural Society, but the first premium was awarded to Mur- 
ray Bros., of Holt County, Missouri, and second to Michigan. 

All corresponcence from parties wi.shing to handle apples will be 
promptly attended to by any of our orchardists. We never had such a 
prospect for a large crop of apples as we have now. There are a great 
many young orchards just commencing to bear. California may have 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 57 



the advantage in the climate, but where there is an advantage in one 
thing there is a disadvantage in something else. Holt County is hard 
to beat for good apples and fine babies. I am sitting under the boughs 
and beautiful blossoms of the apple tree while writing this. I wi.sh every 
reader of this paper could see with my eyes the beauty of these trees 
while dressed in nature's full bloom, and breathe the air that is with their 
fragrance filled. "The learned is happy nature to explore; the fool is 
happy that he knows no more." — Pope. 

WM. BRODBECK. 



FRUITS OF HOLT COUNTY, MISSOURI. 



It would require a large volume to describe in detail the fruits of 
Holt County, but this article will simply give the names of the prin- 
cipal fruits, without going into details, 

STRAWBERRIES 

Find this country to be their home. In fact, there are but few families 
that do not have an abundance of this fruit. They give quick returns, 
as you can put them out in the spring and the following spring you can 
have nice crop of this fruit, or you can put them out in the early fall 
and have the next spring a good crop of this tempting and delicious 
fruit. 

The varieties cultivated here are legion, but I will name a few 
out of the many that might be named : Sharpless, Capt. Jack, Crescent 
Downing, Jesse, Bubach No. 5, Lida. Sucker State, Gaudies' Seedling 
Prize, Bidwell, May King, Jersey Queen and many others. No man's 
cultivation of fruit can be complete without the strawberry. They 
ripen first of all the fruits, unless it is the dewberry. They are followed 
by the raspberry, and then comes the blackberry. 

APPLES. 

Apples have been raised in this county almost from its settle- 
ment. Some of the earlier settlers brought seed with them from the 



58 MISSOURI STATE IIORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

states from which they came, and the first orchards of the county were 
mostly seedling trees. 

About thirty years ago grafted trees were introduced into the 
county, and immediately after the war a new impetus was given to this 
■industry. 

There are hundreds of varieties in the country, but those doing best 
for Summer varieties are Early Harvest, Red Astrichan and Red June. 
Fall varieties are Duchess, Rambo, Cooper Early White, Maiden's Blush 
and many others. Winter varieties that do best in this country are 
Ben Davis, Wine Sap. White Winter Pearmain, Genetons, Willow 
Twigs, Rome Beauty and many others. 

PEACHES 

Were raised here a few years ago in great abundance, but of late the 
winters have been unusually severe, and the buds have been largely killed 
for years past, doing also great damage to the trees. Those doing 
best were Early York, Amsden June, Hale's Early, Heath Cling, and 
Crawford's Early and Late. 

GRAPES 

Are raised here in large quantities. Concord is the principal grape, 
although Agawan, Lady, Briton, Pocklington, Worden, More's Early, 
in fact, nearly all kinds are raised here and do well. 

PLUMS. 

Before the introduction of the Curculio, the plum crops were abund- 
ant, but of late years they have been much injured by this insect. We 
trust, however, that this state of things will not last long, as our entom- 
ologists are waging a war of extermination against them and the time 
is not distant when these insects will be exterminated or held in check, 
so that in a few years we will again have an abundance of this delici- 
ous fruit. 

CURRANTS 

Are among the best of fruits in an old or new country, as they come so 
early in the season and give return so quickly after planting. The Red 
and White Duch, Red Cherry are with us are most numerous in cultivation, 
although other varieties arc in cultivation. By having some on th 
north and south side of fences, their season can be prolonged for family 
use. 



e 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 59 



GOOSEBERRIES 



Give wonderful crops here. One season we sold over thirteen dollars' 
worth of this fruit from a piece of ground not more than a rod square. 

APRICOTS 

Are among our earliest tree-bearing fruits, and sometimes give us fruit 
when peaches are injured by the severity of our winters. No fruitman's 
orchard is perfect without this delicious fruit. The tree also gives you 
a variety in contrast with all others that lends a charm to your place 
that cannot be obtained without them. No richer and nicer fruit can 
be raised, and, as it comes so early, never fails to^ive good returns to 
the cash side of your account. 

QUINCES 

Have been raised here for years past, but not in large quantities, not 
because they do not add to the beauty and profit of the horticulturist, 
but because other fruits have been pressed to the front to that extent 
that this fruit has been shamefully negleced. 

PEARS 

Have come in and much attention was given to this fruit, but of late 
years blight, that has so fatally blighted the prospects of so many, has 
had a tendency to discourage largely the raising of this fruit that can 
be eaten so many months in the year. Within a few years past, blight- 
proof varieties have been originated, and it will not be long before a 
new impetus will be given to this industry in this county. They always 
have given good returns to the fruit grower, and as we have lands in 
this country so well adapted to this fruit, and as the horticulturist always 
keeps his eye on the profits of an industry, it is apprehended that at 
no distant day they will be raised and sold by the car load, as are our 
apples, and give remunerative returns, sold north and west of us even 
up into the empire of Canada. 

BLACKBERRIES 

Do well here. The writer had, a few years ago, a small piece of ground 
covering but a few rods, that gave him a return of about eight bushels 
of berries and remained in bearing for nearly two months, where we 



60 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

could Ljct fresh berries every da)'. The varieties that gave such ample 
return (and that without cultivation) were Lawton and Kittitany. 
These are subject to winter kill, but other varieties have come to take 
their place that are perfectly hardy, and yet c^ive immense crops of this 
precious fruit just before the height of our warm days begin, and thus 
throw out from the system that which causes summer complaints and 
chills. It is a sight worth seeing to look upon my blackberries now in 
blossom. Not a cane injured, although the winter passed was so severe. 
They are Snyders. 

RASPBERRIES 

Have been raised on my place for about twenty years past. They are 
Doolittles. Others have been added to these: Hopkins, Tyler and 
Souhegan, but none of them as yet have proven themselves much superior 
to the Doolittles. This fruit ripens, followed by the blackberry, that 
gives you fruit for about three months fresh from the canes. The rasp- 
berry follows the strawberry in ripening, and no man's fruit farm is 
complete without them. 

You, who live in our cities, do not know the luxuries enjoyed by 
the farmers and horticulturists and their families. Apples Jiave been 
kept in my cellar (and it is only an ordinary one) from fall until the 
next fall on to the following February, which would be over one year 
and about one-fourth of a year. We have in our cellar now (May 25) 
several varieties of apples in fair condition. 

This article is perhaps too long, but it would certainly be uncom- 
pleted, were not the reader informed in a word why fruits do better here 
than almost any other place on the globe, but it can be told in a word, 
and that is, we have natural under-drainage. In the east, fruit can not 
be raised successfully and in perfection without under-drainage, and 
this adds enormously to the expense of fruit-raising. 

STEPHEN I5LANCHARD. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 61 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 6TH, 9 A. M. 



The morning exercises were opened with prayer by Elder W. M. 
Tandy, pastor of the Christian church. 

The president called for reports on orchards, and Mr. Murtfeldt, of 
Kirkwood, obtained the floor and urged upon the members not to forget 
that the work of the orchardist did not cease on the planting of trees, 
that after the planting many treated the orchard afterward as a second- 
ary consideration. If they plant an orchard they should give it as 
much care and attention as they would any other enterprise — what- 
ever was worth doing was certainly worth doing well. He advocates 
the planting of young orchards, and cited the association to the history 
of the newer states for results from young orchards — no state in the 
union had done more for the fruit interests than Kansas ; her Horticult- 
ural Society. He referred pleasantly to the motto, ''Plant Taters in the 
dark of the Moon;" he preferred to plant in the earth. In planting 
trees it was the proper thing to care more for the roots than the tree; dig, 
deep, large holes ; large enough to admit the roots comfortably ; cut off 
the laccerated ones smoothly ; set the longest roots to the southwest, it 
gives strength and upright growth ; take the best soil and build a slight 
mound in the center to give the roots a downward growth ; recom- 
mended staking for autumn planting ; twenty years he thought was 
the average vitality of an orchard. After a time he thought old apple 
trees formed a rough bark which proved a harboring place for the canker 
worm, which took three years to destroy ; a good trowel and a man 
was needed to exterminate them. He found these pe.sts to be very 
destructive. He gave a brief history of the codling moth, which was 
also very interesting. He thought the use of Paris Green and London 
Purple injurious to the tree, especially when used in over proportions. 
In spraying it will require a few years to test its practical results. He 
knew of no reason why Missouri could not raise as good fruit as could 
be found on the continent. The cc'lding moth was the great enemy to 
the orchardist — though small and insignificant apparently, yet it levels 
orchards. Insect study should be more thorough We should ascer- 
tain the difference between our insect friends and foes. The devil's 
horse, though hideous looking, was a great friend to the fruit grower, as 
also the lady-bug, Mr. Murtfeldt was highly interesting throughout. 

Mr. Laiiglilin advocated cutting back or rejuvenating of old orch- 
ards, and was meeting with some success in this line ; while he admitted 



62 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the best of fruit was obtained from youriij orchards, he believed an old 
orchard could be saved by cuttint^ back to even old stubs. 

^^r. Goodman thought an orchard to be profitable to the owner 
reached its zenith in productiveness at the age of twenty years. 

Mr. lint, of Andrew county, thought as the gentleman who pre- 
ceded him, and thought the best way to trim an old orchard back 
was to cut it down, and thought the thorough cultivation the only true 
plan. He sighted a number of instances where inferior cultivation did 
much to injure the orchard, and the crops therefrom w^ere fully one- 
third short. He believed the cause of dying out was attributable to lack 
of cultivation. Murtfeldt agreed with P^nt. 

N. F. Murray thought that the extremes of heat, cold and drought, 
contributable largely to the injury of the apple crop. Whenever a tree 
received a sudden shock from these changes it always proved more or 
less injurious. 

Mr. LaiigJilin was still on the other side — he would still continue his 
experiments on the old orchard. 

As to spraying Murray had tried white arsenic, 2\ ounces to the loo 
gallons of water and seen no bad results from these proportions. 

Win. Brodbcck, Sr., had noticed some trees that appeared dead on 
the body on one side, but by care and proper treatment had been saved. 

Mr. Bell, of Boonville, as a large fruit dealer and shipper believed in 
renewing orchards, especially the apple, with young orchards. He 
preferred to buy fruit of the young orchard and generally gave the old 
orchards the * goby " in buying. He took little stock in the fruit grown 
in the " doctored up " orchard. The best orchard for the market was 
the young orchord. He closed by advising the cutting down of the old 
orchard ; believed spraying was necessary and the only true remedy 
from the moth and cited many cases where he had bought crops 
that had been sprayed that were free from insects of all kinds. In buy- 
ing varieties he advised the grower to buy only the best commercial 
varieties. 

Mr. Gainit, of Maryville, in his travels over this section had found 
many orchards of premature decay, He thought the principal cause 
was over-production, and thought the trees should be trimmed back at 
the time to prevent over-bearing the following year. 

Dr. Goslin on spraying said : " I have had to answer so many 
inquiries as to the solution of arsenic to spray apple trees, that I will 
give you a recipe for a solution of arsenic that is easy and 
simple to make. Don't use more than 2\ ounces to the lOO 
gallons of water, and one-half a can of Lewis' lye is sufficient 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 63 

to make a perfect solution. Better dissolve the lye in a small tub 
of water, then add the arsenic and stir it for a few minutes and it 
will dissolve perfectly. This is reliable and will not burn the foliage. Be 
very careful ; have no trash in the water, as it will clog the value of the 
pump. Spray during a calm, for if there is much wind it will be impos- 
sible to reach all parts of the tree, and it would be better to do it during 
clear weather, for should it rain immediately after spraying it would 
wash all the poison off. Be sure and put the poison label (skull and cross 
bones) on you barrel, and put your arsenic where there will be no danger 
to the family. Remember, while you are handling it, that you are hand- 
ling a deadly poison, and with this before your eyes there should be no 
danger of mistakes." 

L. A. Goodman stated, that spraying was the only means they had 
in California, where he had been, to save their crops. They sprayed 
there every few weeks for three months in the year. 

Mr. diaries Patterson, of Adair County, read a very interesting re- 
port of the condition of orchards in his section of the state. The season 
thus far had been favorable and the orchards were making favorable pro- 
gress, although their soil was different to that of this section of the state. 
He knew of but few old orchards that were being cultivated, and regretted 
this mistake on the part of his fellow fruit growers. He found many 
were loth to accept the cultivation theory. He thought in time the spe- 
cialist in orchard or fruit growing would ultimately supply the markets 
and have the field. He believed the greatest fault of the orchardist and 
fruit grower rested in their not reading and thinking enough; it required 
study and thought. He would plant no more orchards to lean to the 
southwest. He recommended upright planting with repacking and stamp- 
ing following the first rain after planting. He would trim high and paint 
with harness paint after pruning. 



04 MISSOURI STAri-: IloRriCUl/rUKAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS. 



1!V CIIAS. PATTERSON, K I KKS\' 1 1.LK. MQ. 



As anticipated in my last report, orchards bloomed very profusely 
this spring-, and the season so far has been favorable to a very heavy 
crop. The trees seem to be also making a fair growth, as if preparing at 
the same time to set fruit for next year, but unless we should have an un- 
commonly favorably season, this cannot be expected, where they are not 
cultivated. And with all my urging, publicly and privately, for these 
many years, I scarcely know of any old orchard having been cultivated 
this spring Is it not about time to quit urging and accept the 
inevitable, that common farmers will never grow much fruit for mar- 
ket, and but little, semi-occasionally, for their own use. Those 
of us who have made it a life-time study have just begun to find 
out the necessity for cultivating orchards, as they do in California 

and Florida, and are none too well agreed on it yet. It is very safe 
to estimate that the sentiment will be twenty years in finding general 

acceptance, and then a large proportion will shrink from the job, as too 

formidable for them — they will not understand it and have no inclination 

to learn. 

Hence I estimate that fruit growing will drift into the hands of 
specialists, who love to make a study of it, and can make it pay by ap- 
plying labor and skill, while others will drift out in disgust. Very few 
common farmers study their leading branches of business — how to pro- 
duce the most and the cheapest food, and how to make the most of it 
— but simply drift along in the old ruts, wear out their lands and move 
off in old Virginia style, and then complain that farming does not pay. 
We need not expect them to take up new branches of study. They 
will not read and digest your reports and books and papers, if you give 
them away. The tales of the much abused tree peddlers form the larg- 
est part of their knowledge on this subject to-day, and they are just as 
apt to growl and kick when honestly dealt with, as when swindled. 

I refer to this only to indicate that there is as good prospects ahead 
for professional fruit growers as there ever was, if not a little better. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 65 

Time was when trees did fairly well under neglect; but I believe that 
time is forever past, even in the most favored locations. 

Under these impressions I have faithfully replaced my last year's 
failures in apple trees, amounting to over one-third of I2,000, and have 
now a very encouraging prospect. Think the most I will have to re- 
plant next year will be those that will yet succumb to last year's hard- 
ship. I will not plant any more leaning to the southwest or any other 
direction. Which ever way we lean them they will soon overdo the 
thing, and get in the way for cultivating. We will make a standing job 
of straightening them and tramp the soil to them the next morning after 
a heavy rain and wind, when th-:; ground is too wet to cultivate, and we 
are at a loss for a job. When the ground gets so full of water and loose 
that the roots lose their hold, they will blow over with the wind which- 
ever way that happens to be, and such winds are likely to be from the 
southwest, though not always. 

We will not stump back any more leaders or branches, but trim 
them smooth as high as I can reach with the knife without reversing it 
and raising the hand above the head. My observation is that where 
there are so many branches to draw sap from the roots, none will make . 
thrifty growth and get too bushy, and I would rather have a few thrifty 
branches from last year's buds. The next year I dislike to prune up so 
severely, as it might stunt the roots and diminish the growth. There is 
doubtless a certain time that surplus branches act as nurses to the tree, 
and beyond that time they become thieves, but just when that transpo- 
sition occurs I can only approximate by guessing. 

I like to paint all wounds over half an inch in diameter. As I 
don't know what kind of paint is most desirable, I have used this spring 
a black patent paint sometimes called parafine, used by cider makers for 
painting vats, etc.; it is very impervious to water and acids. We used it 
also on some out door collar grafting and so far think it answers instead 
of grafting wax. 

Borers have never invaded my trees seriously till last year, when 
the flat headed as well as the round headed got in considerable work al- 
most before I was aware of it. To prevent doubling their injury with 
the knife in digging them out, I will wash the bodies, crotches and part 
of the branches with some alkali. Soft soap is known to be effective, if 
applied as often as it washes off during the breeding season, but if the 
alkali in it is the effective agent, the lye water should do as well, and I 
got "old time lye" from Canada potash, which I will keep trying until I 
find it objectionable. 

H. R. — 4. 



(16 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

I fortunately found an opportunity to see the " Clark Cutaway Har- 
row" at work, and forthwith ordered one. I think it is the best thing 
out for cultivating orchards, as it will do good and rapid work in any 
ground but sod or high weeds, far better than the Acme or Disc harrows. 

I forgot to mention in the proper place that cherries are an entire 
failure with us this year — the first time remembered. The cause, I 
think, was a heavy sleet about the 25th of March, or the cold ac- 
companying it, when the buds were considerably expanded. 



REPORT OF HENRY SPEER OF BUTLER. 



To the Officers and Membei's of the Missouri State HorticiiltJiral So- 
ciety : 

As a member of the committee on orchards I submit the following 
report: 

The prospect for a crop of apples at the present time is very good, 
most orchards and most varieties having set a full crop of fruit. Some 
trees that tried to carry too big a crop last year failed to bloom this 
spring and some unhealthy trees with vitality weakened have shed their 
fruit; but we can not reasonably expect all trees and all varieties to bear 
in any one year. 

The condition of the orchards this spring is generally good. Some 
of the trees that were damaged by the severe winter are still lingering 
along and dying by degrees, but they are pretty well weeded out and a 
large majority of the trees are showing a rich, healthy foliage. 

I notice some damage to young trees two years set. Some of them 
leaved out this spring but withered soon after. I find the body sound 
and comparitively green but the roots are dead and rotten. Did they 
die out last fall and perish, or was it the winter.? Who can answer.? 

There have been some large orchards planted here this spring but 
I hardly think there has been the usual amount of small lots set. 

The peach is again a total failure, but the trees are in fair condition 
and some eight hundred trees in bearing condition. I failed to find a 
single bloom, so complete was the destruction of the fruit buds. 

The pear crop will be light, as it in many cases failed to set its 
fruit. The same is true of the cherry. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 67 

The plum will make a full crop where not destroyed by curculio, 
which within my observation, has not been as bad as usual. 

Upon the whole the outlook to the orchardist in our county is favor- 
able and should inspire our people to better care of what they already 
have and more extensive planting in the future. 

Respectfully submitted, 

HENRY SPEER. 

Mr. Durkvs, of Weston, then read the following paper on the family 
and commercial orchard: 



THE FAMH^Y AND COMMERCIAL ORCHARD. 



BY J. A. DURKES, WESTON, MO. 



"A love for home, the garden and the cultivation of a taste for rural 
life, 'tis gratifyirg to note is largely on the increase throughout all 
parts of the land. It has been said that we are an unsettled nation, 
that a man builds a house, gathers many of the luxuries of life around 
him, and before enjoying them half a dozen years, will draw up stakes 
and travel a thousand or fifteen hundred miles to shake off his happiness. 
True as this may be we believe the traits for local attachments to be 
as strong in the American people as those of any other nationality. 

There is a lasting love for the old homestead; with its every shrub 
and tree around it. And what delightful recollections cluster around the 
memory of 'my father's orchard' and the fruits that were in it. 

The family orchard truly is a part of home, its value and import- 
ance we cannot estimate too highly. The comforts derived from it are 
so many and so varied to all our wants, combining in their excellency 
tood and pleasure to both mind and body, we almost fail to appreciate 
them. Our design, therefore, in the family fruit garden will be to 
gather all the fruits we consider choice and suited to the tastes of the 
inmates of the homestead and its welcome visitors. Here we lay aside 



08 - MISSOURI STATE IlOUTICULTUKAl, SOCIKTV. 

the thought ot car loads and barrels full, but desire to produce the best, 
the sweetest and most luscious. Our selections will be necessarily of 
many kinds. The good housewife will wish to have her choice of 
apples for this or that sort of tart — dumpling or pie — for frying, for frit- 
ters or stewing; pears for baking or preserving, and so on with all 
the fruits. Again the selection should be of various kinds, since all 
personal tastes differ, and the inclination we may have for eating one 
variety to-day, a change to another may please us to-morrow. 

The question, what ought we to plant.'' cannot well be answered ; 
as already remarked, every person will naturally wish to plant all their 
old tavorites. while there are so many new ones to demand a place in 
the collection, the planter will not be at a loss for a choice, and but few 
that will not give some satisfaction in the home orchard. But the suc- 
cession in ripening is an important point to be kept in mind. The 
cherries will give us fruit in June; with July will come the apricot, the 
apple, pear and peach, and so till late, these in their various turns will 
keep us well supplied. 

To those living near large towns and cities there need never be 
a surplus. For fruits so choice and grown with so much care will always 
be eagerly sought after and good prices paid for them by private cus- 
tomers. 

Dwarf trees can be used to great advantage in the garden, especial- 
ly by those whose grounds are limited, for if the inclination would be for 
a large number of kinds, two or three hundred could be planted at eight 
or ten feet apart with all results desirable. The use of dwarf trees, though 
practical in every way, are to be recommended more for the amateur than 
for the general planter. In the choice of ground, when that can be done, 
the hillside, the best drained spots, though the soil be medium in fertil- 
ity, would be preferred, as all the elements for proper fruiting and growth 
of the different varieties can be supplied; while naturally there would 
not be such stimulation to overgrowth we wish to avoid for the produc- 
tion of fruit. Thus have we endeavored to present to you something in 
regard to the family orchard, feeling that a beginning was only made in 
saying what should be said, leaving the subject to you and your discus- 
sions and turn to the other part of our paper, though of less domestic 
and poetic nature, is still a source from which millions receive their en- 
joyment of fruits, eating them with as much relish as if they themselves 
could pluck them from the tree. 

Forty years ago the product of the Delaware peach orchards was 
spoken of and regarded as something wonderful, their yield being so 
large, some bringing their owners over ten thousand a year. The apple 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 69 

orchards of the Hudson were famous; the opening of the Erie canal and 
the lake border was fast bringing central and western New York into 
notice westward, the valley of the Ohio was rapidly becoming the center 
of a large fruit trade, and so commercially, where transportation was ob- 
tainable the attention given to fruit growing rapidly increased. 

In our boyhood apples were brought from Clay connty in wagons 
to our town and Fort Leavenworth, even thirty miles further on to St. 
Joseph. A few years later wagons came from Kansas to Platte and 
Buchanan counties, from Nebraska and Iowa to Holt and adjoining coun- 
ties for their supply; many wagon loads season after season have supplied 
Denver before the time of railroads. Thus it is seen by this retrospect- 
ive glance that little by little the great foundation was laid, calling into 
existence such an immense trade and the industry designing to meet it 
at the present time. It can not be said here, where the orchard should 
be planted. But as the matter of transportation to the railroad station 
becomes a point to consider — it should be of easy access, the roads lead- 
ing from it during the busy season kept level and in the best repair; of 
course we mean those upon his own premises, if his influence could ex- 
tend to the public, he ought to know where his interest lies. In the 
choice of varieties, his aim will be to plant mostly of those in demand at 
the market which he expects to supply, but on this point he should not 
be restricted; the communications we now have open up various markets 
to him. The character must be well considered, those of good shipping 
qualities, slow to decay, those that do not show bruises too readily. 
Those in size averaging from fair medium to large, smooth, well formed, 
bright in color — red predominating. 

There seems to be a tendency to plant too largely of only few var- 
ieties, especially of the later or winter. Since the older orchards are 
passing away, a scarcity of late summer and fall apples has been made, 
seriously felt by the shippers. This, causing good prices, irduces the 
throwing on the market much fruit prematurely, the trade would rather 
not deal with and the fruit be better on the trees a few weeks longer. 

The person, unless confining himself to a few kinds for certain sea- 
sons, in planting will always find the later summer and fall varieties pay- 
ing, especially where good fruit is produced. 'Tis very true a few var- 
ieties will out produce others, but we believe that seasons will come 
when some of the shy bearers will be the very ones to bring in the profits 
Such has been the experience in some localities, it would be reasonable 
to suppose that it was so in others. A few years ago we had fine Ben 
Davis and others. Winesap, W. W. I'earmain and many more of that 



70 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

class were poor and scabby. Tlic season following it was just the reverse, 
and the fine Winesaps, Pearmins and others helped to sell the Ben Davis. 
Shippers, too, desire to have variety in stock. Several instances can be 
given where the dealer came to me with a request for a number of barrels 
of any kind^ just so they were different from those he had, having orders 
for several car loads, and those he did have were nearly all of the one 
kind his customer had on former shipments requested him not to send 
so many of, as his trade did not in their turn desire them. 

Speaking of difference of taste and a clinging to such sorts as we 
were acquainted with long ago, was forcibly impressed on us a few years 
ago. A dealer was shipping from our county to the northwest, he could 
obtain all -the fruit he wanted with us, but he ordered ten car loads from 
Michigan, remarking, "I had to have them, though they will cost me over 
50 cents a barrel more than those I get here; my customers do not es- 
teem your Missouri fruits, they want some of the northern varieties, such 
as Russets, Baldwins, Northern Spys, etc." 

Good sheds or permanent buildings should be erected at convenient 
points in the orchard. Sheds should be constructed in such a manner 
as to be taken apart and moved to another point without loss of much 
time in re-erection. 

The gathering and packing season is one in which every hour is 
worth a day and every convenience that can be had to save that hour 
will soon be paid for. 

Sheds are requisite to put our material in to keep dry; workmen make 
poor headway in working upon it while wet; after the fruit is in the 
package we must keep dry; when rain threatens our sheds are handy — 
the situation is mastered. A few inducements of this kind will have an 
attraction for your dealer; he feels safe that his men can put all their 
time to use and his orders will not suffer from delay by the .state of the 
weather. Another convenience to be looked after are low wheeled wag- 
ons or trucks, suitable to be drawn about the orchard either by men or 
horses, upon which boxes or barrels empty from the sheds or returned 
quickly as the case may require. Under such sheds, or say properly 
houses, if the owner wishes, cellars can be made, something of a perma- 
nent class or to keep out a few degrees of frost only; days often occur in 
late fall when it would be unsafe to ship, while in a few days after, for 
weeks the weather is mild. 

The care of the orchard must be diligently attended to; good culture 
must be gi/en— should the growth become too rampant in consequence, 
check it by giving the soil a rest, but do not neglect it. After a few 
large crops, the trees need more food to store up for future yields; thin- 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 71 



ning- the fruit should be attended to, though few, if any in this state, 
make a practice of doing so. Prunq out the small interior limbs and all 
weak, scarred and dead branches. Since your trademark has become 
"sound, perfect fruir," the moths must be attended to, and your friends, 
the birds, will help you. The spraying with poisoned water will be 
another aid. The mode of its application and that of other remedies will 
be fully discussed from time to time by the society. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS I'.Y J. B. DURAND, PRAIRIE CITY. 



In reporting upon our orchards I would say they are generally in 
good condition with a luxuriant foilage, making a good growth of wood, 
and what is still better, most varieties are well loaded with fruit which 
looks well and promising. The Jonathan which were very full last sea- 
son, will have a half crop. Ben Davis promises to be better for me than 
ever before, Janet promises a good crop, and the Winesap very full. 

The canker worm commenced his work early, but a few days of 
cold, raining weather settled him I have been spraying my orchard for 
the codling moth, with a solution of London purple, and have hopes 
of curtailing his depredations. 

We have a disease in some orchards, which for the want of a 
better name, we call ''Trunk Blight." It seems to decay at the bottom 
and about half way up the trunk before the top succumbs. Generally 
the Ben Davis suffers most, but with me the Grimes Golden is most 
affected; about 20 per cent, dying. 

I am cultivating my orchard this season. I am convinced, from 
observation, most especially while in California, that thorough cultiva- 
tion is essential if we expect the best results. I am using the Disc 
pulverizer, which I consider the best implement for that purpose — 
thoroughly pulverizing the surface without going deep enough to in- 
jure the roots. I notice that nriy Ben Davis apples are considerably 
affected with the scab, which I fear will greatly injure the fruit. I do 
not hear any complaint from others. I have planted forty acres more 
in trees this spring — all in Jonathan and Missouri Pippin — the Jonathan 
two rods ai)art, with the Missouri Pippin planted between one way, 
which I expect to cut out in ten or twelve years. I calculate that they 



MISSOURI STATIC HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



will have more than paid for themselves by that time in fruit, besides the 
protection they will be to the other trees in breaking the wind. 

Our peach orchards are nearly all gone. What few young orchards 
there arc, look well as to the trees, but the fruit is )ion est — will have to 
go further south for peaches. Plums are a very light crop; pears very 
good where there are any trees; cherries nearly a half crop. 



REPORT OF WM. McCRAY, OF CO'A'GILL, CALDWEI.I, COUNTY, MO. 



Please find inclosed herewith my report from this locality, which is 
made according to the best of my knowledge. Our oldest orchards here 
are gradually dying out and there are not many new orchards being 
planted, or not enough to meet the demand of our increasing population 
which will probably be here in the next twenty-five years. Neglect of 
our orchards and the constant depredations of hundreds of insect 
enemies, from the apple tree borer down to millions of microscopic 
fungi that we little suspect, are harming our orchards ; and in addition 
to these pests the great Northwestern blizzards come with their 
dreadful cold, wintry blasts and freeze many of our apple trees to 
death. They likely rupture or injure the sap vessels of the trees so 
much that the proper circulation of the sap of the trees is hindered or 
destroyed so much that the proper chemical elements, such as lim.e, pot- 
ash, etc., which are so necessary for the life of the trees can not be car- 
ried into the trees on account of the ruptured condition of the sap ves- 
sels of the trees, while perhaps millions of fungus aniinalculae inhabit 
the ruptured sap vessels of the trees and complet their work of destruc- 
tion ; or the vitality of the trees may be destroyed by over-bearing or a 
lack of several or even one of the chemical substances which is certainly 
necessary for the life of the tree. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 



REPORT OF J. M. KELLEY, SPRINGFIELD, MO. 



D. S. Hoi ma II, Esq. 

Dear Sir : — In reply to your request, I beg leave to make the fol- 
lowing^ report of my experience in peach growing in Green County. 
Most of the figures arc exact, and in those which I have estimated, I 
have been careful not to make a better showing than is warranted by 
the facts : 
Ten acres of land in suburbs of Springfield, bought June, 1883. ..$1,000 

Fencing with cedar posts and six foot pickets 250 

Grubbing and plowing lOO 

Fruit trees one year old, set spring of 1 884 215 

■ Total $1,565 

Crop corn and vegetables raised on ground, 1884, exclusive 

of seeds and labor $400 

Crop vegetables, 1885 250 

Crop vegetables, 1 886 1 00 

Crop peaches, 250 trees, all early, 1887 500 

Total 1,250 

Balance including cost of the land $ 315 

At this date all my peach trees, 1,000 in number, promise a fine 
yield, all being full, and barring any accident will produce from one 
bushel to two and one-half bushels to the tree, ripening from June 20th 
to October. 

In addition to the above-named 1,000 peach trees, I have on the 
same ground about 400 apple trees, 120 plums, 80 cherries and 40 
quinces. The plums of the Wild Goose variety are in full bearing. 
The apple trees have made a fine growth and are thirty feet apart with 
peach trees between them in the rows and a row of peach trees between 
each two apple rows. Thus you will see that when the peach trees de- 
cay, which they are likely to do in say ten years, I will thus have an ap- 
ple, plum and cherry orchard instead. I have not taken into account 
the value of the growth of my apple trees, which is in some places es- 
timated at $1 a tree per year, nor the prospective peach crop of 1888, my 

object being to ascertain if peach growing in Southwest Missouri pays. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. M. KELLY. 



MISSOURI STATt: IIORTICUI- TUU \L SOCIETY. 



Present crop of peaches is expected to brini;' $2,000, last year $500 
— $2,500 for peaches alone — thus by inter-plantiiiL^ with peach, that 
fruit alone in first and second crop will have paid for the land at $100 
per acre. For all other fruit trees and for all labor and material 
in fencintj^, plantint^ and cultivatini^'. Were the peach trees cut out now 
the ten acres would remain a valuable youny;, thrifty, growing orchard 
of apple, plum, cherry and ciuince, nothing worse in health or size from 
contiguity with the i)each. One mistake our friend has made — he planted 
his orchard within the corporate limits of Springfield, which has grownup 
to and around his orchard so as to induce him to plat it into fifty foot 
lots which go on the market when the peaches, plums and cherries are 
off, and will sell, as some of it is already sold at $10 per front foot. In 
all the peach orchard are thirty-two lots — $1,600 — the actual profits on 
1,000 peach trees in five years, for the peaches paid for it all. 

D. S. H. 



St. Joseph, Mo., June, 1888. 
/-. A. Goodman, Esq.y Secretary Missouri State Horticultural Society, 

Dear Sir: — The programme of the semi-annual meeting at Oregon, 
Holt county, came to hand and I find myself listed to talk cider and how 
to make it. 

CIDER. 

It is sweet cider the people want, not the fermented or poisonous 
stuff that has passed through the cider worm of the still, for from the 
time it comes forth until it empties into hell and death, it is the cause of 
crime and dishonor, and is demoralizing to everything it touches ; it 
would then be classed with the alcoholic drinks that are the source of all 
the moral wrecks, that are on this side the stream of death ; of suicide 
and insanity, of poverty and destruction, of weeping children and des- 
pairing mothers and wives asking for bread. Such drink destroys rea- 
son, chokes genius, fill our jails and asylums, furnishes victims for the 
scaffold, cuts down youth and manhood ; it breaks the fathers' heart, 
bereaves the mother, erases love, blights hope, brings premature age in 
sorrow to the grave ;,it makes wives widows, children orphans ; fathers, 
friends and all, paupers. Don't touch it, shun it as a viper. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 75 



Pure sweet cider is the opposite of all this, and is the healthiest 
beverage now offered to the American people. It will become the 
standard beverage of our land, and babes in the cradle will cry for it. 
The young man who uses it will become strong in mind and muscle, 
and the fair maiden's cheek will bloom with beauty, and in every valley 
and on every hill will be a grand old cider mill, while people will come 
from far and near to drink sweet cider instead of beer. 

HARRY KEENE. 



CIDER. 



now TO MAKE IT. 



The day is gone by when the cider or jelly business can be 
run with a profit, if a man persists in following the old ruts of past 
generations, and unless a man is willing to accept new ideas and form 
new plans for himself, he is sure to fail of success. Ten years ago a 
steam cider mill in this part of the country was not to be found. My 
mill was the second outfit west of the Mississippi river. Now they are 
everywhere and can be counted by the hundreds, and although there 
has been such wonderful improvements, there is still a wide field unde- 
veloped. I believe the cider business is only in its infancy. It certainly 
is for pure apple juice, for I say to you that the supply of pure apple 
juice does not fill one hundreth part of the demand, and farmers need 
not fear to set out orchards and make the crop into cider, which, if done 
as intelligently and carefully as other matters are attended to, his or- 
chards will be a larger source of revenue than the corn field, for there 
are sold every year thousands, aye millions of barrels of compounds 
called peach, pear, orange and crab cider, all made with sugar, acids and 
flavor. Why is this } The answer is as plain as day, there is not 
enough apple juice to fill the demand, hence these substitutes are rec- 
ommended by the unscrupulous dealer and manufacturer. Plant or- 
chards ; drive this miserable truck from the market. With such rail- 



7 6 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

road facilities as this statu has got, a ghit of fruit is impossible to occur. 
The way to make good cider is as simple as it is supposed to be 
that of making good bread by the good housewife. Take good, sound, 
ripe apples, wash them, grind and press and store into clean, sound bar- 
rels. If barrels are new, they should be soaked well to draw the tannic 
acid out of the wood. Before filling, clear the cider by repeated rack- 
ing and exclude the air from the cider all the time. 

Respectfully Yours, 

HARRY KEENE. 



Mr. LaiigJilin — Is it not true that fruit of quality as good as is 
grown on young trees can be grown by cutting back old, neglected trees, 
and inducing a fresh, vigorous growth by means of fertilizers and culti- 
vation. 

The Secretary spoke of the care necessary for success in commercial 
orcharding, advising the planting of commercial orchards, forcing them 
into bearing, getting all the profit possible and then, when they com- 
mence to die, to cut them out. The cost of planting and growing new 
orchards is but little, and if orchards are planted so as to come on and 
take the place of the old ones, the most profit can be obtained, 

Mr. Wm. Ent stated that some varieties, as the Large Romanite, 
could be cut back, and would renew itself and do well for a number of 
years. Others, like the Janet, could not be cut back to advantage, there- 
fore considerable knowledge of varieties was necessary in order to be 
able to renovate orchards judiciously. He then read a paper on " The 
Cultivation of Orchards," by Wm. Ent, Savannah. 

Mr. N. F. Murray used to like the Grimes Golden, but now finds 
that they are dying. He believes that the extremes of heat and cold 
account for the damage. The long, fine autumn fall weather causes the 
trees, which have formed their terminal buds and stopped growing, to 
make a new growth. Some merely swell the buds, but even this seems 
to cause them to winter kill. Recommended that the short-lived varie- 
ties should be by themselves, and, when they are going to decay, they 
should be cut out. Regarding reconstructing old trees, he liked judici- 
ous pruning, fertilizers and cultivation. Did not like to cut out the water 
sprouts, as they are the effect of nature to repair damages. When bran- 
ches are laden down with fruit, the sap vessels become cramped and 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 



suckers are sent out ; rather than cut out the sucker he would remove the 
old branch ; he did not believe in allowing all the suckers to grow, but 
would cut out judiciously. He favored cultivation, in order that the trees 
would not stop growing in July and begin a new growth to be injured by 
the winter. Cultivation, mulching and irrigation will keep a tree growing 
until September, and then it will ripen off in good condition to stand the 
winter. Had used white arsenic 2^ oz. for lOO gallons of water, applied 
with a force pump, and it had done no harm to the leaves, while it would 
kill every insect. 

Mr. Had cut back the top of an old tree, which had the bark 

removed from the trunk; the water sprouts had grown up and borne good 
crops. 

Mr. Bell, of Boonville, speaking as a fruit dealer, agreed with the 
Society regarding growing fruit from young orchards and cutting out the 
old ones ; he liked to give the old orchards the go-by, and found, that 
when he bought fruit from young orchards, he could dispose of it any- 
where. For dollars and cents he would use young orchards, planting 
such varieties as would suit the climate and soil and find a ready market. 
He would keep his orchard cultivated ; he had found in southern Illinois, 
where apples are successfully grown, they grow their orchards on the 
above principle. The great complaint against Missouri apples is on ac- 
count of the worms which they contain ; the spraying with arsenic is a 
certain remedy, and in many localities is practised regularly. The plant- 
ing of orchards in the old fogy way will not be profitable ; plant only 
two or three varieties and as many as you can take care of, there will be 
no danger of over-doing it ; would not attempt to doctor up old orchards. 

Mr, Grant, of Maryville, accounted for the premature decay of orch- 
ards by the overbearing, which had weakened the tree by overtaxing 
them ; to remedy it, he would prune carefully, early in the summer of 
the year when trees show a tendency to overbear. 

Dr. Goslin — Had used 2\ oz. of white arsenic with one-half pound 
of Lewis' concentrated lye in crystals for lOO gallons of water. The lye 
is only used to hasten the solution of arsenic ; this applied in reasonable 
amounts, will not burn the foliage. If the trees are drenched, the leaves 
will be burnt in spots. Profs. Forbes and Cook, and orchardists in all 
parts of the country, report the best results from spraying. If we can 
produce apples free from worms, we have the markets of the world open 
to us, as the Ben Davis is a good keeper. A strainer should be placed 
over the lower end of the pipe on the barrel, as the chips from the hole^ 
apple blossoms, etc., will clog the valves of the pump and get into the 
nozzle. Five hundred trees can be sprayed in a day ; go over the trees 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



soon after the fruit forms and, if rain washes it off, go over again, spray- 
ing again in June and a last time in July. 

Mr. Patterson ^-^vc his experience in dissolving arsenic : He made 
the mixture as directed by Dr. Goslin, but after giving it several days, he 
had not been able to get a perfect .solution, but had made a good sus- 
jjcnsion. 

Mr, Murray followed Dr. Goslin's instructions explicitely, and in five 
minutes had a perfect .solution ; he had used three gallons of hot water 
to dissolve the two and one-half ounces of arsenic, and then thinned it 
down, so that he had 2\ ounces for lOO gallons of water. 

Dr. Goslin cautioned against using too much poison, stating that it 
was not known whether the newly hatched worm was killed by absorp- 
tion of the poison through their tender skins, or by eating the poison. 

In California there is a brood every month, and yet they have apples 
free from worms ; if they can do this, should not the farmers of Missouri 
look after the two broods a year .-' 

Secretary Goodman stated that in California the fruit growers make 
as much a business of spraying their trees as we do of cultivating our 
trees; they use one pound of Paris green or four ounces of arsenic to 200 
gallons. 



Mr, L. A. Goodman: 

Dear Sir — As I notice I am on the programme for a piece (as the 
school boy says), will first say that it will have to be a short one, as the 
subject assigned mc, I think, requires the experience of one much older 
in the business, and since I received notice of the duty assigned me I 
have been very busily engaged in saving our crop of strawberries which 
began to ripen the first of May, and as I have kept a record of sales of 
berries up to date, I will send it to you. From the 8th of May to the 
28th we sold 446 crates of twenty-four quarts each, at an average price 
of about $2.50 per crate, and from that day up to June 4th, 215 crates; 
the berries growing smaller as the season advanced did not bring so much , 
but we sold at from $2.25 down as low as $1.50 per crate, mostly in our 
home market, cases returned ; so our crop up to the present time would 
average about $2.20 per crate. We estimate our whole crop to be about 
725 crates — about 17,000 quarts — and think a safe estimate to be a little 
over $2.00 per crate. Our vines are all among fruit-trees, and some 
were so densely shaded, that I did not expect a half crop, for the trees 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 



— Wild Goose Plums, eight to ten feet apart, and peach trees, sixteen 
feet apart, with an apple tree in every alternate row — of course, we could 
not reasonably expect a full crop, but our berries have mostly been very 
fine. We have commenced to gather our raspberries, the Souhegan 
being the first as usual ; we picked one crate June 2d, and yesterday, 
June 4th, 140 pints, we use pints at first. We get in our home market 
$4.80 per crate, and will get that for four or five days. We have one 
patch of 5 acres, that we estimate about lOO bushels per acre if we get 
sufficient rains. Our Gregg and Centennial promise a full crop. I ex- 
pect to realize over $200 per acre net from ten acres of raspberries. 
Our plum trees are heavily loaded with fruit. Our bearing orchard of 
apples is small, but has so far indications of a good crop. I do not hesi- 
tate when I say our small fruits (strawberries and raspberries) will net 
us near $200 per acre all through. 

I write in this way, thinking it the most practical way to get at the 
profit of fruit culture; I know it will pay. I send you by express to-day a 
specimen of our raspberries and a few Wild Goose Plums, Please, do not 
let Mr. Ambrose or any of your particular friends sample the plums, for 
they are not ripe; if they were, I would probably not send them; please 
place our berries on your table if they arrive in good condition. I hope 
you may have an instructive and interesting meeting, and hope that our 
members may all be able to attend our winter meeting at our Gem City, 
Nevada, the finest town in the world. I feel confident that our people 
will extend to all a warm reception. — Please look over this briefly written 
article, for we have over fift}- hands to work and some one is coming in 
every few moments. 

Yours fraternally, 

J. H. LOGAN. 



80 .MLSSJUKl SIAIK Ih )R 111 ULTU RAL SOCIETY 



Editors Democrat : 

Thinkiri!^ it may be of some interest to the readers of the Democrat 
and especially any one contemplating;- berry culture, I will send you a 
report of strawberry sales from our fruit farm, commencing the 8th day 
of May. our first delivery in the city, up to the end, including the 28th 
— twenty-three days : 

I'ER CASE. TOTAL. 

Miiy 8, 2 cases (24 quarts each) . $4 80 $ 9 60 

" Qj 2 " 4 80 9 60 

10, 3 " 4 00 1 2 00 

11^ 5 " 4 00 20 00 

12, 7 '• 4 00 28 00 

13,1 \ " (Sunday) 4 00 6 00 

" 14, 9| " 3 60 34 80 

" 1 5, lo.i " 3 60 37 80 

" 16, 12 " 3 00 36 00 

" 17, 8 " 275 2200 

18, 26 " net in Kansas City 3 00 78 25 

19, 24 " " " '' 4 00 96 25 

" 20, 20 " " " " 2 75 45 00 

" 21,25 " 2 50 62 50 

22, 26 " 2 50 65 00 

23, 34 " 225 76 50 

" 24, 41 " 2 00 82 00 

" 25, 46 " 2 00 92 00 

'• 26, 50 ' 2 00 to I 70 9550 

" 27, 2 1 " (Sunday) 2 00 42 00 

28, 71 " I 85, I 90 and 2 25 142 00 

$1,072 80 

Total amount of cases, 444. Average price per case, $2.41^. 

Including small lots, sold at retail, our crop for the first twenty-four 
days would average at least $2.50 per case, clear of com.missions, express 
charges, etc. 

Number of quarts sold, 10,656. 

Largest number picked in one day (May 28thj, 1,776. 

Our raspberries promise a large crop. We estimate our crop at this 
writing to be about 20,000 quarts ; our strawberry crop at 20,000, making 
40,000 quarts of berries. 



SUMMER MEETING AT ORE(iON. 81 

Wc had sixty-three berry pickers to-day (Monday, 28th). Prices 
have held up well, and up to the present time we have not received a 
single report of a single case being received in bad condition. We have 
sold the most of our crop to shippers here in our city, and I think they 
have made a nice profit on their purchase. Our strawberries will not 
exceed six acres, and some of them are among large fruit trees, where 
we could not expect over one-half crops. 

Our experience in fruit culture during the past four years has been 
very gratifying. I am well convinced that there is nothing that will re- 
munerate the tiller of the soil as well as fruit culture, and especially small 
fruits, in southwest Missouri. And, as there is but little capital required 
to commence with, ten acres of land, put in good condition and set in 
small fruits, will yield a more profitable crop than an ordinary eighty 
acre farm. And the raising of fruit in this part of Missouri is no longer 
an experiment, for the last few years have fully demonstrated the fact, 
that we are in one of the best fruit countries in the United States. But 
our experience has convinced us, that the timber land is better adapted 
to fruit culture than the prairie land. Small fruits commence to ripen 
from eight to ten days earlier in the timber than they do on the prairie; 
and that is an item of no small consequence. 

As my letter is becoming too long already, I will stop for the pres 
ent time, and, when our crop is gathered, will give your readers, as near 
as I can, a full report as to yield and prices. 

J. A. LOGAN. 



H. R. 



83 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 6, 2 P. M. 



Mr. Sckulta, of Upper Holt, read the following sensible and prac- 
tical paper on 

CULTURE AND CARE OF APPLE ORCHARDS. 



The apple is our standard fruit in Holt county. There is no other 
industry that pays so well as fruit cultivation at the present time in our 
county. We can produce as fine apples in Missouri as can be pro- 
duced anywhere in the United States, and with as little cost. We will 
ahvays have a good demand for choice apples from the northwestern 
market. 

The great trouble has been in buying stock. The farmers not 
knowing the best varieties to buy, has caused a great deal of trouble and 
work for nothing — there having been so many tree peddlers selling 
trees that were worthless, has discouraged the people from trying to do 
much. We should not buy trees from parties that are not reliable. 
I think a tree swindler is worse than a horse thief. Buy trees from our 
home nurserymen, that will be true to name and are adapted to this 
county, then with good care you will be happy. Always buy first-class 
trees to start an orchard with. Crooked, forked, scruby trees will not 
make a good orchard. 

The best time to buy trees is in the fall, when the nurseryman's 
stock is not broken — in the spring you have to take trees that have 
been picked over. Get your trees in the fall, then you can set them out 
when you are ready in the spring. Don't wait until you are sowing w^heat 
or oats and have to stop everything to look after your trees. Prepare 
the ground in the fall, by plowing well and deep; drag well with a 
harrow to smooth the ground. Plant the trees 30x40 feet. You can 
grow good crops in the orchards while the trees are small. Never plant 
small grain in the orchard. Potatoes or corn is the best crop to raise — 
any hoed crop is good that does not vine and run upon the trees. If 
corn is planted in the orchard, mark off the rows each way so you can 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 83 

cultivate each way; leave a space six feet wide, north and south of the 
trees, to give them air. Keep the weeds and grass away from around 
the trees, work around the trees often with a hoe; cut the corn off 
the ground when ripe. Burn nothing in the orchard, for trees are easily 
damaged by fire. Cultivate the orchard until the trees begin to bear 
freely. Do all the cultivation early in the season, so the trees may have 
time to mature their young wood before winter. 

Bearing orchards may be seeded to clover and pastured by young 
hogs; especially on the prairies where the trees have no protection and 
headed low down, the hogs will pick up all the wormy apples, and keep the 
clover from killing out, and the weeds from taking possession of the 
orchard. Keep the old hogs out of the orchard; they will damage the 
trees. 

• Bearing orchards in the timber should be headed up and well cul- 
tivated each year without any growing crop. The first year after the 
orchard is planted out, the young trees make a large growth. This is 
the time to prune and shape the trees. If you wait a few years you will 
have to cut off big limbs to shape the tree. Attend the trees while 
small. It is but a light fob then and does not injure them. 

You must keep an eye on your orchard. Never trust to providence 
or your hired hand, for a careless hand will do more damage in an 
orchard than he will do good. Keep all tramps out of the orchard that 
are around after jobs of pruning. Let no man prune in your orchard 
without you know he is a skillful hand at the business. Wrap your 
young trees early in the fall to keep the rabbits from barking the trees. 
The best material to use is screen wire. It will keep the borers and 
mice away from the trees as well as the rabbits. The wire will cost 
about twenty-two cents per yard, and one yard will make five guards. 

The apple tree grows well when planted in new rich soil. It does 
not need any fertilizing then. When trees are bearing five barrels 
of apples to the tree, then is the time to keep up the tree in good 
growing condition. The large trees soon absorb all the substance they 
can reach, when they begin to fail. They are like a mule lariated to a 
stake — the mule is all right while the grass is good within its reach, but 
when the grass is gone Mr. mule must have feed or he goes down, and 
that is the way with an apple tree. Apple trees should be pruned the 
most when there is an off year, and should have plenty of barnyard 
manure. This is one of the causes of so many trees dying. They are 
starving for sustenance. Give plenty of manure and you will preserve 
your trees and have plenty of apples. Don't pile the manure up around 



84 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the trees; scatter it broadcast over the i^round so tlie feeders of the 
tree will <ret the benefit. 

I had, in 1886, two Newton Pippin trees that had not fruited for 
some time. They were twenty-five years old. I gave one tree a wagon 
load of barn-yard manure — all that one .span of mules would draw from 
the barn; that tree in 1887, at picking time, yielded twenty-three 
bushels of fine apples — the other not more than one peck of wormy 
apples, were gathered. In the spring of 1887 I gave the other tree a 
load of manure. Now it is full of apples. 

Mr. LauiVhlin, Mr. Murray, Mr. Holman. Mr. Patterson and Mr. 
Durand, all agreed with Mr. Schult/,. 

Mr. Ambrose stated that while here he had noticed many trees 
trimmed high. It was new to him. In Vernon county they trimmed 
low, as it greatly protected the body of the tree. Pie wanted infor- 
mation. He got it instanter. 

Mr. Murray thought high trimming a mistake, and cited practical 
results. Those trees trimmed low were universally m better condition 
in every respect. Several others agreed with Murray and friend Am 
brose smiled and was satisfied with his mode of topping. 

Mr. Mjirray, of Holt county, stated that he had headed some of his 
trees at the height of five feet and others at three feet. Nearly all of 
the high headed trees were dead, while most of the lower headed ones 
were in good condition. In regard to cultivating and manuring trees he 
did not believe that it shortened the life of trees, on the contrary, he 
thought that it would have the same effect on the trees as civilization 
on the human race. 

Mr. Holman stated that the oldest trees he knew of in Missouri 
were in a garden which was cultivated and highly manured. 

Mr. Patterson, of Kirksville, gave his experience as compared with 
that of a neighbor. He cultivated while his neighbor did not. His 
neighbor's trees gave two small crops before his trees bore, but the next 
year the trees on the cultivated soil gave more fruit than the others had 
in the three years ; they measured twenty inches in circumference while 
the others in uncultivated soil were only fifteen inches. 

Mr. Dnrand gave his experience in sacking grapes. The bags were 
put on during the first week in June, and found that the bunches enclosed 
in sacks were free from rot, while others were half destroyed. The 
grapes ripened nearly as soon when bagged as when not covered, and the 
bunches were perfect. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 85 

Mr. Miirtfeldt corroborated the statements of Mr. Durand, stating 
that it was a perfect success, if the sacks were applied as soon as the 
berries formed. 

Mr. Evans put on two thousand sacks last year and was so pleased 
with the result that he expected to use ten thousand this year. They 
not only protected against rot, insects and birds, but allowed them to 
hang on the vine several weeks after unsacked grapes were gone. 

Dr. Goslin read the following letter from Mr. John Burr, of Leaven- 
worth, Kansas: 

Leavenworth, Kan., May 28, 1888. 
Mr. a. Goslin, 

Dear Sir : — The postal card inviting me to attend the meeting of 
the State Horticultural Society of Missouri, at Oregon, was duly receiv- 
ed — it would give me more than ordinary pleasure to meet with and 
have a social chat with the members of the society, but I regret to say 
that old age with its many infirmities precludes the possibility of my 
being present to enjoy its pleasures with you. 

Very respectfully yours, 

JOHN BURR. 

Possibly an item or two relative to myself may interest some mem- 
ber more than the declination of the acceptance, as in my long life I have 
had considerable experience in horticultural pursuits. My first was over 
60 years ago, assisting my father (in Conneticut) in raising pears, peach- 
es, grapes and strawberries, at that time — 1824, my first attempt to graft 
a grape vine, using a scion of the Isabella on a fox grape, which made 
a growth of 20 feet the first season. Over 40 years ago I exhibited at 
a meeting of the horticultural society of Columbus, Ohio, of which I was 
then a member, 60 varieties of seedling strawberries of my own plant- 
ing, and creating quite a sensation, and I believe, creating the first great 
furore in strawberry planting for new varieties. 

My last 30 years here in Kansas, near 20 of which has been entire- 
ly given up to raising seedling grapes, except the portion I have had to 
yield to my ever constant but cruel and relentless companion, Mr 
Rheumatism, and am now so crippled that it is with difficulty that I get 
about, even with crutch and cane. I am now 87 years old and unable 
to give proper attention to my grapes, have put them into the hands of 
Stayman & Black, Leavenworth, for propagation and dissemination, some 
of which will probably be ready in a year or two from the coming fall. 
From my experience in raising grapes from seed for permanent improve- 



80 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

mcnt and success, I should use seed fiom only thebest varieties of hardy, 
healthy, vigorous kinds. Unfortunately most of our late introduction of 
new varieties are crossed more or less with the Vinifera, which is not at 
all adapted to this section of country ; they are too tender to withstand 
our winters unprotected and there are but few locations where they do 
not blight, mildew and rot. I should not plant seeds of the Labrusca, 
they are too subject to rot. We are quite too remiss in not thinningour 
fruit when our trees and vines overbear, not so much to have the fruit so 
much better as to preserve the trees and vines in health ; there are more 
vines injured, yes, ruined, by being allowed to overbear than from any 
other cause which I have particularly observed in this section ; vines 
should not be allowed at any time, but more particularly for the two or 
three first years of their bearing, it prevents the growth and ripening of 
the wood and enfeebles them so much that they are likely to be winter 
killed or are so injured that it takes a long time to recover, and few ever 
recover, to make a strong healthy vine, and this will apply in a great 
measure to your apple trees, which, please observe carefully. My vines 
in early spring never looked better or showed finer prospects for fruit, 
but a very severe hail storm on the loth cut and broke them so much 
that I shall have very little fruit, not one-fourth of a crop. 

Perhaps it may interest some of the members to learn how some of 
the grapes stood our severe winter, or how they did not. 

The Niagara, Empire State, Ulster Prolific, Moore's Diamond, Pren- 
tiss. Virginia, Jefferson, Lady Washington, and in fact, about all the hy- 
brids that were not protected were killed to the ground. I find some of 
my best varieties to be quite as hardy as Concord and not injured at all. 

Respectfully yours, 

JOHN BURR. 



The secretary read a paper from Mr. Schott, of St. Joseph, a special- 
ist on grape rot, who took the position that rot was not a fungus disease, 
but was caused from the sting of an insect, and sent specimens of leaves; 
he thought vigorous pruning and sulphur smoking the proper and surest 
remedy. 

Prof. Taft, of Columbia, obtained the floor and took positive grounds 
against the insect theory and was sure that rot was a disease. Miss 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 87 



Murtfcldt, entomologist, agreed with the gentleman from the Athens of 
our state. We agree with the lady from the suburbs of St. Louis. 
Following is the paper: 

St. Joseph, Mo., June 5, 1888. 
Gentlemen and Secretary Missouri State Horticnlttiral Society: 

Your circular has been received and contents noted, but unavoid- 
able business prevents me from joining you at your meeting, but I send 
you herewith branches of vines affected by the animals of which I sent 
you a sample a few years ago, the effect of which you can see on the 
stems of vines already partly ruined, even the little bunches; and later 
berries are formed and attacked by them they soon faint and fall off, the 
point of which you can see at each berry in which they will lay their 
eggs, from which a new generation proceeds. 

Prevention, as I would advise, is heavy pruning and good cultiva- 
tion of the grounds, and after each hoeing or cultivation a good sprinkle 
or spreading of air slaked lim.e, and smoke of some rubbish with sulphur, 
which destroys the animaculae, best in the evening as a precaution to 
keep them off; when smoked they will fall, and in a short time they will 
get up and try to re-climb at the stakes, posts, or body of vines; all such 
ought to be painted with coal tar, pitch tar, or anything that is sticky 
and will hold them fast until destroyed. 

You will see by these branches that they are already attacked, even 
part of the berries already partly eaten off. 

Let me hear from you at your earliest convenience. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM SCHOTT. 



REPORT ON SMALL FRUITS. 



BY J. N. MENIFEE, OREGON. 



Having just gone through one of the most unfavorable seasons on 
record, the present outlook for a small fruit crop is not at all flattering, 



88 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

bcin<T too dry to learn mucli by way of experimenting with new fruits. 
I am unable to report much that will either interest, instruct or encour- 
age. Therefore with your indulgence I will present a few thoughts pre- 
liminary to my report. 

When we duly consider the subject of small fruit culture we find it 
of vast importance to the masses. We can hardly find an individual 
who does not consider small fruits one of our greatest luxuries, and if we 
should find such a one, who did not, we would all be ready to pronounce 
him wofully depraved. No production of the soil is more conducive to 
good health, yet it is a fact that about one-half of our people are destitute 
and the other half but poorly supplied with these delicious fruits; hundreds 
of people in Missouri never saw a well cultivated berry patch, or had as 
many strawberries as they could eat. What is the matter.^ It is not 
the climate, although it gets very cold, and very hot, very wet and very 
dry, yet we have varieties of all kinds of small fruits that succeed with all 
these climatic extremes. 

It is not the soil that is at fault, for our fruit exhibits abroad have 
won for the state an enviable reputation. Our soil is peculiarly adapted 
to the production of fruits, but our people in their rage for corn and 
hogs have overlooked this, and many other industries which would bring 
better returns. There is great ignorance in regard to the intrinsic value 
of small fruit for family use, of its culture and its market value. 

• If this was well and generally understood it would require ten times 
as much small fruits as is now grown to supply the home demand. Why 
not grow even twice that amount.'' 

We could thereby feed a hungry multitude and give employment 
to thousands of the dependent poor in the berry fields, dry houses and 
canneries; no danger of overproduction if wisely managed. The sacri- 
fices made, the gratuitous services rendered by the busy members and 
friends of this society who are here to promote the interests of this and 
kindred industries are highly appreciated, and we greet you not only as 
fraternal workers, but as public benefactors. A grand field is before us, 
and we are heartily glad to see so many live men and women on duty. 
Success to the State Horticultural society and all her auxiliaries. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

We estimate the strawberry crop at about one-third an average 
crop; the old plantations were all killed by the drouth and a heavy frost 
on May 14 destroyed most of the berries on low lands. 

The kinds that were least affected by the drouth were Bubach, 
Crescent, Mount Vernon, Gandy's Prize, Cumberland and May King. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. S9 



Those most affected were Jewell, Lida, Bid well and Manchester. If we 
could control this sun scald, rust, or fungi, the Jewell, Lida and Man- 
chester would be three of the best kinds in cultivation, but they are about 
worthless as it is. 

By careful observation on my experimental grounds, I would give 
the following list in about the order named as the best kinds to grow for 
market: Bubach, Sucker State, Miner, Crescent, Mount Vernon and May 
King. 

The Gaudy's Prize, Warfield, Bancroft and Itasca are very promis- 
ing. Jessie is not very productive, but as I have it highly stimulated 
for growing plants, it could not be pq producti\'e, Bombay, Monmouth, 
Logan, Warfield and other new kinds are fine growers but are not allowed 
to fruit. 

RASPBERRIES. 

Wood very short, one-ihird of a crop. Oh, Hopkins and Souhegan 
arc most valuable blackcaps on my place, and I have tested sixteen to 
twenty kinds. Reds are not profitable here, being worth but little more 
in market than black caps, and they ripen very uneven and are hard to 
pick. Shaffer's Collosal, a cross between the Red and Black, is bound to 
supersede all the Reds grown in the West; plants large, hardy, product- 
ive ; very hard to propagate and transplant. 

Carman is likely to supersede the Souhegan ; Earhart not profita'ble 
if season is dry ; Gregg too tender, dies back from pruning, and is short- 
lived. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

One-half crop ; the canes pruned late in season made no further 
growth, some died back ; wood short, and badly winter-killed. Snyder 
is the standard, having matured fruit regularly for fifteen years, but Wal- 
lace, Freed, Taylor's Prolific, and Western Triumph are hardy, large, pro- 
ductive, valuable ; Early Flarvest, Missouri Mammoth, Wilson Junior 
and Early Cluster too tender ; Staymen, Stone's Hardy and McCracken 
hardy and productive, but too small ; Erie and other new blackberries, 
also Lucretiaand other dewberries not fairly tested but are very promis- 
ing. Dwarf Service not much cultivated, hardy, productive, resembles 
the huckleberry. 

Huckleberries have been thoroughl)' tested and will not succeed 
here ; they do not root deep enough to resist the drouth. 

Gooseberry and currents almost a failure, late frost destroyed the 
bloom. 



90 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

GRAPES. 

One-half crop ; wood in bad condition ; late frost destroyed the 
bloom in many places, but since many do not eat, but drink the fruit of 
the vine, the loss of a crop is of less importance. •' Wine is a mocker." 



RErORT ON SMALL FRUITS. 



BY SAMUEL MILLER, OF BLUFFTON, MO. 



STRAWBERRIES. 

Of these, I have only Jessie and Buback No. S, in fruit, which I car- 
ried through last summer's drought and heat, with no littlte trouble. 
Jessie needs but little comment, as it is about as near perfection as a 
strawberry (plant and fruit) could be. 

From present appearances think it will be my chief berry for 
some years to come. 

Bubach is a splendid big berry of better quality than I expected 
from hearsay. Plant is very vigorous and fairly productive. I have 
planted seeds of it fertilized by Jessie, so in years to come something 
may be raised valuable. Have planted a number of the old sort this 
spring. 

RASPBERRIES. 

Black's Centennial, Hopkins, Gregg and Mammoth Cluster all are 
bearing a full crop. Red's, Turner, Crimson Beauty, Scarlet Gem and 
No. 2 of Staymans' came out sound and are full of fruit. Marlboro 
killed to the ground, Cuthbert badly hurt by the winter, yet some canes 
left for fruiting. 

Shaffer has a few canes winter-killed, but enough remaining to 
produce an immense crop, which it now promises. This latter I deem 
a most valuable treasure, and C. A. Green deserves the thanks of the 
country for bringing it out. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 91 

BLACKBERRIES. 

The Triumph had some canes killed, but enough left for a fair crop. 
Snyder, Taylor, Stone's Hardy, and Freed all came through sound, and 
are now white with blossoms. 

CURRANTS. 

Only half a crop, and many bushes were killed by the drought last 
summer. 

GOOSEBERRIES. 

Houghton, Downing and Orange are the only ones I have, all doing 
their best. Dwarf Service berry tree loaded with fruit as usual. 

CHERRIES. 

The finest crop we have had for ten years. 

MULBERRIES. 

Downings' Everbearing, Black Russian and St. Charles White are 
bearing a full crop. 

GRAPES. 

At this time the prospect could not be more promising, and if there 
is nothing serious occurs, we may show sixty varieties at the big show 
in St. Louis next fall in case the society exhibits. This day arrived 
2,000 paper sacks for me, so you see the rot is to be guarded against in 
more ways than one. One variety is ready for sacking now. 

PLUMS. 

I suppose these come in the class of small fruits. The Wild Goose, 
Marianna, Deep Creek, DeSoto, Golden Beauty, Bassett, Cling Stone and 
Freestone Damsons. All these are holding a good crop and by smok- 
ing, the trees have enough sound fruit on them. But just now I am 

confined with a lame side and fear that the Turk may steal a march on 
me. 

SAM MILLER. 



92 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF W. M. HOPKINS, SPRINGFIELD, MO. 



Ladies and Gentlemen of the Missouri State Hoj'ticnltnral Society : 

The executive committece have assigned to me a very laborious 
and knotty subject : " Best Straivbcrries for South Missouri and 
Why. " You will perceive this covers a large area of territory — from 
the Missouri river to the Arkansas line, embracing three degrees of 
latitude and a great diversity of climate and soil. The strawberry is 
very capricious and a few miles often makes a great difference in its be- 
havior and productiveness. I have always tried to be loyal to the pow- 
ers that be, but in this case shall rebel, and confine myself to the lo- 
cality in which I now reside — Greene County, Missouri, being near the 
center of the territory embraced in the above query. I have fruited 
this season six or eight of the newer varieties, which some fruit men 
with less brains than experience or knowledge are pleased to term *' fine 
haired, " by way of derision. I am aware the " Crescent Seedling " has 
been proclaimed the *" best " berry for all purposes all over the country; 
that most people take it for granted and still continue to plant it, 
Why, says some friends of the " Crescent, " is he going to attack that 
berry, and if so, what will he recommend to take its place .'' I answer 
the "Jessie." And I have three other varieties that are its superior — 
The Jewel, Monmouth and Bubach Seedling No. 5. I place the Jessie 
ahead of any berry I have ever fruited in my seventeen years' experi- 
ence. Some friend of the '' Crescent " says, give us the reasons why. 
Best is the superlative of good, and if the Crescent has more than two 
good points, I have never been able to see them: Its earliness and iron 
clad plant. Why, some one asks, is it not productive } Yes, too much 
so. That is one of its greatest faults. It sets more berries than it can 
bring up to any size. You get three or four pickings of fair-sized ber- 
ries, too mean in quality for the table, entirely unfit to ship, unless pick- 
ed when half ripe, then its berries ripen up in about ten days, and as the 
masses have been taught to believe it the berry for the money, everyone 
has them, and this causes a glut and breakdown in the market, and has a 
bad influence on good berries. Berry growers know how hard it is to 
spring a broken down market. It has b^en correctly named the lazy 
man's berry. Like many berries that have had their day, its end is ap- 
proaching, and then let berry growers shout and sing its funeral dirge. 
So mote it be. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 93 

It is by comparison of things that we are enabled to judge and ap- 
preciate their merits, and as I have answered what is the best berry for 
South Missouri, I will now tell you why I think so, by giving the good 
qualities of the " Jessie: " 

1st. It is a good, hardy, strong-growing plant, free from rust, very 
productive, of nearly best quality, very large, with few small ber- 
ries ; will pick full three weeks. I picked ripe berries from it on the 
7th of May , after many of the first blooms had been killed by a heavy 
frost. It is about as early as the Crescent. Why, says some one, it is 
as near the ideal or perfect berry as can well be. The only fault visible 
is it blooms so early and may be tender and liable to get injured by late 
spring frosts. This can be easily remedied by keeping your mulch on 
the plants until all danger is over. It is also a staminate, which I con- 
sider another great advantage. 

As to quality, there is as much difference as between a Pine Apple 
and a Buckeye, and my word for it, the " Jessie " is not the Buckeye. I ex- 
pect to receive the criticism of many fruit growers. Let it come, I am 
willing to let experts say, if every word I have said about the Crescent 
is not true. 

W. M. HOPKINS. 



Lone Tree, Mo., May 31st, 1888. 
L. A. Goodman, Esq., Westport, Mo.: 

Dear Sir: — I send you by mail to-day a package containing some- 
thing, I know not what. — I received it yesterday from Mr. J. H. Welch, 
Rockville, Bates County, Mo — ^which is very troublesome in their straw- 
berries. It comes on apparently as if a stem had been broken and the 
sap oozes out and then forms a ball and then dries up and blows away as 
the inside of a puff-ball Please bring it before your meeting and see if 
others are troubled with the same. He says he finds it only in the 
Crescent. I was there and examined his berry patch and found that it 
was apparently injuring his berry patch. I wish you or some person 
would explain what it is and to what extent it will injure the plant, if 
any. 

Hoping to hear from you in the near future. 

Yours truly, 

Frank J. Sciiatz, 

(No definite answer could be given to this description and the mat- 
ter is to be examined by Miss Murtfeldt, Secretary.) 



9i MISSOURI STATE UoK IRULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mr. Ilohnan stated that Mr. Hopkins spoke only for Greene 
County, and that others might do better in other parts of the state. The 
Cumberland was a great favorite in all parts of the state, and in Greene 
County it does well. 

Mr. Ambrose for Vernon County would use Crescent, Cumberland, 
and Miner and all of those that gave good results this year. 

Secretary Goodman alluded to two seedlings, Perfection and 
Beauty, originated by Mr. Speece, of Carthage, which seemed of very 
even size and quite productive. They were regarded by him as 
superior to Jessie or Bubach. 

Mr. Murray would not quite give the Crescent for all the other 
kinds and if they are mulched they hold up. He considered Hopkins 
as the blackcap. It was hardier, larger, more productive, and almost as 
early as the Souhegan. Gregg was not hardy enough. Snyder is the 
best blackberry. He found that by leaving the mulch on for ten days it 
held back the blooming and ripening. 

President Evans gave the experience of a neighbor who planted 
an acre and gave good cultivation and care, using Crescent, Capt. Jack 
and Windsor Chief. The plants blossomed, and the fruit set well, but 
no berries ripened. 

Mr. Blanchard gave his experience with Kittatiny and Lawton. 
At first they were very productive, but for several years the}^ had 
rusted badly. 

CoL Evans had discarded the Kittatiny on this account. 

Mr. Durand supposed he had the Kittatiny, but they had never 
shown any sign of rust, although his neighbor suffered badly. 

Mr. J. B. Laiighlin, of Iowa, grows his strawberries on lovV ground. 
Three years ago they had severe frosts on the 9th of May. At that 
time the strawberries were in bloom, but on that low ground they were 
not injured, although ice formed a half an inch thick on high ground. 
He had not thought of it before, but it now occurred to him that it 
might be because the mulch was removed. 

With him the Marlboro was hardy to the tip, and was a strong 
grower. The Turner with him was worthless and the Cuthburt was 
not equal to Marlboro. 

Souhegan to him was superior to the Hopkins. Shaffer was also 
very productive. 

Niagara was a strong grower and its only fault was that it set too 
much fruit. It was much liked by people who had a taste for grapes of 
a good quality. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 95 



Goethe was one of his best varieties ; with covering it, the vines 
were carried through winter and as they came on after the Concord they 
brought a good price. They were very productive and of excellent 
quality. 



REPORT ON STONE FRUITS. 



BY G. W. HOPKINS, OF SPRINGFIELD. 



Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society : 

As one of the committee on " Stone Fruits," I desire to make a 
brief report for Southern Missouri : 

In my report to your meeting last winter I stated that the peach 
trees had gone into winter quarters in the best possible condition. Such 
was the case, — but notwithstanding this fact, many peach buds were 
killed in this section, when the coldest weather we had the thermometer 
only reached ten degrees below zero. At Olden and other points south 
of here the peach buds were about as badly injured when the thermom- 
eter only reached five degrees below zero. 

It has generally been conceded that ordinarily the peach wiU 
stand fourteen degrees of cold. But here we have the fact presented 
for our consideratfon, of the wood being in the best possible condition 
to withstand severe cold weather, and yet the buds were injured at a 
much higher temperature than stated above. 

Just why this is I am unable to say ; but hope some of you gentle- 
men have given the question a thought and will be able to throw some 
light on this pnenomanal freak of nature. Some time since I sent out 
cards to the leading horticulturists of Southwest Missouri to ascertain 



m MISSOURI STAIE IIORTICULTUKA!, SOCIETY. 

the condition of stone fruit in their respective locaHties. Had I received 
replies from all the parties addressed, I should be able to make a much 
better report. 

Mr. Gano, superintendent of the Olden fruit farm, very promptly re- 
sponded to my inquiries and gave me the information I desired. Mr. 
Gano reports the plum trees at his place as being in a fine healthy con- 
dition. The trees are loaded with fruit, and scarcely any sign of insect 
injury. Mr. Gano reports peach trees in splendid condition. The fol- 
lowing varieties of peaches that made enormous wood growth last sea-^ 
son, are fruiting sparingly this year : — Salway, Foster, Crawford's Late, 
and iomc others. All of the Hale family, — Keyport White, Smock, 
Crawford's Early, Newington Cling, Elberta, and Columbia, will have 
nearly a full crop. Mr. Gano reports cherries a full crop where trees 
are old enough to bear. 

In the vicinity of Springfield we still have a " fighting chance" for a 
fair crop of peaches. The most of varieties had enough left after the 
winter freeze, but recently we have had two hail storms which have 
done considerable injury. This, however, is purely local and is confined 
to a small area of territory. Outside of this there will be plenty of 
peaches. 

Plums set a full crop, but are considerably damaged by hail and 
curculio. 

CHERRIES. 

Early Richmond and English Morello, full crop, but damaged by 
hail. 

Hoping, gentlemen, that you will have a very pleasant and interest- 
ing meeting, and regretting it will not be possible for me to attend. I 
remain G. W. HOPKINS. 



SUMxMER xMEETING AT ORECJON. 97 



SHALL WE GIVE UP THE PEACH ? 



BY G. SEGESSMAN, OF AMAZONIA, MO. 



During the current decade we have had but one nearly full crop of 
peaches, i. e. in 1882, a partial crop in 1887. For the intermediate years 
there was almost nothing, when in former times an entire failure was a 
rare occurrence, and when it happened it was commonly from late spring 
frosts, while now the damage is done in mid-winter. And not only the 
fruit buds are killed but at a temperature of 20 or more degrees below 
zero, twigs, branches and whole trees succumb and what is left presents 
a sickly aspect. When we inquire into the causes of atmospheric ex- 
tremes that have befallen the West year after year, of late, the answer 
is not quite definite. There are periods of certain duration, says one, of 
a higher average of temperature followed by periods of prevailing cold. 
This might give hope for a change ; but how soon.^ How long are these 
periods.? According to the opinion of others it is the consequence of the 
cutting down of fine forests in the North, seconded by thinning out of 
the woods in our sections. A rational antidote to this would be to stop 
at once the destruction of the northern forests and to establish artificial 
shelter belts in planting large strips running east and west with quick 
growing timber on the public domain and other unoccupied land. But 
this is Uncle Sam's business. By the way, it would be a good thing for 
every county or township to own a tract of land, say 20 or 40 acres, to 
plant it with forest trees, the bulk consisting of walnut, catalpa, white 
oak, the balance of any kind of native trees that can be found. I think 
it is not necessary to point out the many benefits that could be derived 
therefrom. But conception as well as action is slow in this direction and 
even should it be done it would not- be much for this generation to enjoy 
the results. We have to look elsewhere for advice if we will secure the 
pleasure of having the luscious peach. It was hinted to lay down the 
branches in winter close to the earth's surface, the protection against 
frost is much greater than up in the crown of the tree. Observation 

II. R.— 7. 



9S MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

sustains it too. Last winter 23" below zero blew out the life from all 
the fruit buds in the trees. This spring we found several half broken 
branches resting their tops on the ground and there we found blooms, 
the only ones perceptible in the whole orchard of a thousand trees. The 
same observation was already made in previous seasons. I would sug- 
crest to this end to train low branched trees so the branches could be 
bent down and fastened to the ground without breaking them. To do 
this on a large scale perhaps not being practicable — the large scale at 
least is better left behind in the peach business — to some extent we 
might succeed in this way to save part of the fruit. One neighbor laid 
down the trees in the fall some years ago, covering them with strawy 
matter weighted down, and he had peaches the following summer when 
nobody else had. But it was rough on trees. 



Question. What are the best peaches for evaporating.? Mr. Hol- 
man spoke of the free-stones as best. 

Mr. Murray stated that the white varieties were hardier than the 
yellow varieties. Of yellow varieties the Smock was best. It was bet- 
ter than Beer's Smock. It was a dry peach. 

Mr. King of Amazonia had had large experience with peaches but 
would depend on native seedling varieties. 

Secy Goodman said that Mr. Munson of Texas was the best author- 
ity in the country. He recommended Elberta Smock and Salway. 

Mr. Gilbert asked if the Smock ripened at one time or if they con- 
tinued for some time. 

Mr. Murray replied that Smock lasts as long as any other variety 
and was one of the best for evaporating. 

Mr. Dnrkees. For family use might return to seedlings, or at least 
would give them a place. 

Mr. King, of Amizonia, had tried trees from eastern nurseries and 
had also gotten up several seedlings. 

The last year we had a crop and he had 1,000 peaches which bore 
their first crop. For several years there was no crop, but last year he 
entered thirty plates at the St. Joseph Fair and took first premium in 
every class competed for. If we wish to succeed with peaches we shall 
have to depend on home grown seedlings. 



SUMMER iMEETIXG AT OREGON. dO 



WEDNESDAY EVENING SESSION, JUNE 6, 8 P. M. 



President Evans called the meeting to order at 8:30. The 
choir sang a festal hymn, after which Prof. Taft gave a report on the 
soundness of seeds as a result of his experiments. The seeds sold by 
the large growers of New York, Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago and 
Detroit, gives the best results when put to the test. From 90 to 100 out 
of a hundred grow. Seeds sold b\- the local dealers are liable to be im- 
pure or labled wrong. Chicago and St. Louis sell as pure seeds as 
houses farther east, and express may be saved by patronizing them. 
There are many varieties of early peas, but he thinks the "American 
Wonder" is as good as any. They are nearly as early and do not need 
sticking. Of lettuce, he recommends the ''J^oston Curl." It is the best 
variety I know of and stands heat well. Spinach is the best cultivated 
greens. It may be planted in fall or spring. They last two months. 
Of the beet species, the Professor recommends the "Eclipse." He gave 
some practical suggestions to gardeners. He would plant seeds in long 
straight rows, that they may be cultivated with a horse. This saves 
time and insures better growth. In the absence of a horse use the scuffle 
hoe. You can cultivate an acre a day. It costs about five dollars, and 
will last a century. He gave some practical information on hot bed 
material. 

At the close of his remarks, Mr. Kellogg, of Craig, made an appeal 
in behalf of the Northwest Immigration Society. Holt county has $2CO 
to raise, and if each township in the county gives $20, the sum will be 
raised. There is a mass meeting to be held at Mound City, on Tuesday 
June 12. A full attendance is desired by order of the committee. 

The choir then rendered " Dickory Doc," following which Miss 
Marie Louise Goodman, of Westport, gave an appropriate and pleasing 
selection, "Tom Brown's Day in Gotham." Her declamation was well 
received, as it should have been. " Wild Flowers," was the subject of an 
able paper written by Miss Murtfeldt, of Kirkwood. The article was a 
beautiful one, and indicated much scientific learning in the line of 
botany. She is an ardent admirer of flowers, fresh from the hand of 
their Creator, before man modified their nature. In the affections of the 
true flower lover, nothing can surpass the color, fragrance and delicacy 
of the wild flower. We are moved to joy by them, because in them, we 



100 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

find the mystic types of our moods and emotions. She pleads for the 
preservation of God's own beautifiers. 

Miss Amanda Evans, of Ilarlcm, then delighted the audience with a 
touching declamation, "Sister and I." It was highly appreciated. The 
choir then gave a selection from " Ruth and Boaz." Mrs. O'Fallon read 
a paper on flowers, which showed her nature and that of flowers to be in 
close harmony. She read loud. Thanks. The following is her essay: 



FLOWERS. 



BY MRS. CARRIE O'FALLON, OREGON, MO. 



Flowers are considered among nature's most beautiful productions. 
Their apparel surpasses that of any earthly king, even Solomon in all his 
glory. They are the objects of almost universal admiration, scattered 
as they are with such profusion over the whole earth. For wherever 
man has wandered from shore to mountain top from the fertile valley 
to the sandy plain, everyiuhere, as if planted by the very hand of God, 
they spread their mantles of loveliness. 

Nor does nature ever weary of saying over her floral pater-noster, 
from the first bud awakened in the spring 'till snow again spreads her 
mantle over all, the same succession of blossoms is repeated year after 
year, 

" In all places then, and in all seasons, 
Flowers expand their light and soul-like wings." 

But their profusion has not caused us to be unmindful of their 
beauty and influence. 

Their graceful forms, delicate structures, brilliant colors, and sweet 
perfume speak to us of purity and goodness. 

The praise of their beauty is indeed freely given by all; but very 
few bestow anything more upon them than their admiration. 

In Palestine, amid the gorgeous colored lilies that grow there in 
such profusion, Christ said to his disciples: — "Consider the lilies of the 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 101 

field." Among the thousands who admire flowers how feiv consider 
them .'' It is only these few, however, who do consider and study them 
that really love them, and to whom they reveal their utmost loveliness. 

Some people live surrounded by plants and flowers all their lives 
without making any accurate observation of them. Yet this study of the 
nature and habits of plants and the best methods of cultivating them, 
is one of the most attractive that can be pursued — 

" This is an art 
Which docs mend nature, change it rather; but 
The art itself is nature." 

By means of study and observation, a great change has taken place 
in the flower kingdom. Old varieties, by special care and cultivation, 
have been very much improved, and by the methods of fertilization, hy- 
bridizing and cross-breeding, new varieties have been originated, 
differing in appearance from each other and from the original flower. 
We can see an astonishing improvement when we compare our florist's 
flowers of the present time with drawings made only twenty or thirty 
years ago. It has taken many long years of skillful cultivation to bring 
them to their present standard of development. But even the oldest of 
our cultivated plants still produce new varieties. 

With the knowledge gained by the experience of the past, and the 
interest that is being awakened in this branch of study, we may expect 
to see surprising results accomplished in the next few years. There is 
still a vast field largely unexplored, in which to study and experiment. 
This science of perfecting old varieties of flowers and originating 
new, is not confined to scientists alone, but is open to all who love 
flowers and have a knowledge of their individual peculiarities. The cul- 
tivation of plants and flowers is indeed an ancient art. The Greeks and 
Romans prized their beds of violets, roses and other fragrant flowers 
very highly. A great many botanical gardens were established in dif- 
ferent places during the sixteenth century. 

The one founded by Henry IV, at Montpelier, in France, contained 
over 1300 French. Alpine and Pyrean plants. 

But the special cultivation of particular plants was first extensively 
engaged in by the Dutch, at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
From the Netherlands, a passion for it has spread to other countries. 
But it is still from liolland that the market of the world is chiefly sup- 
plied with its bulbs. An extraordinary flower mania prevailed there in 
the seventeenth century, especially in regard to tulips. Bulbs were 
bought and sold for fabulous prices. Thirteen thousand florins was once 
paid for a single bulb of a prized variety. 



102 MISSOURI STATE IK )K rUUI/rUUAL SOCIKTY. 



There are stories told of men selling their houses, farms, in fact 
everything they possessed for a few splendid specimens of rare species 
of Tulips. Hyacinths are also more extensively cultivated in Holland 
than elsewhere. 

The Carnation Pink, which is such a great favorite among florists' 
flowers, both on account of its beauty and fragrance, is extensively cul- 
tivated in both Germany and Great Britain. A great many varieties of 
it have been produced. 

Few plants possess such a tendency to originate new varieties as 
the Dahlia. 

By cultivation over two thousand varieties have been produced from 
only two species. It is surprising to note the points of structure and 
constitution in which the varieties differ so slightly from each other. 

The Pansy is another illustration of an exceedingly variable plant. 
It is one of the finest and perhaps the best loved of flowers, an i has 
been wonderfully improved by cultivation. The varieties that have been 
produced are innumerable and every new seed catalogue we receive por- 
trays some wonderful new variety that has just originated which far sur- 
passes any previous specimen. The finest Pansies are propagated with 
great difificulty and require the most careful cultivation to keep them 
from returning to their former wild state. 

The Chrysanthemum craze, which has been raging for the past few 
years, has been the means of bringing into notice a flower which before 
was not duly appreciated. Most of our Chrysanthemums have originated 
from a simple Daisy-like flower first brought from an island just east of 
China. The cultivation of it began in PLngland about the middle of the 
last century and in America the first of this century. When first in- 
troduced here there were only eight or ten varieties. Patience, care and 
keen observation from year to year so developed and improved the plant 
that to-day there are thousands of different shapes and varieties. 

Though there are many other of our florists' flowers which deserve 
a special notice of their wonderful improvement and variation, we have 
only space to speak of one, and so select the Queen of Flowers— the rose- 
" The Empress of Flowers may claim, if she please, a more ancient mon- 
archy than the Empress of India. 

' Never sure, since high in Paradise, 
By the four rivers, the first roses blew,' 
has she failed to maintain her royal supremacy." 

Though roses have been cultivated to some extent for a long time 
the greatest progress in rose culture has been made in the past fifty 
)-cars. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 103 

Darwin records the fact that three hundred distinct varieties have 
been produced from a single wild rose during that period. 

Roses of the present as compared with those of the past are super- 
ior by reason of the introduction of groups that are hardy, or nearly so, 
and that blossom at intervals, or continuously, through the summer and 
autumn. Rose culture has been the most successful in France and Eng- 
land. America, it is saij, has originated more fruits of high quality than 
any other country, but her contribution to the list of new roses is not 
extensive; while Italy and Germany have done almost nothing. 

Its cultivation has been greatly promoted in England by the insti- 
tution of Rose shows, and by the organization of the National Rose 
Society. 

Canon Hale was very influential in establishing these institutions 
and in bringing into more prominent notice the Rose. 

Some thirty years ago he said : " There deepened in my heart an 
indignant conviction that the flower of flowers did not receive its full 
share of public honor." 

It is he also to whom we are indebted for the following beautiful 
sentiment : " He who would have beautiful roses in his garden, must 
have beautiful roses in his heart. He must love them well and always. 
He must have not only the glowing admiration, the enthusiasm and the 
passion, but the tenderness, the thoughtfulness, the reverence, the watch- 
fulness of love." 



WILD FLOWERS. 



BY MARY E. MURTFELDT, KIRKWOOD, MO. 



In the affections of the true flower-lover, none of the regal beauties 
of the parterre or conservatory can supplant the wildlings c>f the wood 
and field. We lin^'cr i'T ardent ndmiration over cur choice roses, r.olir.c^ 



104 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the symmetry of their development, revelling in their glowing colors, 
velvety texture and dclic'ous fragrance, we exhaust the superlatives of 
all complimentary adjectives over those marvels of modern art, our 
autumn Dahlias and Chrysanthemums, but with all their magnificence 
we are conscious of something of formality and artificiality, a lack of 
sentiment and suggestion which is supplied in such generous measure 
by the unobtrusive treasures of the shadowy woodlands or the stream- 
let's verge. It is the flower fresh from the hand of the Creator, before 
man has produced upon it any of his so-considered beautifying mal- 
formations, that is most eloquent of infinite skill, wisdom and benefi- 
cence. Its delicacy of texture, the ingenuit}- of its structure, the ex- 
quisite adaptation of every organ to its office, appeal at once to the mind 
of the mechanic, the eye of the artist and the heart of the poet and 
worshiper. 

It is in the wild flowers only that we find those mystic types and 
correspondences of our varying human moods and emotions. Who will 
undertake to analyze and catalogue the distinct sensations experienced 
in the consideration of flowers met with during a single springtime ram- 
ble.'' And yet, who will deny the individuality of expression in the 
different species.^ Why do some move us joyously, so that, with Woods- 
worth : 

" The mind with pleasure fills, 
And dances with the daffndils." 

Why do others seem the embodiment of pathos, like the drooping 
bells of fair Linnaca ? What is really the secret of the Violet's mod- 
esty, the grace of the Columbine or the royalty of the Cardinal flower .-* 
These are subjective impressions of the most elusive quality and offer an 
interesting field for the psychologist. But after all, we can hardly wish 
all these questions answered in metaphysical polysyllables. Rather let 
them remain as impalpable as fragrance or the impact of color on the 
optic nerve, a spiritual gift from the finer senses. 

In the wild flowers of North America, the botanist and the lover of 
nature have a field of study probably more extensive than that offered 
by any other division of the globe. Very few are the floral types not 
here represented, although some of the more bizzarre and striking forms 
may not be found within our boundaries. 

As to the intrinsic beauty of our species, that most accurate obser- 
ver and poetic writer on popular natural history, John Burroughs, in 
comparing our wild flowers with those of England, says : " In my ex- 
cursions into field and forest, I saw nothing of the intense brilliancy of 
our cardinal flower, which almost baffles the eye ; nothing with the wild 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 105 



grace of our meadow or mountain lilies; no wood flower so taking to the 
eye as our painted trillium and lady's slipper ; no bog-flower that com- 
pares with our Calopogon and Arethiisa, so common in southeastern New 
England; no brooksidc flower that equals our jewel weed; no rock flower 
before which one wou'd pause with the same admiration as before our 
columbine ; no violet as striking as our bird's foot violet , no trailing 
flower that approaches our matchless arbutus ; no fern as delicate as our 
maiden hair ; no flowering shrub as sweet as our azalias ; in fact, the 
flora of England represents a commoner type of beauty, very comely and 
pleasing, but not so exquisite and surprising as our own," And these 
comparisons are made without including any distinctively Western spe- 
cies, such as our evening primrose, golden hypericum and sensitive briar. 

In our own State, the flora of the Mississippi Valley not only attains 
in some respects its highest excellence, but the flora of the entire country 
is well represented, species in one hundred and twenty-three orders out 
of one hundred and thirty having been found within our borders. Nor 
is this to be wondered at, considering the great diversity of our soil and 
surface, lake and river, mountain and valley, wood and prairie offer a 
home congenial to an almost infinite variety of vegetation. 

The very valuable catalogue of our native plants, published two 
years ago by Prof. Tracy, although containing the names of nearly eigh- 
teen hundred species, does not probably include nearly all the flowering 
plants of the State. The botanist may even hope to find many new spe- 
cies in the wilder and less thoroughly explored localities. 

Among the floral families affording us the most beautiful blossoms and 
in the greatest profusion are the rose, the violet, the pea, the hone)'suckle 
and the sunflower families. Many of our most exquisite spring flowers 
belong to the rose and ranunculus families. The first of these includes 
that prince of flowering trees and shrubs, the wild or sweet-scented crab- 
apple. Nothing north or south can compare with it in all that makes a 
flower completely satisfactyry to the refined taste. The grace of its co- 
rymbs, its exquisitely folded buds, the structural symmetry and elegance 
of its open blossoms its delicate, spicy fragrance, its glossy leaves of va- 
rying shades of green, combine to render it supreme in loveliness. In the 
same order we find all the beautiful thorns with their snow-white or pink- 
tinted clusters and varnished leaves and the wild roses, the types of the 
family, from the delicate hicida to the robust and aspiring sctegcra. In 
the ranunculus family the clematis, larkspurs and columbine have given 
us some rare and valuable varieties. In violets few regions can compete 
with us in number of species and profusion. " I know a bank whereon," 
not " the wild thyme," l)ut the j^ansy violet "grows" — to paraphrase 



lot) MISSOURI STATE liOK'TICULTURAL SUCIE'TV. 

Shakespeare — than which no spot on earth can be fairer in its season; it 
is a steep, gravelly hillside, facing north, covered with gray-green lichen 
and moss, from out of which grew in the greatest abundance and luxuri- 
ance both the uni-colored and bi-colored varieties of this incomparable 
violet, with here and there a tuft of bright, golden buttercups to afford 
a contrast of color. Another and somewhat rarer violet, which is, I think, 
only a marked variety of ciicuUata, is very large and pure white, except 
for some fine purple pencillings in the throat. The yellow and cream 
white violets both of the stemmed and stemless sorts are abundant on 
river banks, and on partially shaded rocky hills. 

Our most attractive mid-summer flowers belong to the lily, pea and 
evening primrose families. Few of these are wood flowers. Most of 
them court the sun and luxuriate in his most ardent beams. The golden 
cassia^, the delicately variegated TepJirosia (called the " Turkey Pea " in 
the Southern countries) and the fragile rosy globes of the sensitive briar 
arc open throughout the sunny hours, but as evening approaches fold 
their leaves and droop their blossom-crowned stalks and sleep till morn- 
ing. The evening primroses, on the contrary, rouse to new energy as 
twilight awakens; every blossom bud stands erect, and as we watch them 
first one slender, strap-like sepal and then another lifts itself and turns 
backward, and then, with a flirt, like the sudden openingof a parasol, the 
broad white or golden petals unfurl and the heart of the flower is open 
to the breezes and the noiseless visits of the nocturnal insects. 

During autumn, the sunflower family reigns supreme. Sunflower, 
coreopsis and solidago spreading their garnered sunshine over the fields, 
while the white of the clouds and the blue of ethereal spaces descend to 
us in the asters and conociiniums. 

The heath and orchid families, while not with us, represented in the 
profusion that they are in the Eastern and Southern States, are by no 
means absent from our flora. On our wooded highlands and mineral 
hills several species of huckleberries and blueberries flourish, and in sim- 
ilar situations the rhododendron unfolds its purple chalices. In dusky 
forest ailcs the ghostly Monotropa silent stands, verdursless in stem and 
leaves as well as blossom. 

" Flowers cold and deathly pale, 

No flush upon their alabaster cheek, 

They feel no sun nor bend to any gale, 
No bees their white bells seek," 



SUMMER MEETlNc; AT OREGON. 107 



Its equally parasitic but more earthly colored cousin, the brown 
Sc/nvcinitaia, (Heaven preserve us from any more such botanical 
names !) perfumes the air in the same damp and shadowy nooks. 

All the beauties and intricacies of orchid structure, which furnished 
Darwin wath his most interesting problems in the fertilization of plants 
by insects, are illustrated in the twenty or more species that may be 
found in various localities in our state. 

While on this subject I wish to add a few words on the preserva- 
tion of our native flowering plants and to indicate some of the species 
that will best repay our care. 

Where the country is thickly settled and the w^oodlands and the river 
bottoms opened for the pasturage of cattle, the choicest species speedily 
disappear and the most careful flower seeker finds nothing to reward 
his effort. These delicate wildlings will not brook rude treatment and in- 
vasion of their homes. Yet, strange to say, most of them wall bear re- 
moval bravely, if taken up tenderly and planted in congenial situations 
and will abundantly reward their preserver. A large proportion of our 
most beautiful flowers are herbaceous perennials and will appear in the 
.same spot for many succeeding years, even though they may not propo- 
gate themselves to any great extent. Why some fail to do so, I have 
not discovered. It may be because they miss some agency which na- 
ture provided for their need in their native habitation. 

The secret of the cultivation of wild flowers is not to cultivate 
them. The only attention of the kind that they will tolerate is a little 
skilful hand weeding to prevent the encroachments of grass and clover 
anJ a little jadicioas thinniag to preserve tha more delicate species 
from being crowded by the more vigorous. 

They cannot, therefore be set out in flower borders with geraniums, 
heliotropes and verbenas, and even if they would grow there, the jux- 
taposition would not be favorable to the beauty of either. The all im- 
portant thing is to choose the situation. It is best if partially shaded 
and enriched only by leaf mold. I cannot exactly say with Emerson : 

" My garden is a forest ledge, " 

but it is on the north side of a rather high osage orange hedge, where the 
natural clay soil has been deepened and mellowed for twenty years with 
mold of the rapidly decaying leaves. To this spot we have been for 
years in the habit of transferring at any season in which we chanced to 
find them, all the beautiful and interesting native flowering plants and 
ferns indigenous to the region. And verily we have our reward. The 



108 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

" wild garden " may not be so gay as the contiguous tulips, pconias or 
roses, but it has a charm to which every visitor yields. 

Here, during the first warm days of spring, we are greeted by the 
opening buds of hepatica, early buttercups and Antcnnarias Almost 
simultaneously the bloodroot spreads its evanescent, milky-white blooms 
in company with the spring beauty and the exquisite Diccntra, whose 
clusters of waxen hearts crown the tufts of feathery, blue-green foliage. 
To these succeed the violets of nearly all the species occurring in this 
part of the state, the drooping pink and blue bells of the lungwort 
{Mertensia), and the still lovelier blue of the Greek valerian {^Polem- 
onium rcptans). The springtime succession is kept up by the crane 
bills, shooting stars [Dodccathcon) , squills, larkspurs, golden semcio 
and numerous less conspicuous species. During the heats of midsum- 
mer, the delicate white flowers of Gillcnia and Veronica mingle with 
Turks cap lilies, Melanthiiim, Zygademis and the glorious cardinal 
flower, crowned in autumn by a grand display of asters, golden rod and 
other composites. In this way, while we miss the indefinable charm of 
searching out our wild favorites in the nooks where nature establishes 
them, we have the opportunity of seeing much more of them and not- 
ing many peculiarities in their development which might otherwise 
escape our attention. 

Again, but few wild flowers will long survive plucking. They 
usually droop in a most unsatisfactory manner when arranged in our 
vases, and hence if we wish to really enjoy them, we must visit them 
growing. 

With our indigenous annuals, one cannot so surely count on success as 
with the biennials and perennials. They are rather capricious in their habits 
and will often persistently refuse to germinate in the places where they 
are sown, while plants from wind scattered seed will appear in the most 
unexpected spots. Fortunately only a few of them are very valuable, 
and we do not miss them greatly when they fail, although always glad 
to give them a welcome when they appear. 

I have given in this article but small space to the claims of our 
native flowering trees and shrubs in the fear of being tedious. But 
there are many that are exceedingly beautiful either in flower or fruit, 
and they should always be considered in the adornment of a country 
home. They all bear transplanting well, if done late in autumn, or very 
early in spring, and repay such care as is given them by a perfection of 
development that but few exotics attain. 

Let us then ever cherish our native flowers with a loyal affection ; 
protect them as far as possible in their natural haunts, and where this 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 109 

is not practicable, endeavor to preserve them from extinction by culti- 
vating them near our homes, and, as we watch each unfolding leaf and 
bud, let us regard them in a spirit of the poet : 

"Your voiceless lips, oh flowers, are living preachers, 

Each cup a pulpit, every leaf a book. 
Supplying to my fancy numerous teachers. 

From loneliest nook. 

'Neath cloistered boughs each floral bell that sw ingeth. 

And tolls its perfume on the passing air, 
Makes Sabbath in the fields, and ever ringeth 

A call to prayer." 



THE ROSE, OUEEN OF FLOWERS. 



DR. WM. A. LONG, MOUND CITY, MO. 



Solomon in all his glory, with his cattle on a thousand hills, with 
his gold, silver and all his heart could wish, was not arrayed like one of 
these pretty flowers. It is not necessary to look over garden walls for 
pretty roses. They meet one everywhere. The wearing of flowers is a 
fashion deserving approval. Rose buds folded, half expanded and even 
fully blown, worn in their simple, green foliage, add beauty to the hand- 
somest attire. For instance, we take Catharine Mermet with its ex- 
quisitely modulated pink ; its buds are worn in St. Petersburg ; in San 
Francisco ; they shine at every entertainment, and its bushes flourish in 
the gardens of a dozen nations. 

Crimson roses are rare and the greatest treat in the floral way is a 
cluster of Jacqueminots with their dazzling colors. Hybrid Perpetuals 
are the hardiest roses. They are for all practical purposes shrubs. Once 
planted they continue to grow and bloom for a life-time. 

I have seen specimens of General Jacqueminot, Charles Lefebre and 
varieties of that order, with a dozen branches, each brilliant with its 



no MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

beautiful clusters of roses, glowing in crimson and maroon, richer by far 
than any other flowers will ever be. Hybrid Perpetuals are the hardi- 
est, largest and most symmetrical of the race. They lack, to be sure, 
that delicatie commingling of tints so beautiful in the teas. In all other 
countries than ours they are the roses most sought after, crowding the 
tables at the rose shows of France and England and occupying the place 
of honor in every European garden. Of roses, then, we would say, 
plant closely to avoid bare brown intervals and secure abundant foliage 
to set off their bloom. Give them a deep, warm soil as rich as may be. 
Plant firmly, cultivate thoroughly and water well when dry. Simple 
and unexactingly as are these requirements, they are all a rose will ask 
to bloom in its rarest beauty — a beauty to which that of all other flow- 
ers is insignificant. Even without these attentions thousand of roses 
grow and blossom, nay, even flourish. With them they build in beauty 
and perfume. It was once thought impossible to use for ornaments any 
but a closely folded bud, aiid the prejudice was a stubborn one but has 
happily gone its way to oblivion with a mass of other notions belonging 
to the past. One of the prettiest ornaments we have lately seen was a 
chister of several Bon Silene perfectly open and loose showing the 
light tints in the center far more graceful and easy than an artist could 
design. 

Now we come to the ever blooming roses which commence to 
bloom early and continue till late in autumn, for light frosts do not hurt 
them. 

The Teas have always been the most popular roses in America and 
more attention is given them than any other grown. But they are 
rapidly becoming the favorites everywhere. And the great rose shows 
of London and Lyons arc rich in the flowers of Etoile de Lyon, Perle 
des Jardins, Edith Gifford, Madame Welch, Catharine Mermet, La Prin- 
cess Vera, and our American roses, the Sunset and the Bride. 

European writers all confess what we long ago claimed — the utter 
inability to put down on paper anything like a picture of these roses. 
Yellow roses on the v.hole arc most satisfactory. Marechal Neil and 
Perle des Jardins so near alike and Etoile de Lyon can be worn by any 
one and with any costume. Many a rose discloses an unsuspected 
beauty when gracefully worn and there will be no one to question that 
the practice is a pleasing one. 

Now we come to our own homes, which we ought to ornament with 
flowers and teach our children to cultivate and thus make home more 
attractive. It will keep our children at home. It will keep them out 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. Ill 

of bad company .and make home more agreeable than an\- other place 
on earth. 

To plant a bed of ever blooming roses, make a circular bed six feet 
in diameter, which will hold about fifty roses. They will begin to bloom 
almost as soon as set out and continue to bloom till late frosts cut them 
down. After freezing weather sets in they can be taken up and packed 
in a box with a little dirt sifted among the roots, and put in the cellar 
until spring, when they can be re-set and bloom as before. 

This is the season for flowers and everyone who has a bed of roses 
can pluck a bouquet every day. What is more beautiful ? What gives 
us more pleasure than to look at these beautiful buds and flowers with 
their sweet fragrance filling the air ? They remind us of the infant child 
budding and opening into manhood. They remind us of death as they 
fade awav. 

Bring flowers to cheer the festive board, 

Bring flowers — -the bride is near; 
Bring flowers to cheer the captive's cell; 
Bring flowers to strew the bier. 

And then, as the last token of respect w^hen earth can do no more, 
we strew the lonely grave with flowers, or plant a lonely bush that will 
forever bloom. 

Then President Murray introduced the old veteran, the hero of 
many generations, Jessie Welch, who gave a violin exhibition in the old 
plantation style. He is the help-mate of Dr. Goslin, and helps that 
dignitary " raise strawberries with a spoon." Following this pleasant 
and attractive feature. Miss Cora Frye, with her usual skill, gave a reci- 
tation that delighted the audience and maintained her well merited 
reputation. At the close of her performance, Dr. Goslin presented her 
with a beautiful gold breast-pin, set in garnets, as a token of good will, 
because of her repeated services to the Holt County Horticultural 
Society. Maggie Perkins and Prof. Horn closed the session with a mag- 
nificient instrumental selection from the organ and violin. The session 
was instructive and interesting throughout. 



112 MISSC^URI SI' Alio llORl'lCUI/rURAl. SOCIETY. 



THURSDAY FORENOON, JUNE 7, 9 A. M. 



The niorninL^ exercises were opened with prayer by Rev. Tandy. 

The Linn County local society extended an invitation to the state 
society to hold their next summer meeting at Brookfield. The society 
of Poplar Bluff asked that the meeting be held there, and Mr. Murt- 
feldt, for the people of Kirkwood, asked the society to meet there. The 
invitations were referred to the executive committee. 

Ml'. Miirtfcldt spoke of specimens of Mi.ssouri fruits (in plaster) 
on exhibition at the museum in Washington, and stated that Mr. VanDe- 
man, Pomologist at Washington, was anxious that the society take steps 
to secure a revision of these specimens. He also asked that fruit grow- 
ers having new, well-developed specimens, write Mr. VaiiDeman, and 
he would see to proper transportation, etc. 

The following was the report of the committee on 

ENTRIES AND AWARDS: 

Your committee on fruits found on the tables a large exhibit ot 
strawberries, both of the standard, and of many of the new varieties. 
The size and appearance of the berries, and the number of varieties 
speak highly ot the standing of Missouri as a strawberry growing state 
and of the enterprise of our horticulturists. 

We make the following awards : 

Best collections, ten varieties : ist. J. N. Menifee, $10. 

Best three varieties for market : ist. J. N. Menifee, Oregon, $5 
for Miner, Sucker State and Crescent. 2d. Dr. A. Goslin, Oregon, $3 
for Miner, Crescent aed Sharpless. 

Best box largest berries : ist. W. M. Hopkins, Springfield, $2, 
Belmont. 2d J. N. Menifee, Oregon, $1, Bubach. 

Best box market berries : 1st. J. C. Evans, $2, Capt. Jack. 2d. 
J. W. Maples, $1, Miner. 

Best table berries : ist. J. C. Evans, $2, Cumberland. 

Best box Crescent : ist. J. W. Maples, $1. 2d. J. C. Evans, 50 
cents. 

Best Cumberland : 1st. J. C. Evans, $1. 

Best Chas. Downing : ist. Mrs. J. W. Maples, $1. 

Best Windsor Chief : ist. J. W. Maples, $1. 2d. J. C. Evans, 50 
cents. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 113 

We wish to make special mention of Longfellow berries exhibited 
by J. C. Evans, and of Mt. Vernon by J. B. Durand and J. W. Maples. 

Mr. Henry Schnell, of Glasgow, exhibits thirty-one varieties of 
berries. Most of them are standard varieties, but a number are new 
kinds and unnamed seedhngs. which show the enthusiasm of Mr, Schnell 
as a horticulturist. For his exhibit a special premium of $io is recom- 
mended. 

We also have taken notice of a number of varieties of apples. At 
this time of the year the presence of this fruit speaks highly of the 
keeping qualities of Northwest Missouri apples. 

We recommend a gratuity of $i to C. E. Schultz, Mound City, for 
plates of Willow Twig and Ben Davis. 

$1 to S. Blanchard, 5 varieties. 

$2 to J. M. Crider, 5 varieties. 

$1.50 to Wm. Broadbeck, 9 varieties. 

Mr. S. W. Gilbert, Thayer, exhibits one plate of Alexander peaches, 
gratuity, 50 cents ; one plate of Arkansaw Traveler, gratuity, 50 cents. 

We also notice on exhibition, a fine sample of sorghum surgar ex- 
hibited by S. H. Whitner. A gratuity of $1 is awarded. 

Mr. Gilbert exhibits some of the Bat Guano from one of the caves 
of South Missouri. 

The farmers living near these caves certainly have a cheap and val- 
uable source of plant food. This guano has not been analyzed, and the 
experiments have not been carried far enough to determine its exact 
value. We believe, however, that it is very desirable as a fertilizer for 
all crops, and especially for fruits and vegetables. 

L. R. TAFT, 

J. P. REICHARD, 

J. A. DURKES. 



II. R.— 8. 



114 MISSUURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



Secretary Goodman then made the following report : 

Mcnibej-s of the Missouri State Horticultural Society : 

Our cause is a work of love and pleasure as well as one of trials and 
troubles. We have reason to be thankful more than for complaining. 
When I see the troubles and cares of so many thousands of our people 
in our cities, I am glad that I live and work in the country. In the con- 
tinued stress of money matters we find our farmers and fruit growers in 
close places doing without many things which they perhaps need, work- 
ing under many disadvantages, rising early and toiling late, and yet at 
the close of the year find themselves with not many extra dollars in their 
pockets, and they complain, and find fault, put the cause of all their 
trouble on someone or something else than the right place. They blame 
nature, the government, the state, the county, and the place in which 
they live, and wish, if they could only sell out, to quit it and do some 
other business. 

The other day I was talking to one of our business men in Kansas 
City and he was complaining of his results. ** Why," he said, "to think, 
that after the year of hard work, money invested, money handled, run- 
ning up into thousands of dollars, I have scarcely a dollar left." And 
he begun to find fault with the times, the money matters, the tariff the 
country in general, because of the drouths and small crops, the political 
parties, and the " money kings." So when I see comfort and pleasure in a 
good home in the country, I feel that at least if we have not wealth, we 
have comfort and above all safety — Safety to ourselves, safety to our 
families, safety to our boys and girls who are to take up the future work. 
The fact is that we must deny ourselves many things ; we must live eco- 
nomically, we must figure closer, we must look for improvements in ev- 
ery department of our work, we must work more systematically, thor- 
oughly and scientifically ; the time of spontaneous growth has passed and 
now we must have intensified farming and fruit growing, we must have 
more intelligent means used in all our departments of work. 

ORCHARDING. 

What we want now is earnest, systematic, judicious, and enthusias- 
tic fruit growing, one which will adopt every known means to a success- 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 115 

ful end ; one which is willing and anxious to use a thousand and one new 
facts which are being made known every year. The business of the 
society has prospered since last we met and the outlook is brighter this 
year than before. The prospect for our apple crop is the best we have 
had for years and our horticultural interests should take a good growth ; 
we should have a number of horticultural societies formed this summer in 
some of our best counties, and the facts of successful orcharding kept 
prominentl}' before our people. 

The importance of bringing out more of our fruit growers, and get- 
ting them to believe and practice what we say, urging them to give us 
their experience, to tell us what they have done and how they have done 
it, and give us the reason of their success or failure, seems to me one 
of the most important matters we can jDresent to your consideration. 

OUR REPORT. 

Published some weeks since is a great help in awakening an interest in 
our work ; the call comes every day from all over our state for copies of 
the work and oftimes gives some interesting fact, or some item of ex- 
perience. Less time was taken in issuing our report this year than be- 
fore, and we trust that we can soon have matters so arranged that we 
can print immediately after our winter meeting. The call for the re- 
port outside the state continues to grow and many hundreds of copies 
have to be mailed to parties who never even think of enclosing stamps 
for the same. Another year it may be necessary to ask for an increase 
of the number of books published in order to supply the demand. 

FRUIT STATISTICS. 

It seems almost impossible for us to obtain, or even undertake, yet 
it would it seem this year that we should have some direct work and in- 
formation in regard to the amount grown and sold. A combination 
with our State Board of Agriculture and a report from all their members 
as well as our own, would give a very good report and a correct one of the 
value of our fruit crop. Missouri has made no great noise or fuss about 
what we are doing, but silently and quietly our orchards have been planted 
and we do not realize just how much we have done as a state in the pror 
gress of this work. It would a-tonish you to go about the state and see 
the many thousands of orchards planted, being planted, and just beginning 
to bear. While others are doing a great deal of talking, we have been 
quietly and surely planting and the result will be, and is being felt, so much 
so that I am surprised wherever I go, I see so many new orchards covering 



IKJ MISSOURI STAI K IIORTICULTUKAI, S(JCIETY. 



our lands in every direction; and yet we do not know one-half or one- 
tenth part of the capabilities, and especially, adaptability of our soils to 
fruit growing. 

With almost every variety of soil, almost any altitude we may 
choose, almost any desired slope or conditions ; a variety of climate and 
climatic changes ; we have, taking the state as a whole, one of the 
grandest prospects of any of our states. 

FRUIT SHOW. 



The fruit show I shall allude to once more, and probably the last 
time. From some two or three letters received from the Secretary of 
the exposition building at St. Louis, I went down to meet him and see 
what arrangements we could- make about it. The result is that space is 
much sought after and held at so high a price that we could get nothing 
promised except the 'space. Hut he has offered us such a fine room and 
such space that it does seem as if we must do the work now or never. 
The room offered is one 6ox8o, opening off from the music hall and close 
to the art gallery. It is well lighted and has room for six or eight 
county exhibits. It could be well decorated and has room to show some 
of the most artistic work known in the manner of display. I visited 
some of our florists and have enlisted them in our work ; they have 
offered to give us any assistance in their power ; and if they will take 
this part of the work and decorate the hall nicely, it will relieve us very 
much. I have seen the Cold Storage Co.'s at both 3t. Louis and Kansas 
City, and have their offers to keep our fruit for us. I have not visited 
our R. R's. yet, or our Express Co's., for I was waiting final action of 
this meeting and a report from each of our county societies. I iiave no 
doubt but that we can get the assistance of our different railroads and 
express companies to give us free transportation over their lines for all 
that we shall send of our fruits or plants. It almost makes me faint • 
hearted when I begin to think of the work to be done, and the time to 
be spent in such a work, and yet it does seem to me that if we are ever 
going to do it, now is the time, and we certainly have the place. It will 
take hard work from each of our local societies and counties to bring 
this to a successful issue, and we can think of nothing else but a suc- 
cessful end of the plan. Whatever we decide, therefore, let it be with 
the determination to succeed at all events, and make it a showing worthy 
of our state, or let u.-:; drop the matter entirely. I think our county courts 
^l^.oulu take hold and make a good liberal appropriation for the work — 



SUM?vIER MEETING AT OREGON. 117 



at least $200 for each county. While on these business matters I will 
take the liberty of bringing another very important matter before you. 

EXPERIMENTAL STATION. 

Last week the President of the State Board of Agriculture, President 
of the University, Master of the State Grange, President Evans and my- 
self, made a visit to Columbia to look into our Experimental Station. We 
had no horticulturist, entomologist or botanist. The whole matter was 
taken from the Agricultural College and put into hands entirely distinct 
from those who had had charge of the matter on the farm, and the ex- 
periments were simply on corn platts and its value as food, etc. We 
found no experiments being tested by them on the important fruits we 
are so much interested in, or on the insects we are so much pestered 
with, or the plants we know so little of. So it was our province to ask them 
to give us a department in which each of these matters may be tested, so 
that we may not be obliged to do all the work ourselves. This was what 
we took to be the object of this appropriation of $15,000 per year by the 
government. Used judiciously and in connection with the works done in 
the horticultural department, you can easily see how very much might 
be done. The pay, or at least part pay of each worker would be borne 
by the state, and more of this money could be used for strictly experi- 
mental work. The same may be said of entomology and botany. Now, 
suppose it be impossible for them to pay all these m.atters, let them, for 
instance, give $1,000 to horticulture ; $1,000 to entomology ; $1,000 to 
botany. You see by this arrangement that some one who is competent 
and is doing this work under other directions and other pay, would and 
could devote their time and some of the means to the study and investi- 
gation of certain lines of work, which they now find impo-sible. Those 
who have charge of this class of investigation we know are enthusiasts in 
their line, and if we can just give them so much money and tell them to 
use it to their best advantage and the best interests of our state, you may 
be sure that you will not be disappointed. What we want then at the 
Experimental Station is : 

1. A good director; one who understands what is needed to be done 
and how to do it ; one who is well posted in v/hat has been done, so as 
not to go over the same ground again; one who knows how to practically 
apply what scientific knowledge each may have in his line of work ; one 
who will keep up every department of his work and have it well done. 

2. A good chemist who can do his work scientifically an 1 satisfac- 
torily, and in such a way that it can be intelligently applied 



118 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



3- 
4 
5 

6 

7 



A good agriculturist, who can apply the knowledge given. 

A good horticulturist. 

A good entomologist aud ornitholgist. 

A good botanist, 



A good veterinarian. 



While we are experimenting on our plans, we find many all through 
our state engaged in the same work, each on his own plan and manner ; 
each for the satisfaction of himself. 

We have with us one who has made the study of insect life a spec- 
ialty, and who has made a collection of insects which will be valuable 
for any institution. A thousand dollars given her to study more com- 
pletely her specialty, would go a long way in reaching the end we want. 

Do you know that all over our state we have men experimenting 
for themselves, costing them hundreds of dollars, and that this is done 
over and over again ; when if such work could be systematized and pub- 
lished, all our people would have the results without cost.-* 

NEW STRAWBERRIES. 

Not many days since I went down to Carthage to see some seedling 
Strawberries. On the ground of B. W. Speece I found a number of 
seedlings of his own production. I had seen a berry patch when it was 
in its prime in very many parts of our state. I had seen them when 
they had 200 bushels per acre. I had seen small patches where it would 
seem as if they could hold no more ; but I had never had the opportuni. 
ty of visiting such a grand sight and show of seedlings as were on his 
place. Among a number of them, two in particular, struck me as very 
serviceable — one the " Perfection," the other the " Beauty" — one a pis- 
tillate, the other a staminate. The vines were as truly loaded as it was 
ever my pleasure to see. With such much lauded varieties as Bubach, 
Jessie, Jewell, Cumberland and Sharpless, I found these fully above them in 
size and productiveness — all planted side by side and given good field 
culture only. The two varieties seem to be a cross between Sharpless 
and Capt. Jack and Sharpless and Crescent ; both quite firm and of good 
quality, suitable for both shipping and marketing. As I reported to 
their local society. I can see no reason for their sending away for the new- 
er high-priced varieties, when right among them, there were varieties of 
great value and adaptability ; and certainly they should try them before 
looking farther. In fact, I should like to see them tested in other por- 
tions of the state. Mr. Speece has offered them for testing purposes 
only to our fruit growers of the state. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 119 

Our finances and expenses are about as usual. The greatest expense 
being the postage on reports and the printing bills and crop reports. I find 
our work and our society on the gain continuously, and as the fruit grow- 
ers of the state take more and more interest in their work, more and 
more do they think of our State Society and its importance as an ad- 
junct to their business. As this continues and their interest grows, our 
work improves and will become systematized, until we are united in one 
strong band for the advancement of our cause ; until we work out some 
of the theories to practical results, and until we can ask and get all the 
help necessary for our work. 

Following is the receipts and expenditures^ of our work : Receipts, 
$126,00; expended, $268,62. The report was received and referred to 
Finance Committee. 



120 



MISSOURI STATE IIORTICULTURAL SOCTETV, 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.- EXPENSE ACCOUNT. 



January 8, 1888, Cash received on warrant No. 117. 
June 5, 1888, Cash received on membership 



March 6, 
" 15. 



January 12, 1888, Postoffice hill No. 1 for January 

Fehruary 21 " Postoffice bill No. 2 for February 

" " Expenses on ten Illinois reports 

" Postoffice bill No. 3 

'• Railroad fare to Jefferson City and return 

" " 300 Arbor Day circulars and envelopes 

" " " Board at Jefferson City, bill No 4 

" " " Cuts of Kirksville and Kidder, bill No. 5 

December 21, 1887, Railroad certificates and circulars, bill No. 6. 

April, 1887. Stationery for officers, bill No. 7 

" " Postoffice bill No. 8 

" " Express on reports, $1.10, 85 cents, $1 

Postoffice bill No. 9 

1,000 mile ticket, Missouri Pacific railroad 

" 8, " Expenses at St. Louis 

Pencils, tablets, bands, etc., for meeting 

" 14, " Freight on reports from^cfferson City, Bill No. 10... 

" IG, •' Programme $12.50, fruit report $2.75, bill No. 11 

" " Badges and printing bill No 12 

" " Weather service, bill No. 13 



May 1, 

' 8, 



Cash received 



June 5, Postoffice bill for May, bill 14 



$30.52 

23.30 

.85 

10.00 

8.55 

1.00 

22.00 

12.55 

5.00 

28.50 

15.00 

2.95 

9.80 

25.00 

4.20 

3.60 

13.90 

15.25 

6.65 

20.00 



$268.62 
126.00 



$142.62 
66.90 



$100.00 

26.00 

$120.00 



$209.52 



The report was received and referred to the Finance Committee. 

Your committee hereby begs leave to report, and .state that they 
have examined the accounts presented them and find the same correct 
as reported. N. F. MURRAY, 

J. B. DURAND, 
J. A. DURKES. 



SUMMER MKETING AT OREGON. 121 

OUR FUTURE. 

What then of the future of our society and its work.'' Why we sim- 
ply expect to see matters go as usual, only in a more earnest and en- 
thusiastic way ; we expect to see our society grow in influence and in 
power as the importance of our cause demands ; we expect to sec our 
local societies increase in number and in interest until we can have most 
of our fruit growers anxious and willing to let the world know what are 
our wonderful advantages and prospects. 

To every fruit grower of the state let me say to you, that as you 
take an interest in this matter, as you organize into societies, as you 
make the social and practical a feature of your society meetings, just so 
much more will you take an interest in your work ; just so much more 
will your work seem easier. If we would, as fruit growers and farmers, 
make this a part of our life and work ; make it a part of our study and 
our school, so that we might not drop into the old ruts^ as we are so apt 
to do, we would find a different light put upon all our work. We would 
be willing to work the very best we can, the very hardest we are able, 
early and late, because we look forward to a day of recreation and rest 
— of study and pleasure. If we spend a part of our time in our school 
of study, we will be better able and more willing to do the hard work 
we have to do. I am a strong advocate of better, more systematic, more 
intelligent work in our fruit growing — intensified work — an increase of 
knowledge in any and every department of fruit growing. Of what use 
are all these advantages unless we use them.^ Let us take hold of this 
orcharding in such a business-like way that we cannot fail of success : 
Plant with reference to the money there is in it, plant commercial or- 
chards, plant in abundance, hundreds and thousands of acres in any one 
place so that it will be an object for any one to come and buy, plant, not 
as we have been doing, but for quick and profitable returns, with good 
and profitable varieties in large and abundant quantities, and my word 
for it, you will find it one of the most pleasing and most profitable busi- 
ness you ever undertook. We will find our society growing and improv- 
ing, and working in such an important and influential way, that we will 
have but to speak to be heard. 

And now, dear friends, let me urge you and advise you that as you 
take an interest in the work of the local and state societies ; as you 
study all these matters you will find your work easier and more profit- 
able ; you will find your interest grow^ing and life more of a pleasure — 
just that much more as your interest is in the work. Let us all then. 



V22 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



with an earnest will and strong arms and clean hearts, stand up for our 
fruit interests, our State Society, and our love for the cause, and we will 
be better, happier and more contented than ever before. 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary. 

The Treasurer, Mr. Holman, submitted his report showing a balance 
in his hands of some $371.18, which was referred to the finance commit- 
tee. 



TREASURER'S REPORT 



Springfield, Mo., June 10th, 1888. 
D. S. Holman, Tr., In Account With The Missouri Horticultural Society 



Date. 



Jan. 1, 1888. 
" 21, " 

Jan. 10, " 

June 7, 



DR. 



To balance on last report, 1887 , 
Cash from state treasurer 



CR. 
By cash paid, warrant 117. expenses of secretary's office 

" " " 116, expenses of delegates 

" " " 119, premiums at June meeting 

" " " 120, officers' expenses 

" " " 121, secr'y's expenses as per account rendered 

" " " 122, secretary's salary 

" " " 123, delegates' expenses 

Balance charged in account 



Amount. 



$ 325.36 
1,000.00 



$1,225.36 
$ 100.00 
21.00 
59.50 
37.86 
2C9.53 
400.00 
26.30 
371.18 



$1,225.36 



Miss Murtfeldt, the Society's entomologist, then read the following 
highly interesting paper, which brought out a healthy discussion and ex- 
change of opinions on the mischievious pests : 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 123 



ENTOMOLOGICAL REPORT FOR THE SPRING OF 1888. 



BY MISS M. E. MURTFELDT, KIRKWOOD, MO. 



Among the destructive insects to which my attention has been called 
by others, or which have come under my own observation, are several 
species which have not previously figured in the records of the economic 
entomologist, as well as a large number of more familiar pests. 

Among the latter is that long known enemy of the ifursery and 
young orchard, 

THE APPLE-TREE ROOT-LOUSE, 
{ScJiizoneiira lanigera, Hausin.) 

During February and March I had a number of communications 
concerning it; among others one from our honorable secretary, who wrote 
as follows : " On a visit to our fruit farm in south Missouri, I find some 
of our nursery trees completely covered with the root louse, so much so that 
in digging them there would be a perfect mass of white wooly matter about 
the roots, more than I had ever seen before in all my life — the ground 
seemed literally filled with it. On the roots were the hard knots usual 
where the root louse works, but so much of this that I was frightened and 
doubted if the trees were good for anything ; they were well-grown two- 
year-old trees. We are making the following experiments with them : 
The roots of two trees are dipped into water and then dry ashes are scat- 
tered on them as long as they will stay : the trees are then buried Two 
more trees are dipped into strong lye, and then planted. Two more are 
dipped into a strong decoction of tobacco and planted. In a couple of 
weeks I shall know which kills the louse and what to do, as I shall dip 
every one before planting and we shall plant 100 acres this spring." 

As Mr. Goodman inquired if there are any other remedies that he 
could use, I recommended drenching with moderately hot water — 120 
degrees Fahrenheit. I have not been informed in detail concerning the 
results of these experiments, but Mr. Goodman mentioned a few weeks 
ago that some of the young trees had died under the treatment to which 



124 MISSOURI STATF HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



they were subjected. Perhaps he will be k'ind enou<,rh to give us the 
particulars as a supplement to this report. 

There is nothing very recent concerning this insect in entomological 
literature. The most complete account that we have of its habits was 
published in the first volume of the American Entomologist, page 8i, 
prepared, I think, by Mr. B, D. Walsh, the senior editor and first State 
Entomologist of IllinoiF. 

Drs. Fitch and Harris had previously described the aerial form which 
inhabits the trunk and branches of the tree, but they were unacquainted 
with the root feeding form or considered it a distinct species. Mr. Walsh 
himself entertained the latter opinion, but in this none of the later auth- 
ors agree with him. 

In his third Missouri report, speaking incidentally of this insect, 
Prof. Riley says : "It is conceded on almost all sides that the insect 
was imported into Europe from this country, and there is now every 
reason for believing the two insects (the Wooly bark louse and Wooly 
root louse) identical, or at furthest they can only be considered as 
varieties of one species. Yet, while in this country our root louse is 
very injurious in the west, and only exceptionally found on the limbs 
above ground, (though more often so found in the eastern states,) all 
authors that we are acquainted with have spoken of it as occurring solely 
on the limbs in Europe; though Mr. Lichtenstein informs us that he has 
found it on the roots also, and that it caused in those cases, just such 
swellings of the roots as our root louse does here. 

The experience of the proprietors of the Oldtn Fruit P'arms, has 
proved, I think, that sandy and gravelly soils are particularly favorable 
for the development of this ins' ct on the roots of young trees. It cer- 
tainly does not make much headway in stiff soils and I have also ob- 
served that it is often quite abundant on the trunks and branches of trees 
during wet seasons, and at such times the roots would be almost or en- 
tirely free from its presence. 

The wingless lice arc of a pale yellow color, with darker heads, legs 
and antennae, and have the hinder part of the body enveloped in a mass 
of bluish white, cottony matter which is often secreted, especially on the 
roots, in such vast quantities as to completely fill the soil. They have 
no honey tubes, but a sweet sticky fluid is often mingled with the 
cottony secretions. The beak is long and fine and the effects of its 
punctures is seen in the nodulose swellings and knots in which the vege- 
table tissue becomes perverted and hardened, thus interrupting circu- 
lation and causing decay. On the trunk the insects cluster about the 



SUMMER MEETIN(; AT OREGON. 125 

axles of the branches and around wounds made by pruning. Mr. Walsh 
says: "Where the insect works upon the naked trunk, it often causes a 
mass of little granulations to sprout out about the size of cabbage seeds, 
thus producing on a small scale the same effects that it does upon the 
roots." I have repeatedly made the same observation. The winged 
insects supposed to be the true males and females, appear in October. 
They are black in color with a slight prominence on the abdomen; 
wings broad, and transparent, with few veins and an opaque cell on the 
anterior margin near the tip of the upper pair. The eggs are too minute 
to be discovered without a lense and are laid in cracks of the bark near 
the ground. Washing the tree trunks with strong soap suds or much 
diluted kerosene emulsion will kill the eggs. This insect has several 
natural enemies of its own class. One or two minute chalcid flies are 
parasitic in its body and the larvae of a small lady bird beetle 
{Scyeimus) whose body is so covered with soft downy tufts, that it is dif- 
ficult to distinguish it from its victims, destroys a great many. Its 
most voracious foe, however, is a maggot-like larvae of a small syrphus 
fly {Pipiza Radicaus Riley). The larvae of one or more lace wing fhes 
also attack the aerial form, and, unless it is very abundant, these natural 
enemies keep it in check. Mr. Saunders in his "Insects Injurious to 
Fruits," says that sweet apple trees are especially liable to the attack of 
this form, and recommended as a wash, a solution composed of five 
pounds of fresh lime with one pound of sulphur, dissolved in two gallons 
of boiling water. 

THE WHITE GRUB. 

{LacJuiostiirna f?isca. Fi'ohL) 

The history and transformations of this root-devourer arc well 
known to every agriculturalist, but there is always something new to 
learn concerning its habits and adaptations. 

Anent this insect, a letter from Mr. Henry Schncll, of Glasgow, 
Missouri, tells the following, rather discouraging, story : 

" Last fall I plowed under some manure that was mixed with saw- 
dust and had been lying in heaps for several months and I find that the 
May beetle, the parent of the grub worm, had deposited her eggs in it 
by the thousand. I had planted the ground to strawberries and while 
the men were finishing up noticed that where they dug out manure it 
was full of small grubs, and I fear they will take all the plants. I think, at a 
rough guess, there are about five hundred grubs to one strawberry plant." 



126 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

I 

I doubted that the May beetle would deposit her eggs in such situa- 
tions, as the larvae hive only been known to feed on the roots of grow- 
ing vegetation, but the specimens accompanying the letter had all the 
characteristics of the young larvae o^ {Lachnostiunia fusca.) It is known 
that the parent beetle prefers to consign her eggs to freshly plowed 
ground, as being more readily entered, and the compost heaps mention- 
ed, so largely composed of vegetable matter, probably afforded an at- 
tractive nidus. The young larvae must have subsisted, at first, on the 
sawdust. It seems almost incredible that they should do so, and I am 
still inclined to believe that they are the young of some other species. 
If they prove to be the white grub, the strawberry plantation will soon 
show the effects of their work. The object of this notice is to warn 
gardeners against the use of fertilizers like that described, unless they are 
sure that it is free from worms that may prove destructive. 

THE CABBAGE CURCULIO. 
{C eiitorrhynchus napi.) 

I have also had considerable correspondence, during the spring, with 
Mr. Schnell, concerning an insect which has not yet been '• posted " in 
works on Economic Entomology, but which bids fair to rank as a first- 
class pest. 

Under date of April 26th, Mr. Schnell wrote : " I send you by 
mail, to-day, some cabbage plants that are full of some kind of larvae — 
the smaller ones on younger plants only show the puncture. It is a 
new pest to me and if you can give me any information in regard to it, 
I shall be very thankful." 

The plants enclosed, showed considerable fretting around the crown 
and along the ribs of the first leaves, but I could not find the larvae 
mentioned. A few days later, Mr. Schnell wrote again : " Since send- 
ing you the cabbage plants, I have taken time to look closer and have 
found the mischief-maker, and send you by mail, three of them, also 
some cabbage plants or hearts, showing where they have worked. I 
thought perhaps you could prescribe a solution that would kill them. 
They have ruined over one-half of 40,000 plants in my hot beds, and I 
would like to check their depredations another year. Since finding them 
they prove to be the same beetle that I was troubled with two years 
ago, but at that time they were on plants in the field, and I saw none in 
the hot beds. I hand-picked them and was not troubled any more as 
they were not very numerous. They drop to the ground as soon as mo- 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 127 

lested. I saw none at all last year. How would a good salt dressing 
do for the beds, after taking out the plants, to kill the larvae that may- 
be in the ground .'' Have you any idea how long it takes them to form 
the beetle ? " 

This letter was accompanied by specimens of a curculioned beetle, 
somewhat shorter and thicker than the plum curculio, of a silver 
gray color, without humps, but showing under the lense a faintly 
ridged and striated surface. In its perfect state, this insect punctures 
the crown of the plant, and of the principal veins for food, often seriously 
injuring the latter, if not causing its death. It also drills a cavity in the 
side just at the surface of the ground, in which it deposits its egg. On 
some plants I found two or three of these punctures. The larvae work 
into the heart of the plant and bore downward into the root, causing its 
speedy death. Many of the plants set out by Mr. Schnell contained 
these larvae and consequently did not survive, occasioning much loss in 
time and labor. 

Specimens of the beetle were submitted to Dr. C. V. Riley, of 
Washington, and by him kindly determined as above. SufKicient time 
has not yet elapsed for me to ascertain the period of its transformations 
nor to develop other important points in its history. This I hope to do 
in the course of the present season. As I have needed all the specimens 
received as subjects for study, I could not very well test insecticides 
upon them, but I think that the arsenical solution for which Dr. Goslin 
has given us the formula, might prove a good remedy, and could be used 
on the young plants without the slightest danger to the consumer of the 
vegetable later in the year. 

As regards the hot beds, I suggested to my correspondent to drench 
them with boiling water, as the salt dressing might prevent the growth 
of other plants for which they would be needed. I am under many ob- 
ligations to Mr. Schnell for specimens and for the trouble he has taken 
in making observations which will be of use to me in preparing a history 
of this devastator. 

THE WHEAT-HEAD ARMY WoRM. 
[Leucania Albilinacv Gnen.) 

Several species of cut worms have been unusually numerous this 
spring in vegetable gardens around St. Louis, and at this writing the 
species above named is doing great damage, not only to small grain, 
but to corn and sorghum. 

A neighbor who has just cut his rye green for feed, told me that 
the bottom of the wagon box after the v\c was unloaded w ould be lit- 



128 MISSOURI SIATE IIOKTICULTL'KAL SUCIETY. 

erally covered with the worms. After the rye was taken off the worms 
appeared in his early sweet corn and did great damage, -boring down 
into the center of tl\e stalk and perforating it. The insect is found in 
almost every garden in Kirkwood, and will occasion much loss and de- 
lay in the sweet corn crop. 

Prof. Riley gave the first account of the destructive habits of this 
insect in his 9th report on the insects of Missouri. The larvae 
there figured are much lighter in color than any that have come 
under my observation this spring but the light and dark lateral stripes 
and broad dark stripe outlining the V-shaped face, and the mottlings on 
the pale buff cheeks, indicate the species without much question. 

This worm is not so large as its first cousin, the migratory army 
worm, when full grown, but little over an inch in length and about one- 
fifth of an inch in diameter. It is prettily striped in pale yelloA\', buff, 
and brown, having, in my specimens, a leaden blue shade on the back. 
It feeds for about three weeks before attaining its full size, enters the 
ground to transform, and the second brood of moths appear in July. 
It has several parasitic and other natural enemies which are our chief 
reliance against its undue increase. 

The plum curculio, as I anticipated last fall, has not appeared in 
sufficient numbers in the vicinity of Kirkwood to do any appreciable in- 
jury. A few plums show its crescent cuts-, but not within my recollect- 
tion have cherries and peaches been so absolutely free from its attacks, 
and trees of these fruits are bearing heavily with us. 

Many orchardists of this locality are spraying their trees with Paris 
green and London purple. They seem more afraid to handle the pure 
arsenic, although it is vastly preferable on many accounts. 

I am using, for experiment on a small scale, a solution of arsenic in 
ammonia, dissolving one ounce of the arsenic in a quart of aqua am- 
monia, and using a tablespoonful of this in two quarts of water. I think 
it will prove efficacious and the ammonia will stimulate the growth of 
the plants to which it is applied. 

Messrs. Murray, Goodman, Gilbert, Blanchard, Goslin, King and 
others spoke on the root louse and other insects. But little damage was 
reported in this section of the state from the root louse. 

Mr. Blanchard reported some injury, as also Mr. Browning, of Mound 
City, Mr. Gilbert, of Oregon County, reported some damage. He said 
he found trees bought from the Humboldt, Tenn., nursery, largely insected 
by this pest. 

I\Ir. King, of Andrew County, thought lime, ashes, etc., a good ex- 
terminator. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 129 



Miss Mitrtfeldt thought arsenical preparation might do some good, 
worth a trial at least. The lady exhibited specimens of grape cane in- 
fected with a louse species not yet described, whose history is unknown 
to her — also a case of insects that worry the fruit grower. This lady is 
a valuable member to the society — the truth is, no society can prosper 
without women. In the language of Toodles : "They are handy to have 
in the house." 

Mr, Goodman thought the Society should offer premiums for collec- 
tions of insects, and thought it especially good work for young people. 

Mr. Chiibbuck, of Co^nan's Rural World, thought the Society could 
well afford to employ Miss Murtfeldt to compile a work on the *' Pests of 
the Fruit Grower," and the matter was referred to the proper ofificers of 
the Society. 

Miss Murtfeldt thought it futile to spray for the plum curculio. 

Mr. Sam Miller thought tar smoking the true exterminator for this 
pest. 

Mr. Tandy also thought tar was just the thing. 

Mr. King, of Andrew County, thought a chicken yard was just the 
place to grow plums. 



ARBOR DAY 

was talked up by many of the members, and the opinions and expres- 
sions seemed to indicate an increase of interest paid on this day. Many 
school districts had ornamented their school grounds th's year. The 
society urged the people to plant trees not only only on school and church 
grounds, but along the highways. The Hard Maple, Norway Maple, the 
Elms, Russian Mulberry, Box Elders were strongly recommended. The 
following letters were read : 

Sullivan, Mo, May — , — 88. 
L. A. GoodmaH, West port. Mo. 

In the work I don't see anything on root blight. I consider it the 
worst drawback we have. So far I have found no remedy, and all I 
have written to, don't come near giving cause or remedy. Some places 
it is worse than others. All kinds affected, Ben Davis the worst. Sun 
scald and flat head borers are the next worse trouble. 

IL R. — g. 



130 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Iron ore land is never troubled with root blight, hence it must be 
in the land. I have replanted 4 times in the same place. I find the 
trouble in different counties. 

To Remedy Sun Scald: — Head the tree southwest, plant sunflowers 
on the south side of the tree, and give good cultivation. 

I would like to have these two questions discus.sed. Nothing keeps 
me away from the meeting but poverty and sickness. 

I have several new seedlings that are very promising — one borer- 
proof and keeps well and No, i quality. We want to make sure they 
are better than what we have (too many kinds now.) Two kinds seed- 
lings have been propagated in Franklin county for 30 years, by Richlor, 
on Big river, and are the best early and late fruits I know of. 

Native persimmons are worthy of cultivation; sure crop; ripening 
September until December. Everything fattens on them. 

To raise fruit one must have plenty of chickens birds, and bees. 
Plant mulberries and wild cherries. Birds love them in preference to 
any fruits. All birds do more good than harm, except the hawk and 
English sparrow. We can't set too large a bounty on their heads. We 
recommend that a prize be offered for the best way to exterminate them. 
It is the worst drawback in raising chickens and fruit; also prizes for the 
best essays on different subjects pertaining to fruit culture — not more 
than three pages each — subject, short and to the point. The apples rec- 
ommended by the society should be copied by the county papers. 

C. H. ENGLISH. 



Brown Branch, Mo., May 28, 1888. 

This is a good fruit producing region, but people will not try. A 
few young apple orchards half tended is the rule. Berries they won't 
have; budded peaches very few, though there is more interest than 
formerly. 

Borers are bad; Wolly Aphis are bad and plenty of them. Is there 
any remedy for them? I would be glad if the State Society would discuss 
the Wolly Aphis and the knots on nursery tree roots — generally on the 
union of the root and scion, and what I call a bunch of bastard fibrous 
roots sometimes attached to the main roots — often on side roots. 
Questions — are they any particular damage, and is there any remedy } 

Respectfully, 

M. J. SMITH. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 131 

Fayette, Howard County, Mo., May 24TH, 1888. 

To the President of Missouri State Horticultural Society and Others 
Convened at Oregon, Mo. : 

May I say it would afford me great pleasure to be present and enjoy 
your annual gathering and discussions on horticulture, but am providen- 
tially hindered, but would give you an item of experience on Quince 
Growing : 

In my native State, New York, we grow fine quinces, and when I 
found in the old garden in my place here thrifty quince bushes, but bear- 
ing no perfect fruit, I wondered why it was, little thinking it was so far 
removed from either ocean or a salt water atmosphere; but perusing a hor- 
ticultural paper some years since, and finding a Mr. N. Ohmer, of Dayton, 
taking the premium in the State of Ohio on best quinces, I wrote him for 
his experieiiC:e in quince growing, which he kindly gave me, saying the 
only secret was a quart of salt hoed in about the tree early in spring and 
then another quart applied the same way when the quinces were about 
as large as <i robin's q%^, sowing the salt broad-cast as far as the roots 
would run. I followed instructions and was rewarded with a full crop — 
149 quinces on one tree the following fall. I have now something over 
100 quince trees growing in orchard and garden, and those that are old 
enough are now showing good prospects of a crop this year ; the salt is 
a good prevt;ntive of borers in trees as well as a special fertilizer. 

All along the Atlantic coast as also in California, Oregon arid Wash- 
ington Territory the quince is at home and yields abundant crops. One 
more word on ripening the crop : One or more heavy frosts are requisite 
to the perfection of the fruit; it will endure unharmed more cold weather 
than a Jeniton apple. 

A. SPENCER WOLCOTT. 



132 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Willow Sfrings, May 17TH, 1888. 

Mr. L. A. Goodman, Secretary, etc. 

Dear Sir : — My orchard is too young to bear, so I send, in place 
of filling your blank, the 



EXPERIENCE OF AN .\MATEUR. 



In November, 1875, I left the land of lakes and blizzards for the 
South Slope of the Ozarks, intent on engaging in fruit-growing in a small 
way. " They " told me to " plant and wait " was all one had to do. I 
' planted and waited." The apple borer did not "wait," neither did the 
peach grub — so I lost nearly one-fourth of my trees ; then the rabbits 
finished a few more, when a great and good editor advised me to "paint" 
my trees with lard and sulphur, I plied it on thick, and my peach trees 
are now dying. I am now possessed of less patience to " wait," am hot 
nearly so handsome as I was, but I am infinitely wiser! While "all you' 
are having a "powerful " good time at Oregon, I .shall be "smearing" a 
barrel of soft soap and carbolic acid on my trees — building log fires in 
the orchard, etc., to frighten off the beetles. This done, 1 will treat the 
roots of each peach tree to a fourth pound of tobacco, then build a wire 
and picket woven fence to head off the rabbits. These conquered, I hope 
to erect a stand-pipe, from which, with hose, I can spray to the death, at 
a moment's notice, the codling moth and curculio. 

I don't think the Ben Davis apple fit to eat, and I don't know how 
to live and grow any other kind. Tried to get a sample of Shackleford^ 
but failed. Don't like to plant them, till I know more of them ; can the 
Society recommend them as better than " Ben " to eat and an equally 
sure and heavy bearer.-* Blackberries loaded with bloom, ditto raspber- 
ries. Pears on Duchess all fe 1 off ; frost on 14th (and more expected 
to-night, 17th May), I think did the work. Cherries about ditto. Plums 
only on my Robinson and wild trees. Strawberries hurt by drought and 
winter. Currant bushes nearly all died, because they don't like the sun- 
shine of July and August. Gooseberries come up " smiling " for more 
sugar. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 133 

The nursery agent is a "fiend." He packs good trees outside and 
culls inside the bundle, and is gone before the sheriff can catch him. 
Culls at one cent per hundred are dear — •' old oak or new oak ! " 

Yours truly, 

S. P. CONNER, 



Mr. L. a. Goodman, Secretary Missouri State Horticultural Society. 

Dear Sir : — I regret that it will not be possible for me to meet 
with the Society at Oregon, June the 5th, and I wish to again express 
thanks for courtesies received from the Society, and to say that we now 
own a miniature farm in the suburbs of Sedalia, and that I am going to 
try my hand at floriculture and horticulture, and expect next year to be 
able to give some practical results of the experiment. 

Will you kindly please to thank Mr. Laughlin (for me) for the splen- 
did defense of the birds which he published some time ago in the Rural 
World. These feathered benefactors of the human race are being so 
cruelly and wantonly sacrificed in all parts of the world, that I am in- 
favor of instituting Audubon societies in every neighborhood, town and 
city in our land, for the protection of the defenseless warblers. 

When we first moved into this new home the matin songs of a 
grand chorus of birds woke us from our slumbers at the dawn of each 
day, but soon the crack ot the sportsman's gun was heard daily,- until 
now only a few birds remain and they are shy and seem to be in abso- 
lute terror of every human thing they see. Robins, blue birds, martins, 
red birds, the little grey larks, the mocking-birds, all driven away by 
the wanton foolishness of a man with a gun and no intellect to guide 
its use. 

I have decided never to wear a hat or bonnet with a bird's wing 
fastened upon it, as long as I live, and I wish there was something more 
that I could do to help protect the beautiful birds which help so much to 
brighten and cheer the world, not to mention their value as insect de- 
stroyers. Sometimes I almost find myself wishing that these careless 
slayers of the innocent might be confined on a desert island in mid ocean 
where no bird ever tarried and no flowers ever grew. There ought to be 
some punishment for them and when women begin to legislate, I hope 



i;!4 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the first law they may ratify will be one to punish very severely the shot- 
gun idiot who sneaks about shooting every bird he can see. 

With kind regards to the Society in general. Fraternally, 

MRS. G. K. DUGAN. 
•' May Myrtle," Sedalia, Mo. 



To the President and Members of the Missouri State Horticultural 
Society : 

Pardon me if I state as follows, as it may remove some erroneous 
impressions. 

As a member of the Committee on New Fruits, I beg leave to make 
the following short report on the subject assigned me. It is but little 
that I can say at present about any of our newer fruits, but hope of being 
able to do the subject due justice by the time of our winter meeting, I 
have tried a few of the newer strawberries the past season. Cornelia 
fruited for me this season, but, though a fair berry, does not come up to 
any of our leading sorts. Jessie, we got some plants early last fall and by 
careful nursing have brought them through the winter in fine shape; this 
spring, however, every plant died. Warfield No. 2, w^e have purchased 
this spring one hundred plants. They were excellent fine plants and 
reached us in fine condition. We planted them with a great deal of 
care, but to-day we have not got half a dozen good plants left, though 
other sorts planted at the same time, have done fine. What can be the 
cause I do not know. 

About other new fruit I can say but little at this time. About 
the fruits imported from Switzerland, to which I have referred in my 
last reports to the Society, I will say that a number of them have not 
yet been positively identified. So I expect to find them all and see 
what they are. In order to keep others from being mislead about the 
matter I will here give Mr. Berkman's views on a number of the vari- 
eties : 

''Louise Bonne d'Ai' ranches, or Bonnie Louise d'Avranches is the 
name of the variety cultivated everywhere as Louise Bonne d' Jersey 
(see Dovvning's Fruit Trees of America, last edition, page 805 ). 
It has been described by Prevost in 1839, but was cultivated at Av- 
ranches at the end of the last century. It is therefore one of our oldest 
known kinds. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 135 



Olivier d'Serrcs originated with Mr. Boisbund of Rouen, France, 
about 1852, of rather doubtful vahie ; I planted it in 1861. 

Goi. TotJiboi. This I received in 1859 from the originator, Mr. 
Fontaine, Gheling, Belgium; I planted it in 1861. It is a large fruit, 
^trong, but coarse and inferior and was rejected long since. 

In 1864 I spent sometime in Switzerland, where I had been before, 
and gave particular attention to the pears and apples of that country 
and although the quantity of immense size pear trees is astonishing, 
yet I failed to find any native seedling that was of any value. The apples 
which are grown there as table sorts are nearly all old well known sorts 
with local names given to them. In the list you give there are many sorts 
thus rebaptized, viz : Ananas Reinette, W'inter Zitronen, Parisie Ramboue, 
are all old well known French sorts and fully described by Mr. Downing. 
The lack in many parts of Europe of pomological societies, makes it 
difficult there to obtain reliable information as to varieties and has 
caused the endless local names for well known fruits, which give our 
committee on nomenclature and synonyms such endless work.| 

Yours, very truly, 

P. J. BERKMANS.' 

Kciffer and LeConte pear trees are making fine growth thiss ummer 
with some fruit, no blight yet, though I have seen blighted trees of the 
former on two occasions in this state. 

Conkling and Vicars I find I have not got true, they have their 
first fruit this year on my place. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. LIONBERGER. 



136 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THURSDAY, JUNK 7, 2 P. M. 



Secretary Goodman read a paper from Mr. Pfeiffcr, of Sedalia, on 
Artistic Arrangement of Flowers. He thought the old custom of hand 
boquets was not so popular at present as basket and design arrangements. 

Dear Si?' : — I beg 3 our pardon, while I, as called for in the pro- 
gram of your Oregon meeting, must excuse myself for not coming in per- 
son to join in your honorable body of Horticulturists. 

To show my love to the refining work of Horticulture and Flori- 
culture, I have written a few words on the subject, attributed to my ex- 
ecution, which you will please find herein enclosed. 

Please, if you as the committee on this part, think it well the essay 
to be communicated to the members and your audience, read it for 
me and accept my thanks. 

Our prospects for fruit crop is not very flattering, except grapes 
may furnish a good result. My Marianna plums bear the first time here 
and are just now double the size of the Wild Goose. 

Very truly yours, 

PHIL. PFEIFFER. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I see in your program, and in papers here, on the lecturers for 
the meeting at Oregon, on the 5th of Jujje, my name mentioned in con- 
nection with an essay on '' Artistic Arrangement of Cut Flowers " in 
boquets, etc. Not being a florist as I ought to be, to master this subject 
correctly, and not wishing to ignore your call, I will give my ex- 
perience from what I have read and done really in arranging such work. 

There is no doubt that the Tea rose is the queen in floral work. Its 
fine shape, delicate tint of colors, sweet fragrance and lasting properties, 
place it at the top of any style of floral work. It can be had the year round 
and so really a first-class boquet or floral design can not be made with- 
out some Tea roses. Next to the Tea rose, the Carnation, the Calla 
Lily, the Lily of the Valley, the Violets, the Pansy, with all its new and 
beautiful colors, the rich Crysanthemum, the English and Paris Daisy, the 
Boquet Dahlia, the double white and crimson Asters, the Ferns and Smilax 
are the proper flowers for boquets, baskets and designs. The boquet style 
however, has made room for the flower basket in its various shapes and 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 137 

Styles. Only three boquets, against fifteen baskets and six other de- 
signs, filled with the above flowers, we have made to be presented to our 
lady graduates of our Broadway school, on the 24th of last nnonth. 
The basket is much the handsomest and its various, neat artistic forms; 
allow to the lover of the beautiful flowers, a vast scope in which to suit 
his taste and general propriety. In the boquets, the flowers can hardly be 
shown as well as in the basket, where a loose and individual arrange- 
ment should prevail and easily can be shown. A nice green border of 
Ferns, Rose Geraniums, or leaves of the Maiden Hair tree, to line 
the edge, followed in the circle, (as the season furnishes the flowers) 
either with Mad. Plantier rose buds, white Carnations, Orange blossoms, 
Feverfew, small white Crysanthemums, white Asters or Balsams or white 
Pansies. A third row of pink blossoms alternately mixed with some 
brilliant colors of the new imperial or French strain of Pansy blossoms, 
makes a very pleasing effect, to a vivid bright crimson or scarlet, or a 
bright rose colored flower in the center. The beautiful La France, the 
Hermosa, the' Mermet, the American Beauty, the Gen. Jacqueminot, or 
the Sunset Roses. The Scarlet Carnation, the Epiphilium, Truncatum, 
the Glare of the Garden Dahlia, some new crimson Chrysanthemums — 
even some velvety crimson Geranium blooms, are, when harmoniously 
placed in the center of such a basket, or a boquet, of great effect and 
beauty. A few Niphetos, Bride, Perle, Marechal . Neil, or Papa Gontier, 
rose buds, or Fuscia blossoms, scattered over the basket makes it ex- 
tremely elegant and fashionable. The handle .sliould be trimmed with 
sword Fern, Smilax or Aspargas Plumosa leaves, and I have not yet had 
a customer that was not pleased with such a display of flowers. In the 
bouquet the same principle should rule, only it can't be executed with 
the ease and grace that it can be in a basket. In lady corset boquets, 
the Tea Rose, the Carnation, the small flowering Lily, the Chysanthemum, 
the Lily of the Valley, can be, when with long stems, or on wires, as the 
fashion now demands, beautifully arranged, in loose form, and do cer- 
tainly handsomely contrast with the stiff, solid bouquet of former times. 
Of design work for funerals, such a variety of beautiful and expressive 
patterns to honor the dead we have at the present time at disposal, that 
it is merely a matter of good taste and refinement of the florist, to make 
up such designs to do justice to the ingenuity of the idea of the inventor 
of the pattern, as well as to the donor of the design. They are, however, 
manifold from the simple wreath to the beautiful combination of the 
crown and cross, or gates ajar, or the several designs of the many orders, 
that a special description of them would be out of place here. Suffice it 



138 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

to say, that at present in the larger cities, not only pure white flowers, 
but also the lovely Pansy, the Violet, and the delicate tints of the best 
Tea Roses, the lovely blue IMumbago, the Chrysanthemum, the Paris 
Daisy, the Lily and the fine silky Milkweed balls are preferably used in 
making up magnificent fine funeral designs. As it can't be intended 
with these few words to exhaust the subject in question, I m.ust beg the 
honored audience to excuse nie. If they miss a good many points per- 
taining to a full and clear presentation of it and perhaps a better informed 
man, and eloquent writer can do justice to your expectation. Begging 
your pardon for not being present personally at your meeting. I shall 
be pleased if these few lines, if considered worthy for communication, 
will be read by your secretary. 

Your obedient member and friend of the noble cause of Horticulture, 

PHIL. PFEIFFER. 

P. S. — I should have sent a basket with flowers to contribute to 
your exhibit, but we have on the 4th and 5th to send several large 
horse-shoe designs to Pilot Grove, Pettis county, which cut us short of 
all the best roses, left us from two weeks constant work during our 
several school commencements, but I promise to send something to your 
next meeting. 

Respectfully, 

PHIL. PFEIFFER. 



REPORT OF JACOB FAITH, MONTEVALLO.^ 



I have given blackberries and plums much attention the past few 
} ears. About six acres of blackberries planted and cultivated as be- 
fore described, has no sign of rust or other disease. Shallow cultivation 
and often to keep the sprouts down between the rows, and the ground 
from getting hard. For market and to ship, I grow in open field, and 
head them low. P'or home use and for wine I grow in a young orchard, 
rows running from north to south, but I do not intend to plant largely 
in orchards, as it takes too much time in cultivating. Potatoes are the 
only crop I grow in the orchard. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 139 

I know some of our members will laugh at the idea of growing 
berries in the orchard, but their laugh won't hurt me, and the berries 
bring the money, and when the trees need all the ground I kill the 
blackberries by cutting them while in bloom. I have grown strawber- 
ries and raspberries in orchards, but prefer the blackberry. Avoid deep 
cultivation, as it will lessen the crop after they arc in bearing, but\:ul- 
tivate deep while young. I have about 2000 plum trees, fifteen varieties, 
and seventy wild Goose Seedlings selected out of 1,000; hardly any 
two trees alike in wood or leaves. They are a wonder to visitors, the 
way they are loaded with fruit. 

I propagate pums by grafting, like apples, on peach stocks whole 
roots. They succeed well. 

I can grow more plums per acre than corn, and can grow them 
cheaper a'so to feed the hogs. 

I have said and written much on strawberry and raspberry cul- 
ture, and have as yet found no better plans than those given. 



DISCUSSION. 



APPLES. 



On the call for " New Fruits " by the President, Mr. Blanchard, of 
Oregon, had two new apples — The Shenengo Strawberry, which he 
found to be long in shape, distinct in foliage, good bearer, quite showy 
and excellent in quality ; several present, acquainted with the variety, en- 
dorsed Mr. Blanchard's opinion of the apple. The other variety was not 
named, but was in the hands of the Society for naming. Mr. Murray named 
the Longficld and York Imperial, and were endorsed as e.^cellent varie- 
ties. A new variety found in Howell couaty and called " Levi," (this, 
however, is not our own and only Levi, while it is true he is the apple of 
some one's eye) ; this variety was reported by Secretary Goodman ; a 
delegate reported the new variety named by the Society last winter as 
the " Holman," in honor of the worthy Treasurer of the Society, as a 
good apple in every respect and holding up its reputation. Mr. Evans 



140 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL St)CIETY. 

reported the Gano as holding its own and a most excellent variety of 
this kind of fruit. Mr. Goodman stated that there was a goodly number 
of new varieties being reported, yet he would caution the members to 
go slow in taking up with new varieties — stick to your old and tried 
friends. What the Society wanted for Missouri was an apple that was 
equally as large, good grower and handsome in appearance as the Ben 
Davis, but as good as the Winesap. 

PEARS. 

The Keiffer was agreed upon as being among the best of new va- 
rieties. 

RASPBERRIES. 

. Mr. Patterson, as well as other members, thought Schaffer's Colos- 
sal one of the best of new varieties and regarded them as excellent 
shippers. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Mr. Goodman stated the Perfection and Beauty as having been re- 
ported to him as most excellent. It had been reported to him that 150 
crates had been gathered this season from half an acre. 

Mr. Gilbert reported having found a new berry, which was neither 
a dewberry or blackberry. It grew abundantly in the swamps of Arkan- 
sas. He would send sample to the Society. 

The Union Martial Band in their bright new uniforms headed by 
their drum major, Mr. A. H. Greene, put in their appearance upon the 
streets, and a number of our visitors viewed them from the windows of 
the court house. They made a fine soldierly appearance, and most ex- 
cellent music. 

Mr, Bell, for the Committe on " Experimental Station," made their 
report, recommending the appointment of a horticulturist, new fruit de- 
partment, timber, botanist, entomologist, meterologist and veterinarian, 
and recommended the appointment of a committee of three to meet with 
the curators of our State College and urge the adoption of the recommen- 
dations of the committee. 

The report was adopted. 

Mr. Bell then read a very interesting paper on the " Present Out- 
Look of Fruit in the State." It was an excellently prepared paper, and 



SUMMER MEETING AT ORE(;(JN. 141 

convinced the Society beyond doubt, that the present out-look was most 
flattering. He also strongly advocated 'young orchards." 

The inhuman and outrageous destruction of birds was discussed at 
length, and the killing of birds was condemned in unmeasured terms. 

Mr. LaugJilin said, as long as the songsters were doing their part 
toward destroying the insects, the birds were welcome to what cherries 
and grapes they could eat. He spoke of the mistakes made by some 
states in offering rewards for the killing of the owl and hawks. He re- 
garded them as great destroyers of the fruit-grower's enemies. The only 
bird that should be exterminated he thought was the English Sparrow. 
It was thought by many that our State should offer a reward for the 
heads of these pests, similar to that offered by the states of New Jersey 
and Michigan^ — two cents per head. When it was announced that the 
city of Oregon was doing her part in this matter by paying five cents per 
head for English sparrows, it brought out an enthusiastic applause. 

Mayor Bell, of Boonville, proposed to do his part in inducing his city 
to follow suit. 

Messrs. Patterson, Durand, Bell, King, Durkes and others spoke on 
the subject. 

At the request of many of the delegates present Mr. Bell gave an in- 
teresting talk on shipping and packing of apples. It was one of the most 
profitable "chats" of the session. There is but little money in the ship- 
ping of early fruits; apples should be barreled ; get barrels as nearly air 
tight as possible. Cold storage cars were the best, and were badly 
needed in this state. Ventilated boxes or packages should be used for 
early shipments. Pack carefully ; don't use deception by makinjfagood 
show at eacii end of package — this is dishonest and you will be caught 
sooner or later, then, like lago, "your occupation is gone." For fall and 
winter shipping use air tight barrels, if possible, standard size — three 
bushels to the barrel, they are the cheapest, the freight is no more. 
Handling : Use a basket with handles, put on a small go-cart and go 
to the tree and pick your fruit, not shake ; don't pile in the orchard ; 
haul to your fruit house, a dry place under cover ; the best building is 
of stone or brick ; too much light only injures — air tight places the best ; 
lay in the barrel closely, and shake down slightly occasionally as yow 
pack ; fill the barrel one to one and one-half inches about the chime, this 
is all the pressure that is necessary, the former for Winesaps and Roman- 
ites, the latter for Ben Davis ; heavy lever pressure is a mistake, it only 
injures and bruises the apple ; don't cut holes in the barrels — this in • 
jures the fruit by the rapid changes of weather in transportation ; what- 
ever you do be honest — mark them honestly — if small say so ; if they 



142 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

are large say so, and let your marks tell exactly what your fruit is. 

Mr. Durand gave a highly interesting talk on evaporating of fruit 
and thought every fruit grower should evaporate. Last year he evap- 
orated 8,000 pounds of apples, culls, etc., and realized $800 therefrom. 
He found the Ren Davis the best for this purpose. 



PRESENT OUTLOOK OF FRUIT GROWING. 



BY C. C. BELL, BOONVILLE, MO. 



This subject, assigned to me is so fai reaching and of so much im- 
portance to every Horticulturist, that perhaps it should have been as- 
signed to some one other than myself, whose time would have permitted 
a more extended treatise than I can give at this time. 

While it may be true that from the standpoint of a wholesale fruit 
dealer which brings me in close connection with the producer and the 
trade, not only in this, but other states and countries, I am somewhat in a 
position to speak of the supply and demand and the requirements of the 
trade ; yet, to do the subject justice, I should like to refer to data and 
figures, which, if I were in reach of my purchasing and shipping books, 
kept during the past twelve years, I could give a more satisfactory ac- 
count. 

But, Mr. President, I imagine you will say that I should have come 
prepared — in this I agree with you, — and I dislike to offer this apology, 
hut I feel you will in a measure pardon me, when I tell you that press- 
ing business of public and other affairs have for the past two months 
monopolized my time and thought in other channels, especially since re- 
ceiving the secretary's program, on which I found this subject assigned 
to me, I have been most of my time absent from home. 

However since my arrival here, and meeting with some of the best 
informed, and rnost earnest Horticultural workers in this state, and list- 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 143 

ening to their interestiiiL;- discussions, my mind has again gotten into the 
channels and during my stay among you, I shall forget the perplexity of 
municipal and business affairs. 

The present o\itlook for fruit growing is good. When I say this, I 
have reference to what we may hope and expectof the future in Missouri, 

I am fully aware that some may say that the outlook is any thing 
but promising, and in support of this they may refer to the past, when 
high prices were obtained, and the orchard perhaps less affected with 
insects and disease, yet in face of all this I claim that the present out- 
look of Fruit Growing in Missouri is more encouraging and promising 
than ever before. 

1st. We are in a position to command attention and trade. 

2nd. Our shipping facilities are better and daily increasing. 

3rd. We have by nature, advantages unsurpassed by any state 
in the Union. 

4th. We have the experience of the past. To-day we know, "or 
the well informed Fruit Grower knows." what our great state by nature 
and soil is best adapted for, and knowing this, we should stride to at- 
tain as near as possible, perfection in our respective speqialties. My 
theory in all avocations of life is to find out what our specialty is and 
whatever that be, let us try to become masters of it; but let us first be 
sure we are right and then go ahead. 

While listening to the able welcome address of the honorable mayor 
of this beautiful little city, I specially realize the force of his remarks 
when he calls your attention to the geographical location of Missouri, 
and the natural advantages as a fruit state. I do not claim for Missouri 
that we can successfully compete (for all variety of fruit,)with California 
nor is this necessary; but, I do claim if we select our special varieties of 
fruit, (which do well here and find ready market,) I say, considering all 
things, that the present outlook of fruit growing in Missouri is better 
than ever before, and ahead of any state in the Union ( so far as dollars 
and cents are concerned,) California not excepted. * 

To satisfy yourself of this, it is only necessary to take facts and fig- 
ures. To calculate the necessary investments, risks and results. 

Apple growing in Missouri is no experiment. It has been by your 
efforts fully demonstrated that our state ranks far above the average o\ 
apple growing states, in this Union, and so far as producing apples for 
profit, it excels all. It is needless for me to enlarge on this. Such pa- 
pers as read by Mr. Shultz, of Holt county, on the cultivation of apples, 
etc., explains it all. and when our good friend, Mr, Laughlin, remarked 
at the close of said paper, that it was a condensed Fruit Growers' Catc- 



144 MISSOURI STATE IIUKTICULTURAL SUCIEI'Y. 

chism, he expressed it fully, ard leaves nothing forme to add, only my 
experience from the standpoint of a fruit dealer. However havirtg been 
reared on a fruit farm, and from early boyhood was taught how to work 
amon[^ fruit, I can more fully comprehend the situation. 

The apple, justly called the king of all fruits, its various uses for 
all mankind at all seasons of the year, and beneficial in all climates, 
places it in the front rank as the staple of all fruits from a commercial 
standpoint. And this great leader of all fruits is specially adapted to 
our state and I assure you if standard commercial varieties are planted, 
you need not fear of overstocking the markets. But if you go into 
fruit-growing to make it pay, I would advise you to go into it right, and 
make a business of it. 

1st. You must know what variety suits your soil and locality. 

2d. You must know or study the requirements of your markets — 
quality, attractive appearance, good size and shipping and keeping 
qualities, are chiefly essential to success. When you have all those 
combined, then you are right and may go ahead. My advice is to plant 
large orchards and but few varieties. You need not fear that you will 
overdo the apple business, all that is necessary is to plant the right va- 
rieties. In the past twelve years, I have bought and packed apples in 
Michigan, New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri. I have 
never found a locality where the apple-growing was overdone, but I as- 
sure you that my great trouble is to find a locality where I can get the 
quantity I want. I can further assure you that the larger your orchards 
the greater your fruit will be in demand and you will ob- 
tain better prices. Whenever you have a large orchard of 
merchantable varieties of apples, you need not bother yourself for a 
buyer, you will find plenty eager to buy ye-ur crop, and at far better 
prices than is paid for small crops. Again, if you have a large crop and 
you do not care to have the bother of gathering your apples, the dealer 
will see to it, he can afford to gather a large crop of standard varieties, 
while a small crop would only be an annoyance to him. This is no 
fancy or fiction, but the result of my, and every other extensive dealers' 
experience. You may, therefore, with all confidence engage extensively 
in apple-growing. I know of nothing more staple on the market, nor 
anything which offers better returns. 

Again, when you compare the apple-growing sections of this 
Union, with the vast territory to supply, and the continual growing de- 
mands, you must at once seethe stability of the apple business. Look 
at the map of your country — north south, west and even the east. I 
have shipped apples to markets from the Carolinas to California, to 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 145 

north and northwest, and even to Europe, and the day is not far distant 
when the Ben Davis of Missouri will find his way to the markets of 
Australia and the islands of the Pacific. 

Time will not permit me to enter into details, but suffice it to say, 
that so long as mankind exists, and civilization advances, and the net- 
work of railroads penetrate and open out this great land, so long will 
the demand for apples exist and continue to increase. 

In conclusion, let me ask you to calculate and compare the results 
of fruit-growing of Missouri with the far-famed states of Florida and 
California. Consider the price of fruit lands and all connected with the 
business, and you must soon arrive at one conclusion — that apple cul- 
ture for profit in Missouri stands unexceled, even by the lemon and 
orange groves of famous Florida and California. 



Edina, Mo. 

We had a killing frost on the morning of the 14th of May. I gave 
my strawberries a spraying with water while the frost was on, and I be- 
lieve I saved four-fifths of the berries by so doing. Last year I lost 
most of my Sharpless by a much lighter frost. It is worth while to re- 
member this experience, as frosts often do a heap of mischief to straw- 
berries. 

I will close with the wish for you to have a good time at your meet- 
ing, as the names I see in the programme give promise of a very inter- 
esting meeting, and a general good time, and such is the wish of your 
humble servant. 

FAMILY LIST OF FRUITS FOR KNOX COUNTY, MO. 

Apples — Ben Davis, first and last, Winesap, Rawles, Janet, Jona- 
than, Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Duchess, Maiden Blush, Northern 
Spy. 

Pears — Duchess, Keiffer, Bartktt. 

Cherry — Pearly Richmond, English Morrello. 

Strawberries — Jersey Queen, Crescent, Downing. 

Raspberries — Turner, Souhegan, Tyler, Gregg. 

II. R. — TO. 



146 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Blackberries — Kittitany, Snyder, Taylor. 
Currants^ — White Grape, Fay's Prolific, Red Dutch. 
Gooseberries — Downing, Houghton. 
Mulberry — Downing. 

LIST FOR PROFIT. 

Apples — Ben Davis, Jonathan, Maiden Blush. 

Pear — Keiffer, Duchess, Flemish Beauty. 

Cherry — Early Richmond, Ostheim, English Morello. 

Strawberry — Crescent, Jersey Queen, Cumberland Triumph. 

Raspberry — Souhegan, Gregg, Schaffer. 

Blackberry — Snyder, Taylor, W. Triumph. 

PETER DAILING. 



St. Joseph, June 2nd, 1888. 
L. A. Goodman. 

Dear Sir : — I see by the programme of our summer meeting, to 
be held at Oregon, you have my name on the list for a paper, " How to 
counteract the effects of the drought," without my consent or knowledge. 
I suppose we members when called upon by you for a paper on any sub- 
ject must obey. So I will do the best I can as it is my first trial. 

I think the best methods to counteract the effects of the drought 
are : 

First. By cultivation ; if in an orchard with no other crop in it, 
keep the cultivator going once every lo or 12 days, until last ot July, 
or until rain has fallen. Too late a cultivating is apt to make a late 
growth, and then not ripen. 

Second. If your orchard is sown in clover, cut the clover and leave 
it all on the ground and use it as a mulch for your trees. This is an 
easy way to get your mulching, as you raise it right where you need it. 
And you are not robbing the soil of its strength, but helping to build 
it up ; especially if you will turn your clover under every 2 or 3 years, 
when it is in seed. 

For Strawberries mulching is our main dependence. Black and 
Raspberries are greatly benefitted by mulching in dry seasons. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 147 

Third. A sprinkling wagon is a good way to keep our ground moist 
where it can be used when needed, but is somewhat expensive, but I 
think it will pay to use it. 

JOHN KERSCHNER. 



REPORT OF BATES COUNTY. 



To the Officers and Members of the Missouri State Horticnltura I So- 
ciety in Senii-Anmial Meeting Assembled: 

The Bates County Horticultural Society Sends Greeting: — 
Since our report to the annual meeting, there has been no great change 
in the status of our society. The old officers were re-elected for the 
current year and some additions have been made to our membership. 
Our winter meetings were not very well attended, but our first pic-nic 
meeting, the 3d Saturday in May, showed the usual interest and zeal, 
so the present outlook for our society is full of hope for increased use- 
fulness in the future. While our society has not accomplished all we 
desired, still we know it has done some good in our county, by keeping 
our horticultural interests before the people, but there is a great work 
yet before us, and the laborers are few; but continued, persistent work, 
by even a few, will, in a short time work a great change. The work of 
our .state societies and its auxiliaries has been a great help to the horti- 
cultural interests of our great state, and the work has only begun and 
will never be completed, but will go on until Missouri occupies the 
exalted position which her horticultural possibilities calls upon her to 
fill. Hoping the state society may hold a pleasant and useful meeting, 
I will close this scattering report. 

HENRY SPEER, 

Sec. Bates Co. Horticultural Society. 



148 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIKTV, 



WHAT FRUITS, OR OTHER HORTICULTURAL PRODUCTS, 

GIVE THE BEST PROFITS ? 



JOHN KIRCHGRABER, SPRINGFIELD, MO. 



Mr. President and Members Missouri State Horticultural Society: 

The above subject has been assigned to me for an answer. It is 
hardly fair to expect of me to tell my horticultural fellow-workers what 
particular fruit or branch of horticulture gives the best profits. If I could 
do so it would not be prudent to do it, for everybody would try to raise 
the same kind of fruit or follow the same branch of horticulture that 
would surely follow by an over-production of the particular kind, and 
thereby create too much competition in the markets, and consequently 
lessen the profits. But my friends need not be alarmed, for what I am 
about to tell will be a chance for everybody to make a fair profit out of 
his labors in horticultural pursuits. 

What Fruit or other horticultural product gives the best profits } 
That depends on several very important conditions. 

First and foremost, what markets have we to dispose of our products, 
so as to give us a good profit, for it would be time and labor wasted if we 
had no markets to produce more than could be consumed at home. So, 
if any one intends to engage in a certain branch of horticulture, or, for 
that matter, in any other business, where will we sell to the best advan- 
tage, should be carefully considered. 

Second, to be profitably successful, we must have good soil and suit- 
able locations, for without either it would be rather up-hill work for pro- 
fits. 

Third, anyone engaging in horticulture must have a little ready cash 
and a great deal of enduring nerve, energy and love for the undertaking. 
To be profitably successful, requires considerable work and often hard 
work, too, good judgment and lorethought. 

Now, as to profits in fruit, take the apple, on a whole good results 
can be had ; even very large profits have been derived from apple orch- 
ards, and it will so continue as long as we produce first class apples. Mr. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 149 

H. Scholten tells me he can make more money out of his Ben Davis, than 
all other varieties of apples put together, and make it easier, too. While 
one grower may make a fair profit, another fails to accomplish it. 

Pears, as a general orchard crop for profits, I have my doubts about. 
Myself I had a little experience ; twenty-two years ago I planted 700 
pear trees, 400 Standards, the rest Dwarfs, but never made the interest 
on the cost of trees and all work thrown in, and now have hardly any 
trees left. While one makes a profit in raising apples, others make 
money from grapes. I made good profits out of peach growing, and what 
has been done can be done again. One of my neighbors, Mr. Kelley, 
has a fine prospect for large profits in a ten-acre peach orchard this year. 
Others again are profitable with plums or cherries, strawberries, raspber- 
ries or blackberries. One of my friends in Michigan reports big profits 
from cranberries. Good results are often and easily obtained from rais- 
ing vegetables. A gardening friend close by made last year a handsome 
profit on two acres of sweet potatoes, the Early Golden. This year he 
planted four acres, mostly of the same kind. Another neighbor has made 
large profits from raising late cabbage and celery by irrigation ; another 
horticulturist tells me he made money by raising onions. Last, not 
least. Floriculture claims her share on the list of horticultural pursuits 
for profits. Many are engaged profitably in raising roses (plants), while 
others make money by raising cut flowers or bedding plants. 

On one kind of fruit big profits maybe made, and that is on raising 
quinces. They are not hard to raise, but seem very much neglected. 
Reading the market quotations in proper season you will find quinces 
always scarce and at high figures. So, my horticultural friends, you can 
see there are plenty of chances for profits, if we would only be content 
with reasonable profits and strive to produce the very best articles of the 
various kinds I don't see why horticulture should not be profitable. It 
need not be one particular fruit, plant or vegetable ; there is money in all 
of them, but how to get it out that is the question. One often derives 
large profits even from failures. 



IfjO MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



POULTRY AND HORTICULTURE 



BY N. J. SHEPHERD, ELDON, MO. 



Reckoned as small industries and yet of vast importance, to the 
owner of a small acreage and within a reasonable distance of a good 
market, either one or both combined will afford a good living. To a 
certain extent like all other specialties, at least some experience is nec- 
essary to secure -the best success. And the advice would be to com- 
mence on a small scale and increase as experience is acquired. 

The best success in either is only attained by close attention 
to details and while in exceptional cases, profitable success has 
been secured, when conducted on a large scale as a rule the best 
profit in proportion to the amount of capital invested, is in favor of 
small, closely managed places. 

By combining, plenty of work can be had all duiing the season and 
there is less risk than when the sole dependence is placed upon one 
crop. When, with a little care in managing, there can be something to 
sell at nearly all months during the year, is, of itself quite an item. 

Many a farmer owes his success to the fact that his wife raised 
poultry and to a considerable extent paid the running expenses of the 
family by selling eggs and poultry. On what we term a small scale 
there are no more risks with small fruits or poultry than with any crop 
or stock on the farm unless we fail to give proper attention. The prin- 
ciple reason why so many farmers do not make a success with either is 
that they expect them to look out for themselves. There is no question 
but that if given the same care and attention that is given other crops 
and other stock, they can be made fully as profitable. Giving special 
attention to any farm crop or any kind of stock will as a general rule pay 
a profit above the average, while in every line of farming men fail to 
realize even a fair per cent of profit and the principal reason is they fail 
to give the care and attention necessary. The purchasing of a small 
number of chickens and turning them loose on the farm or investing in a 
number of small fruit plants of different varieties and setting them out 
and then letting them look out for themselves ought not to be construed 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 151 



as keeping poultry or raising small fruits. And yet a large class who 
pronounce these products as unprofitable manage them after this plan. 
Even if they are not raised especially for market there ought to be 
on every farm a full supply of all kinds of fruit and a sufficient number 
of poultry to furnish a full supply of eggs and fowls for family use, and 
they should receive careful attention, so that good results can be se- 
cured. Better never than to neglect, and yet this can hardly be afforded. 
They ought to be considered as necessaries and as such can be raised on 
the farm cheaper and of a better quality, all things considered, than they 
can be purchased. 



THURSDAY, JUNE 7, 8 P. M. 



EVENING SESSION 

was opened by the committee on ' Fruit Show" making the following 
report, which was adopted: 

In view of the f.ict that the State of Missouri has at this time of the 
year a good prospect for a good crop' of good apples ; and that from 
some place or places within the statc,''there is almost a certainty that a 
good show of our fruit can be made this fall, and of the further fact that 
Mr. Johnson, Secretary of the coming Exposition at St. Louis, has 
offered the very best part of their great building as a place in which to 
exhibit the horticultural products of' Missouri, your committee would 
recommend : 

That we make at the Exposition at St. Louis, this fall, the best 
possible show of the horticultural and floral products of the State. 

That the State Society invito the county and local societies to 
assist and co-operate with the State Society in preparing and making 
the exhibit. 

That county courts be requested to appropriate the money necessary 
to defray part or all of the expenses of exhibiting the products of their 
respective countie.^. 



152 MISSUURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



That all citizens who may have it in their power to assist in this 
work be requested so to do each in his own way, and as he or she may 
have opportunity. 

That arrangements be made soon for the gathering of the early 
fruits, and for cold storage to receive them. 

That the proper means be placed in the hands of working com- 
mittees to do their work well. 

That railroad companies and express companies be requested to 
give free transportation to all the products for this exhibit, and to all 
persons traveling on this business. 

And, that all of our newspapers and our immigration societies, be 
earnestly requested to help to bring this matter early, often, and promi- 
nently before the people as one of the best. possible means of advertising 
the state. 

W. R. LAUGHLIN. 

J. A. DURKES. 

A. AMBROSE. 



HARD PROBLEMS IN HORTICULTURE. 



BY T. W. GAUNT, MARYVILLE, MO. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The task of solving hard problems in horticulture has been assigned 
to me. 

We would say that as far as we are concerned we have been able to 
overcome all the apparent difficulties that have been presented, but we 
have had much to do to induce others to think and practice what we 
have advised in the many years that is past and gone. We had the 
hardihood thirty-three years ago to face a howling wilderness, the in- 
tent of which was to reduce to a fact that the soil of Northwest Mis- 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 153 

souri was capable of producing the finest quality of fruit in abundance. 
Back in the early days of 1855 Northwest Missouri was but thinly set- 
tled, scarcely any fruit trees were planted, and consequently no fruit 
could be obtained. We first began the nursery business in Andrew 
County. At a leisurable time we took a trip through the several coun- 
ties throughout Northwest Missouri. After a careful examination of the 
soil we concluded that the Platte purchase would in time make the 
finest fruit garden on earth. We were fully convinced that the Creator 
had prepared Northwest Missouri for the production of fruit if the peo- 
ple could be convinced of the fact. We had a fearful task before us. 
Nearly all the settlers said it was too cold to raise fruit in Northwest 
Missouri, and that the soil would not raise anything but corn. This 
was the hog and hominy period. Often the remark was made to us, 
young man you will fail. We modestly remarked that we had been to 
school in our youthful days, but had utterly failed to learn the mean- 
ing of the word. There is no need of a failure in the grand old state of 
Missouri We are happy to realize that our labor has not been in vain, 
and that our expectations of thirty-three years ago have been met. 

By the use of a little common sense, all the seeming hard problems 
are easily solved. The second chapter of Genesis contains a grand des- 
cription of the first fruit garden on earth, planted by an infinite Father's 
hand, with consummate skill and perfection in every department. The 
garden was called Eden or Paradise, meaning a place of bliss. We 
sometimes roll back old* time and imagine that we are looking over that 
lovely paradisical hom.e of our first parents. The infinite Father plant- 
ed every tree that was pleasant to the sight, and every tree that was 
good for food. We doubt not but that there was a rich profusion of 
flowers also. The infinite mind saw that an abundance of fruit was 
highly necessary in the economy of man's every day wants. Fruit is 
an indispensable article of diet. Fathers and mothers, let your children 
have all the good, ripe fruit they can eat, they will be healthier and 
stronger by its use. There is scarcely a man or a woman here but what 
can look back to the happy days of childhood and think with pleasure 
and delight of the happy days when you ate with satisfaction the delici- 
ous fruit of your favorite tree in the old orchard. 

What can be more satisfactory than an orchard of well-selected 
varieties of apples from the earliest to ripen, to the longest keepers. 
Thus providing the family with fine, ripe fruit all the year round. 

To this may be added a few varieties of pears, plums and cherries, 
all the small fruits may be had, they grow successfully here, there should 
be a rich profusion of flowers also. Home surrounded with finest of 



154 xMISSOUKI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fruit and (lowers must shed a refining influence on the inmates of that 
home. Its refining influence makes better husbands and wives, and bet- 
ter sons and daughters. He is a wise man who has provided for his 
household an orchard that will yield its fruit for all seasons of the year. 
We can never expect to raise the fine tropical fruits, but we are happy 
to realize that we are well supplied with a fine variety of fruits suited 
to our climate and the wants of the people. We have had enough for 
our families and many thousands of bushels to spare. We think that 
the state horticultural society is doing a grand and noble work. 

They arc at labor in the morning of the great day of horticultural 
splendor. There is a great future for the grand old state. Future gen- 
erations will realize more profit than has been realized in the past. The 
profits of an orchard are considerable more than if the ground was 
planted to wheat or corn. We think that first-class apples wall never 
rate lower than 25 or 30 cents per bushel. Nothing but the finest and 
beit of fruit should be marketed and that will command the highest 
price. All inferior fruit should be fed to stock, and it is worth 25 cents 
per bushel to feed. Stock of all kinds are very fond of apples and are 
as beneficial to them as to the human family, at the rate of one ration 
per day. It is the best to plant all decidious trees late in the fall. The 
trees should not be taken out of the nursery until the wcod is well ripen- 
ed. There is no danger of freezing out or damaging during the winter 
if properly planted. Fine surface soil should be used in filling about the 
fibrous roots, using plenty of water to settle the soil. The surrounding 
earth will soon absorb the superabundant moisture, and your trees will, 
in a few days, be as firm in their new situation as old established trees. 
For a standard orchard the trees should not be planted any closer than 
30 to 33 feet, an orchard in full bearing should have entire possession of 
the ground and should receive good culture. Timothy or Blue grass 
should never be allowed to take possession of an orchard as it saps the 
ground too much, and thus the vitality of the trees are sodu impaired. 
The fatal error of allowing an orchard to over bear every alternate year 
induces premature old age and decay. By good culture and judicious 
pruning out the small branches when the tree shows an excess of fruit of 
what it ought to bear, many years of profitable bearing may be added 
to the life of an orchard, and the so-called ofT year will then become a 
profitable one. Every man who plants an orchard or fruit garden is a 
public benefactor. 

We have the satisfaction of knowing that we are following up the 
example of Him who planted the first fruit garden for the benefit of His 
creature man. The duty of the man was to dress and keep it. We of 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 155 

to-day are pleased to eat the fruits of our orchards, but many of us 
neither dress or keep our orchards in good condition. There should be 
a good belt of trees round our orchards, and where ground is scarce, one 
row of Norway Spruce would be a great benefit. Our neighbors' or- 
chards that are surrounded with natural trees produce larger and finer 
fruit than we do on the prairie without shelter, simply because the sap 
flows free and uninterrupted in sheltered locations, which is a good con- 
sideration. Trees that are planted on the prairie are shaken by every 
wind, which retards the circulation of the sap and has a tendency to re- 
tard the development of fruit, hence the great necessity of a shelter belt 
of timber of some sort. 

The trees that are well protected from the severity of wind storms, 
live longer, grow faster and bear finer fruit, but without a shelter much 
of the finest fruit is carried away with every severe wind that sweeps 
through the unsheltered trees. The time is near, and already at hand 
when we shall have to spray our fruit trees with some kind of poisonous 
preparation, when the fruit is quite small, to stop the ravages of the ap- 
ple worm that is destroying so much of our finest fruit. Prof. S. A. 
Forbes, State Entomologist, of Illinois, says: In general, the results of 
once or twice spraying with paris green, in early spring, before the 
young apples had dropped upon their stems, resulted in a saving of about 
seventy-five per cent, of the apples exposed to injury by the Codlin 
moth. 

We find that to be successful in raising pears, the dwarf trees should 
be planted a little deeper than standard trees, on account of the roots 
which are Anger's Quince, and are latteral in their growth; they should 
receive a heavy mulching every spring ; this will preserve an even tem- 
perature in the ground and prevent a rapid evaporation of the moisture, 
which is a great essential in developing and maturing the fruit, and pre- 
serving the vitality of the tree. We find that rather moist soil is prefer- 
able for pears. We have quite a number of Louise Bonne, Duchess and 
other sorts that are in regulaf bearing on the quince, planted on damp 
soil and not the least blighted, that are in a thrifty condition. The sit- 
uation for an apple orchard should be dry or made so by a thorough un- 
derground drainage. The apple will not live so well, or thrive so well, 
on a soil constantly saturated with stagnant moisture. Cherries require 
a dry soil. The Morello family of cherries succeeds finely on dry ground, 
when worked on the Mahaleb stock they come to early bearing and 
succeed best of al) others in Northwest Missouri. We find that the 
Heart and Bigarrean families of cherrits do not succeed here; they make 



156 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

a rapid growth the summer which renders them too tender to stand the 
severity of our winters, and arc unworthy of culture here in Northwest 
Missouri. 

We have never succeeded in raising European plums on account of 
the curculio, however when we all fall into line with our vaporizing en- 
gines, to fight the Codlin moth and Apple worm, we can clean out the 
Curculio also, and get all the fine plums we want. Let us wage relentless 
war until all the enemies of our orchards are utterly destroyed. 

All the small fruits succeed well in Northwest Missouri. They 
should receive a good mulching in the spring, which will yield a bounti- 
ful supply of the finest fruits. 

Evergreens should be handled with great care, as the sap is of a re- 
sinous nature and by exposing the roots to the sun and wind the 
vitality is soon impaired, as the sap hardens and it is impossible for it to 
be restored to its normal condition after once becoming dry. Every 
year thousands of evergreens die; the result of careless handling. Dur- 
ing a drought we find that the vitality of newly planted evergreens can 
be preserved by showering the whole tree after sundown with water, 
that has been warmed by the sun during the day. 

Much good may be done by the thoroughly practical nurseryman to 
advarce the interests of the Horticulturist by the selection of suitable 
stocks or roots on which to propagate the great variety of fruits. For 
instance, we will take the great family of apples; the stocks or roots are 
raised from seed and are large enough to graft at one year old, each 
seedling produces a new variety of fruit, and it must necessarilly follow 
that some of the new sorts are very hard in texture of wood and some 
are course and soft. There are many grades of texture in a lot of one 
hundred thousand seedling apple stocks, many of which should be re- 
jected as utterly worthless. Nothing but the finest and best roots should 
be grafted. Then will Nurserymen greatly advance the interest of Hor- 
ticulturists, in that of having longer lived trees and better bearers. To 
adapt or affinitize the stock with fast or sloXv growing varieties requires 
much scientific classification of the stocks. There should be a perfect 
adaptation of scion to the stock, then we shall have a satisfactory result. 
Our attention was called to this subject thirty-three years ago. In An- 
drew county I observed that some apple trees were either budded or 
grafted about three feet from the ground. I also noticed that some of 
the bodies were very small, with quite an enlargement above the junc- 
tion of the scion with the stock, and vice versa, showing the great dissim- 
ilarity between the scion and stock. During the severe storms of 1855, 
many of the trees were broken off at the junction of the cion and stock, 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 157 

leaving nothing but a worthless stump, hence all must agree that root 
grafted apple trees are much better than either top grafted or collar 
budded apple trees, which are so liable to break off during a storm. 

After the Choral Union had rendered a selection in their best style, 
the report of B. T. Galloway, of the Department of Agriculture, at Wash- 
ington, on the "Black Rot of the Grape," was read by L. Chubbuck, of 
St. Louis. 



BLACK ROT OF THE GRAPE AND ITS TREATMENT. 



BY B. T. GALLOWAY. 



Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It needs but little argument to convince you that the disease of the 
vine commonly known as the black-rot is the worst enemy with which you 
have to contend. For many years this insiduous foe has ravaged your 
vinyards, devastated your crops and blasted your hopes. Thousands of 
once flourishing vines have become worthless through its action and in 
many cases whole districts have been forced to abandon grape growing 
entirely on account of its baleful effects. 

I wish to inform you in the beginning that as yet little is known 
concerning a sure remedy for this malady. The fact is that we are at pres- 
sent just beginning to receive the first rays of light upon the subject, and 
my object in preparing this paper is not to offer you a cure for the dis- 
ease, but to give you a few simple facts in regard to the cause of the 
malad}', and what has been accomplished in the way of combating it. 
Before proceeding further, however, I desire to impress firmly upon your 
minds the fact that — the black-rot is caused by a plant, a living, grow- 
ing being which never originates spontaneously as man)- suppose, but 
owes its existence, on the contrar\', to a parent which lived before it. 



158 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

No doubt many of you arc aware that this plant belongs to a group 
whose members are known as parasitic fungi ; these attack the higher 
plants, break clown their tissues and use the material obtained in this 
process, in building up their own bodies. The parasite in question pos- 
sesses characters, by which it is distinguished from similar species, as 
those possessed by the grape upon which it feeds. These facts will en- 
able you to understand that you are really fighting something tangible, 
when you undertake combating the black-rot fungus, and they also re- 
veal to you the importance of knowing thoroughly the life history of 
these minute plants before making any attempt to prevent their rav- 



ages. 



EXTERNAL AND BOTANICAL CHARACTERS OF THE FUNGUS. 

The parasite attacks the young branches, the leaves, and their sup- 
porting stalks, the fruit, and occasionally the stems which support the 
latter. Upon the leaves the fungus produces reddish brown irregularly 
shaped spots which frequently coalesce or run together and form large 
blotches. In Missouri the spots usually appear about the last week in 
May or the first week in June, which is at least ten or fifteen days be- 
fore the berries reveal the presence of the fungus. The young branches 
are attacked about the same time that the leaves begin to show the ef- 
fects of the malady ; but here the spots are black or dark brown and are 
usually elongated in the direction of the stride of the bark. The effects, 
produced by the fungus on the fruit, are so well known that only a pass- 
ing notice is necessary. Generally there first appears a browr ish spot 
upon the berry, this rapidly increases in size and soon becomes black 
at the same time the fruit begins to shrivel and soon dries up entitely. 
Close examination of the berries at this stage of the disease reveals 
numerous black postules scattered irregularly over the surface. Similar 
postules are also found on the diseased leaves and branches, but in the 
latter instance they are more distinct and are usually arranged in more 
or less definite circles. 

The external characters above described are due to the development 
of the body of the parasite — which is known as mycelium — within the 
tissues of the leaves, branches and fruit. The mycelium consists 
of very slender, much branched, colorless, septata filaments ; these 
traverse the tissues both between and through the cells and under their 
action the latter lose their shape and their contents turn brown (Viala 
and Ravaz, " Le Black Rot," p. i8). In the process of growth the my- 
celium gives rise to numerous rounded bodies which are at first colorless 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 159 

but later become dark brown or black. These bodies are foun i just be- 
neath the cuticle and as they continue to enlarge they rupture the latter 
and appear in the form of black postules already described Microscopic 
examination reveals the fact that the postules are really little sacs or 
conceptacles, and further investigation shows that they are filled with 
oval or oblong colorless bodies which are borne upon very slender trans- 
parent stalks ; the latter arising from the enveloping walls of the con- 
ceptaclc. A figure is represented by a highly magnified, vertical section 
of one of the conceptables above described. The oval bodies seen es- 
caping are the spores (called stylospores) which serve to propagate 
the fungus rapidly during the growing season. At b is shown the walls 
of the sac (pycnidium) while below are shown several of the filaments 
which compose the mycelium. 

Of the actual size of the parts figured, some idea may be ob- 
tained when we find the entire conceptacle rarely exceeds one two hun- 
dredth of an inch in diameter. In addition to the conceptacles de- 
scribed there are others formed in a similar manner which contain 
bodies more slender and more minute than the spores referred to, these 
are known as spermagonia, while their contents are termed spermatia. 
What may be the office of the spermatia has never satisfactorily made 
out. 

The stylospores are produced in immense numbers, and under favor- 
able conditions of moisture and heat they germinate readily by sending 
out slender tubes which easily penetrate the cuticle of the leaves 
or fruit, and once within the tissues they develop into the mycelium which 
produces the effects already described. During the growing season, the 
air in the vicinity of vinyards where the. disease prevails, or has prevailed, 
is filled with the spores or germs of the disease, only waiting to be brought 
into contact with some part of the vine to begin their work of destruction. 
Millions of these spores live over winter in the old berries and other parts 
of the plant, and just as soon as the young leaves appear, they are sub- 
jected to the attack of these minute bodies. The fungus passes the win- 
ter in the old berries in another form, which is really the mature stage 
of the parasite. In this case, the conceptacles which hitherto bore the 
bodies, figured as i and 2, are filled with club-shaped, colorless sacs 
or asci, each of which usually contains eight reproductive bodies, 
termed sporidia. The sporidia also germinate readily in the spring, 
but, as already shown, the fungus has the power of propagating 
itself in other ways, so that the sporidia are not absolutely essential to 
the development of the parasite, at least for one year. It is very prob- 
able that the sporidia arc designed to preserve the life of the fungus dur- 



160 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ing periods which would prove fatal to the less protected stylospores; at 
least, all the evidence at hand would lead us to believe that such is the 
case. For a long time the summer stage of the fungus was known as 
PJioma uvicola, but after the discovery of the form last described this 
name was dropped, and the name for the mature form, which is PJiysa- 
lospora Bidzucllii, was adopted, 

TREATMENT. 

From what has been said, it will be understood that the treatment 
of this malady must be preventive. The germs of the disease are omni- 
present and are ready to attack the leaves and fruit whenever the condi- 
tions are favorable. During a period of drought there is usually less rot 
simply because moisture is necessary for the germination of the spores. 
The latter are present, however, no matter how dry the season may be, 
and at the very first approach of moisture they germinate and, as a re- 
sult, the whole grape crop, which gave every promise of maturing in per- 
fect condition, soon becomes a worthless, shriveled mass. 

Experience has taught us that little benefit is to be derived from a 
destructive treatment, such as burning the diseased branches, plowing 
under the rotten berries, or collecting and burning the latter, no matter 
how thoroughly such a course is followed, there are always germs enough 
left to insure the propagation of the fungus. So far, the only methods 
which have proved successful or given promise of success in combatting 
the enemy, are the following : 

1st. Selection of varieties not subject to the rot. 

2d. Bagging. 

3d. The application to the vine of such substances as will destroy 
the germs or prevent them from gaining access to the tissues of the leaves 
or fruit. 

Of the first and second methods little need be said. Every grape- 
grower knows that certain varieties are less subject than others to the 
attacks of the parasite, and a judicious selection of resistant vines will to 
a certain extent result in a mitigation of the evil. Our object in bagging 
the fruit is to exclude the germs. From what has been said of the life 
history of the fungus, it will be readily understood that the bags must be 
applied early, in fact, the greatest success resulting from the use of bags 
has been obtained when they were applied soon after the flowers were 
well open. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 161 

We come now to the third method, that of applying to the vines a 
substance which will destroy the germs or prevent them from gaining 
access to the interior of the fruit. Many chemicals have been recom- 
mended and used for this purpose, but so far none have given very satis- 
factory results. The only substance which gives promise of value in this 
direction is sulphate of copper or blue stone. A very small quantity of 
this substance is sufficient to prevent the spores of the black-rot fungus 
from germinating, and if by some means the leaves and the fruit are 
covered with a thin film of the substance, it is very probable that the 
spores will be destroyed before they are able to seiid their germ-tubes 
into the tissues. Both in this country and Europe, during the past two 
years, extensive experiments have been carried on with copper com- 
pounds in the treatment of black-rot and other diseases of the vine. While 
these experiments have not clearly demonstrated the value of copper sul- 
phate as a preventive of black-rot, there is sufificient evidence at hand to 
warrant us in saying that the use of this substance should be continued 
at least until more positive results are obtained. 

The sulphate of copper may be applied to the vines in various ways. 
Many have used a simple solution made by dissolving one pound of sul- 
phate of copper in twenty-five gallons of water. This preparation, how- 
ever, has not given very satisfactory results, and frequently the foliage 
has been injured by it. So far, the following compounds of copper and 
lime have proved most satisfactory, their effects being far more lasting 
than those obtained by the simple solution. 

LIQUIDS. 

1st. Copper mixture of Gironde, Bordeaux mixture, original 
formula: " Dissolve i6 pound of sulphate of copper in 22 gallons of 
water; in another vessel slake 30 pounds of lime in six gallons of water; 
when the latter mixture has cooled it is slowly poured into the copper 
solution, care being taken to mix the fluids thoroughly by constant 
stirring. It is well to have this compound prepared some days before it 
is required for use. It should be well stirred before applying. 

MODIFIED FORMULA. 

Sulphate of copper 4 lbs. 

Lime 4 lbs. 

Water 22 gals. 

u. K. — II. 



162 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The copper is dissolved in i6 gallons of water, while the lime is 
slaked in 6 gallons. When cool the solutions are mixed as described 
above. This has proved equally as valuable as the original formula, 

2d. Eau Celeste, Audoynau J process: Dissolve i pound of sulphate 
of copper in 2 gallons of hot water; when completely dissolved and the 
water has cooled, add i^ pints of commercial ammonia (strength 22'* 
Baume'); when ready to use dilute to 22 gallons. The concentrated 
liquid should be kept in some wooden, earthen, or glass vessel. 

The effects obtained by this preparation have in most cases been 
beneficial, yet when carelessly used, the foliage is occasionally injured 
by it. To obviate this the following preparation is recommended: 

EAU CELESTE, MODIFIED FORMULA. 

Sulphate of copper 2 lbs. 

Carbonate of soda 2^ lbs. 

Ammonia (22^ Baume ' ) i^ pts. 

Water 22 gals. 

Dissolve the sulphate of copper in 2 gallons of hot water, in 
another vessel dissolve the carbonate of soda in a similar manner ; mix 
the two solutions, and when all chemical reaction has ceased, add the 
ammonia; then dilute to 22 gallons. 

POWDERS. 

3d. Sulphatine, the Estevc process : Mix two pounds of anhydrous 
sulphate of copper with 20 pounds of flowers of sulphur and 2 pounds of 
air slacked lime. The proportions may be varied. 

4th. David's powder : Dissolve 4 pounds of sulphate of copper in 
the least possible amount of hot water and slake 16 pounds of lime with 
the smallest quantity of water required. When the copper solution and 
slaked lime are completely cooled, mix them thoroughly together; let 
the compound dry in the sun, crush and sift." 

The foregoing preparations adhere very firmly to all parts of the 
vine with which they come in contact. The lime firmly fixes the copper 
so that practically none of the latter substance is given up, excepting 
when there is moisture present. Under the action of rain and dew the 
copper is slowly dissolved, so that it is present on the leaves and fruit at 
the very time the germs of the fungus are most active. Enough has 
been said to show that early treatment is absolutely necessary in com- 
bating the malady under consideration. Just as soon, therefore, as the 
leaves are formed treatment must begin. For the first application, eau 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 163 

celeste with the addition of carbonate of soda will doubtless prove more 
economical and less likely to injure the foliage than the other prepara- 
tions. 

A second application of one of the solutions should be made about 
the time the vines are in bloom, followed by a third when the fruit is 
about one-third grown. For general use the liquids have given the most 
satisfactory results, and another advantage in their favor is that they are 
cheaper, all things considered, than the powders. 

» 

METHODS OF APPLYING THE LIQUIDS. 

As a rule, where no benefit has resulted from the use of the copper 
solutions, the cause, in many cases, may be traced to the manner in 
which the applications were made. Many have used brooms and wisps 
of straw for this purpose, but such methods have proved wasteful and it 
is next to impossible to reach all parts of the vine with such clumsy 
affairs. It will be cheaper and better in the end to purchase a specially 
constructed pump, and one of the best instruments designed for spray- 
ing vines is the " Improved Vermorel Machine." This consists of a res- 
ervoir for holding the liquid, together with a pump and spraying nozzle. 
When in use the reservoir is strapped to the back, while the pump is 
worked with the right hand, and the spraying nozzle is directed over the 
foliage with the left. 

With this machine one man can thoroughly spray from 2 to 4 acres 
of vines per day, and, owing to the even distribution of the liquids, a 
much less quantity is required than when brooms are used. The cost of 
the instrument, including all necessary apparatus, is about $12.00. The 
Vermorel machine is made in France, and for this reason it is some- 
what difificultto obtain it in this country. A machine very similar to the 
foregoing has lately been put on the market by Mr. Adam Weaber, of 
Vineland, New Jersey. 



1G4 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



United States Department of Agriculture, 
Division ok Pomology. 

directions for selecting, preparing and sending specimens of 

fruits. 



It is essential that all specimens of fruits sent to this department to 
be examined by the pomologist, and intended to represent certain va- 
rieties, should be characteristic in'all respects and should fairly exem- 
plify their peculiarities. To this end the following instructions should 
be followed : 

1st. Select such as are of average size, typical in shape and color, 
and not too soft to carry safely. 

2d. Cut a small branch showing bearing wood, and if possible with 
one or more fruits and characteristic leaves attached, and when possible 
another showing the mature one year old wood. It is of the utmost 
importance, not only to the pomologist in identifying and comparing va- 
rieties, but also to the artist in making illustrations, that the branches 
and leaves should accompany the fruit. 

3d. Each fruit, whether attached to a branch or not, should be 
separately wrapped in several folds of tissue paper,- and then packed in 
moss, cotton, or very soft papers, to fill the space between the fruit and 
the box which contains them. 

4th. In sending such as are liable to shrivel, or such as have fresh 
leaves attached, the packing should be dampened. The box should be 
wrapped in several folds of strong paper, and securely tied over all 
with twine. There is no objection to sealing a package sent under a 
government frank. 

Great care should be used to send nothing by mail that may decay 
and injure the contents of the mail bags. 

There is no objection to receiving overgrown or curiously marked 
specimens of fruits which are of special interest. 

Boxes made especially for carrying pomological specimens by mail, 

and franks for pasting on the outside of such packages, will be sent to 

, anyone applying for the same. When a frank of this department is 

used, no postage is required, and such packages may be mailed at any 

post office within the United States. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 165 

Large boxes or barrels may be sent by express and the charges 
guaranteed, which will be paid here. 

Very respectfully, 
H. E. VANDEMAN, NORMAN J. COLMAN, 

Pomologist. Commissioner. 



HOW THE LOCAL PRESS MAY ASSIST THE HORTICUL- 
TURIST. 



J. M. HASNESS, MOUND CITY. 



Mr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen of the State Horticnlttiral 
Society : 

In looking over the length of the program arranged for this session, 
and knowing that although the spirit might be willing, the flesh is weak 
and in need of rest and refreshments, which we learn the good people of 
the Orchard City have prepared for our entertainment, I hope you will 
consider the few suggestions I may offer, not in the light of an ex- 
haustive paper, but simply as a few hints thrown out. The subject 
given me by your committee on program, is : "How the Local Press 
May Assist the Horticulturist." The time has come in the history of 
horticulture in our state, as well as in many others, when it is no longer 
a small thing and to be despised, but on the contrary, it is one of the 
great sources of our wealth, and stands along side of agriculture and 
stock-raising. Thirty years ago the great Missouri Valley and the 
country west, then undeveloped, depended upon the states east of us for 
fruit. Prices were in consequence high, and fruit was a luxury afforded 
by few. To-day the state of Missouri not only produces her own fruit, 
but largely in excess of the home demand, and much of her fruit goes 
back to the same territory that formerly supplied us. No better fruit 



106 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

country is known to-day than our own state, and yet we arc but in our 
infancy in this industr)-. Thousands upon thousands of acres of land 
that are now comparatively worthless, because they are not suitable for 
raising grain, could be made to pay five times as much per acre in 
orchards as the most productive acre planted to corn. The same worth- 
less land, so considered, could be made to produce an hundred dollars 
per acre planted in small fruits. But, says some one, where is your 
market ? You will have an overproduction. Such expressions were 
heard twenty-five years ago when our fathers began setting out a few 
trees, and yet sale for all the fruit, and at remunerative prices, 
has always been found. The local press can greatly assist our horticul- 
turists, and in doing so greatly benefit the community in which they 
are published, and add to the wealth of the country, by encouraging, in 
every possible manner, the development of these lands; for, unlike most 
other beings, the horticulturist is an unselfish mortal, and knowing that 
his profession is the noblest of them all he welcomes, with open arms, 
all new aspirants in this field. ,Also the local press can assist horticul- 
ture by encouraging the planting of orchards ; the establishment of 
canning and vinegar factories ; by giving practical information as to 
what and how to plant; when and how to cultivate — for all horticul- 
turists are not experienced, and he who disregards the experience of 
others is sure to make a sad failure ; by encouraging and assisting, in 
every county, the organization of horticultural societies. Perhaps there 
is no one thing that will so stimulate and encourage the intelligent and 
successful raising of fruits, as the horticultural society. It is in them 
that experiences are interchanged, and new thoughts and plans con- 
ceived that will help to lighten work and bring about better results. 
The novice at the business of raising fruit is enabled to shun the pitfalls 
that the pioneer fruit growers fell into, by profiting on their experience. 
The local press can not do the interest of fruit growing in our state a 
greater service than by urging and insisting on the formation of these 
societies. 

It would seem that with the many destructive insects with which 
the horticulturlist has to contend ; the extreme cold of winter and the 
hot, dry summer, that his lot was a hard enough one, and that he would 
certainly be exempt from the sharks that prey upon all other classes and 
professions. But no ! The fruit tree peddler, in the garb of a great 
benefactor, with his highly colored plates representing his new varieties, 
(sold only by one nursery, you know,) puts in his annual appearance, 
and induces you to buy his new Russian apple at 50 to 75 cents a tree ; 
or some new pear or plum, or cherry, whose only recommendation is its 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 167 



high price. The local press can greatly assist the horticulturlist by ad- 
vising them to buy only known and tried sorts. Not that we would 
deny all new varieties, but then the probabilities are that when you sub- 
scribe for them through some traveling agent, representing a nursery up 
in Iowa, or over in Illinois, or some other state, you will get some com- 
mon, and very common, varieties, instead of the new varieties with the 
high sounding names you subscribed for. And then, again, if they 
should prove true to naine, as represented, the testing of new varieties 
is expensive, and should be left to our experiment stations, and every 
state should have one, for, should they prove worthless, your money and 
time arc both thrown away. 

The local press may assist the horticulturlist by publishing nothing 
but what comes from responsible sources. We are acquainted with a 
person that killed a number of fine plum trees by following a recipe he 
had read in a paper for destroying curculio by the use of coal oil. He 
poured it on the trees and found it a sure thing, for both curculio and 
trees died. The local press may assist the horticulturlists by publishing 
the proceedings of their meetings and the papers and discussions had 
thereat. We are glad to note that within the last few years the press 
of our state has awakened to the fact that horticulture is worthy of some 
of their space, and much more attention than formerly is given it. We 
might speak of the healthfulness of fruit, and especially of small fruits, 
and point out the great good the press might accomplish by urging 
their more general cultivation, at least for family use, if not for profit, 
but we fear we would tire your already over-taxed patience. 



THE FOLLOWING LETTERS WERE READ : 

Lees Summit, Mo., May 22, 1888. 

L. A. Goodman, Westport, Mo.: 

Dear Sir: — I forward you by mail to-day, a box of diseased plums 
in various stages of development. We had a frost at the time they 
were in bloom, and I attribute it to that. Am I right.-* This variety is 
the CJuaker Plum, the fruit of which when perfect, is almost as round as 
a marble and of excellent qualit)-. I think that about five'per cent, of 
this xariety is affected. Other varieties also have them, but they arc 



lti« MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



comparatively few. With the plums, I enclose a bunch of deformed foli- 
age taken from my Wild Goose trees. There are quite a number of 
these, but confined almost wholly to the Wild Goose variety. What, in 
your opinion, is the cause these diseases.-* 

Yours truly, 

M. BUTTERFIELD. 



KiRKWOOD, Mo., May 28, 1888. 



Mr. Goodman. 



The box containing the " Bladder plums" was duly received. I had 
often seen them before, but as I was not fully posted concerning the dis- 
ease, I submitted them to Prof. Trelease, who says: " It is the work of 
Taphrina {or Exoascus) primi, a widely distributed species on both 
sides of the ocean. I do not think that late frost had anything to do 
with the appearance of the disease. The common belief appears to be 
that the fungus is perennial in the young wood and it has been recom- 
mended that the diseased fruit be destroyed and the trees severely pruned 
back. The velvety coating of the diseased fruit is composed of the spore 
sacs of the fungus." 

Your correspondent also mentions a bunch of deformed foliage from 
Wild Goose plum, which was not in the box, so I suppose it was occa- 
sioned by some disease with which you were acquainted. 

I have my papers nearly ready for coming meeting of the Horti- 
cultural society, but circumstances seem to combine to make it incon- 
venient for me to be absent from home next week, so that I cannot yet 
decide what I shall do about going. If I can overcome the difficulties in 
the way, I will accept your very kind invitation and come to Kansas 
City, on Saturday, by the day train, and go to Oregon with Mrs. Good- 
man, if agreeable to her. Do not expect me however, as at present it 
seems very doubtful about my being able to leave. 

Your last report is full of good things, although I do not think you 
•'expanded" half as much as the place deserved, over the beauties and 
promise o f the Olden Fruit Farms. I suppose it was due to a proprietor's 
modesty. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 1G9 



If I conclude not to go to Oregon, I will send the papers on by the 
last of the week. 

Yours truly, 

MARY E. MURTFELDT. 



United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Pom- 
ology. 



Washington, D. C, June 1st, 1888. 
L.A. Goodman, Secretary Missoitri Horticulturid Society: 

My Dear Sir : — I want to express to your society my sincere de- 
sire to assist the fruit growers of your state in any way that they may 
suggest, provided it is within my power. I hope you may have a good 
meeting next week at Oregon. 

Fraternally yours, 

H. E. VANDEMAN, Pomologist. 



Brookfield, Mo., May 26th, 1888. 

L. A, Goodman, Esq., Secretary State Horticidtnral Society: 

Dear Sir : — We are instructed to invite the State Horticultural 
Society to hold its next meeting at this place. We feel assured that the 
members of that society would not be disappointed at the cordial and 
hearty welcome and entertainment our citizens gladly tender. Hoping 
for a favorable consideration of our request, we are 

Very rcspecttully, 
GEORGE W. MARTIN, A. P. CROSBY, 

Secretary. Pres't Linn Co., Hor. So. 

Invitation to meet at Kirkwood by C. W. Murtfcldt. 
Also to meet at Poplar Bluff by G. W. Register. 



170 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Poplar Bluff, Mo., May 17, 1888. 
Hfr. L. A. Goodman: 

Dear Sir : — Your blank for fruit report I fill out as far a I can 
well. 

All kinds of fruits except raspberries and strawberries areas prom- 
ising as I ever saw. 

Sorry the state meeting is so far away. It seems that southeast 
Missouri might have a meeting of the State Society. I think Poplar 
Bluff, Butler County, a very suitable place, and I am sure our people 
would appreciate it. 

P'ruit-growing is in its infancy here, but I see no reason why it 
should not be made a grand success. 

Respectfully, 

GEO. W. REGISTER. 



Brookfield, Mo., June 22, 1888. 
L. yi . Goodman, Secretary State Horticultural Society: 

Dear Sir : — Your answer in regard to our invitation for the win- 
ter meeting of the State Horticultural Society to meet in Brookfield, 
was received, and we regret we were too late for that meeting. We 
now take pleasure in renewing the invitation for next summer, and hope 
you will kindy assist in us in securing the meeting at that time, and 
feel assured it will stimulate fruit growers of this county to greater in- 
terest in fruit culture, as well as advancing the cause of horticulture 
throughout the state. 

We have a large hall which will accommodate five hundred, and 
ample preparations will be made to accommodate all that may come. 
Hoping to hear that the society will favor us with their summer meet- 
ing, I am, Respectfully yours, 

A. P. CROSBY, 
Cha'm. Linn Co. Fruit Growers' Ass'n. 



SUMMER MEETING AT OREGON. 171 

Cora Fry recited Sheridan's Ride, and in this effort she excelled all 
her former efforts. 

The Choral Union then treated the large audience to the "happiest 
hit," of the session by singing "Oh, John!" the rendition of this piece 
was so admirably done that "a repeat" was necessary. 

The committee consisting of Messrs. Murtfeldt, Gilbert and Patter- 
son submitted the following : 

RESOLUTIONS. 

Your committee offer the following as the embodiment of our ap- 
preciations : 4 

Resolved, That our sincere and warmest thanks are due and 
hereby tendered to the ladies and gentlemen of the Holt County Horti- 
cultural Society and of the citizens of Oregon generally, for the warm- 
hearted and fraternal welcome extended to the Missouri State Horticul- 
tural Society at their semi-annual meeting and for their tasteful efforts in 
adorning the hall and grounds with paintings, fruits and flowers. 

Resolved, That equal thanks are due to the ladies and gentlemen 
who entertained the visiting members with approptiate music and reci- 
tations. 

That our grateful acknowledgments are hereby tendered to the 
Missouri Pacific, the K. C, St. Joe & C. B., the Kansas City, Springfield 
& Memphis, and branches, the C. & A., the Chicago, Santa Fe and Cali- 
fornia railroads for excursion rates. 

That in the eloquent and practical address of welcome by His 
Honor, the Mayor, we were at once made to feel at home, and in associ- 
ation with men and women who had more than ordinary appreciation of 
" The Art Doth Mend Nature," which all horticulturists are studying to 
practice. 

That our very grateful thanks be tendered the cornet band of the 
city for the very interesting music at different times. 

That we sincerely thank the Union Drum Corps for their di.splay 
drill and enlivening martial music. 

That we will hold in grateful remembrance all the efforts made by 
the local committee on entertainments to make us feel at home while in 
Oregon, 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Miss Amanda Evans, the pleasing daughter of the efficient presi- 
dent, recited in a most feeling and pleasing manner "The Lord's Prayer 
and Variations," when the Chair announced the semi-annual meeting 



172 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the State Horticultural Society was adjourned to meet at Nevada, 
Vernon County December 5, ^, J, 1888. 

Dr. Goslin then took charge of the meeting, and the visiting Dele- 
gates, Clergy, Press, Choral Union and others proceeded in procession to 
the " Banquet Hall," where that which was good for the inner-man was 
in waiting. At the 

OPERA HOUSE 

The climax of a great meeting was reached. The Hall was displayed 
in its most gorgeous aspect. It was neat, brilliantly lighted and taste- 
fully arranged. Along the walls were^an array of seats for the guests 
not accommodated at the first table. Down the body of the Hall were 
two rows of tables freighted with rare luxuries for the festal gathering. 
Strawberries, whose fair cheeks had just blushed in the vernal sun, invit- 
ed our honored guests to partake. Ice cream served with lavish hands, 
awaited to refresh the inner-man. Cakes, in huge proportions, sat upon 
their silver pinnacles, ready to fuse their substance with other forms ard 
satisfy the most varied tastes of the multitude. Flowers — those rare 
beautificrs — mingled their fragrance and beauty with the hum of merry 
voices, to animate the flow of events, and embellish the scene. In the 
distance the sound of martial music ; while at the front entrance, the 
Silver Cornet Band, sent peal after peal of harmony to float upon the 
evening air and die out in the distant hills ; and within the hall, Phil- 
brick's orchestra swelled the souls of all with choicest music. The 
assembled guests were moved to admiration, as the daughters of Oregon 
moved with easy grace among the happy throng, dispensing luxuries 
without discrimination. They were arrayed in colors that you could 
hear coming, while on their cheeks stood thit rosy hue — the index of 
health and merriment. The reception was worthy of a metropolitan 
town and filled our visitors with profound gratitude. The scene was one 
that will long live in memory and will enroll Oregon among the royal 
hostesses of the state. No toasts were responded to, for all were too 
full for utterance. — Holt County Press. 



THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING 



OF THE 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



HELD AT NEVADA, MO., DEC. 5, 6, 7, 1888. 



UPON INVITATION OF THE VERNON COUNTY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Pursuant to the call and programme, the members of the Society 
met in the Opera House and begun the arrangements of the fruits for the 
meeting. There were along each side of the house two tables four feet 
wide and forty-two feet long, filled with the most beautiful specimens of 
apples ever shown in western Missouri. About one thousand plates of 
fruit were shown by the State Society, and about two hundred and fifty 
plates by private members for premiums. Around the hall were hung 
twenty- six diplomas and certificates of award, taken by the Society at the 
World's Fair and St. Louis Fairs, and on the table were four silver med- 
als and one gold medal taken at The Mississippi Valley Horticultural 
Society, the American Pomolcgical Society and the World's Fair. One 
taken at St. Louis, Mo., one at Rochester, N. Y.. one at Grand Rapids, 
Mich., and one at New Orleans, La. 

The room was finely decorated with festooning of evergreen moss 
hung from the stage and all about the room. 

The meeting was an enthusiastic one, and the community was awake 
to the importance of thi^ meeting as well as were the members of the 



174 MISSOURI STATE IIORTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

Society from all parts of the State, There were over five hundred pres- 
ent at nian}^ of the meetings, and it was one of the most enthusiastic and 
profitable meetings ever held by the Society, 



DECEMBER 5TII, 7.30 l\ M, 



Society met and was called to order by the President, J, C, Evans, 
and the session was opened with prayer by Rev. Joseph King, of Nevada. 

The Nevada Glee Club was present and fijrnished much delightful 
music for the evening. The first was a quartette, which enlivened the 
evening's work. The members are Messrs. Deck and Boyd Graves, Mrs. 
M, F. Hill, Miss Sarah and Miss Maud Graves. 

President Evans presented Hon. E. E. Kimball, who delivered the 
following address of welcome, in a most pleasing manner, amidst 
laughter and applause. 

♦ 
MR. KIMBALL'S ADDRESS. 

Mr. President and Members of the State Horticidtiiral Society: 

I have been charged with the pleasant and agreeable duty of ex- 
tending to this honorable body, a cordial welcome to our little city. We 
feel greatly honored that you have come here, on the invitation of our 
local society, to hold your thirty-first annual meeting. I may say, 
without seeming to boast, that Nevada has gained something of a repu- 
tation for its thrift, enterprise and push. But I take greater satisfaction 
in the feeling I have, that she adds to these qualities the crowning one 
of open-hearted hospitality. I need not remind you that you are in the 
midst of a people industrious, intelligent and progressive; a people in 
full sympathy with every earnest effort made to widen the field of human 
knowledge; a people anxious to encourage, to the fi.illest extent, the 
spirit of scientific inquiry, which so characterizes the age in which we 
live. 

I know nothing of the earlier history of your society. I cannot 
even conjecture what questions were discussed at your first meeting , 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 175 

but I hazard nothing in saying that while thirty years have been 
marching along with trim precision into the realms of the past, patient 
observation and investigation have made those, who are before me, 
familiar with many of nature's wonderful processes that were not 
dreamed of when your society was first formed. Yet, I doubt not, you 
come to this meeting with more questions, and with a greater anxiety 
for information than ever before. As the living forest trees send their 
thousands of rootlets into the crevices of the rocks, as well as into the 
yielding soil, for the moisture and nutriment they must have, while their 
thousands of leaves silently draw in the vital gases from the gentlest 
breezes that moves them, so you, who are gathered within these walls 
are quietly sending out the tendrils of memory and storing the mind 
with food for thought, to the end that something may here be added to 
the general fund of knowledge already garnered, and come a little nearer 
to the solution of some of those Horticultural mysteries that now con- 
front you. 

I understand that Horticulture means something more to-day than 
the ordinary definition of the dictionary. It is not merely the cultivat- 
ing of gardens. Your inquiries and discussions will relate to the grow- 
ing of fruits and flowers, and vegetables, and trees for ornament and 
use, and the arrangement of them so as to produce pleasing landscape 
effects. Horticulture is both an art and a science. The observation and 
experience of untold generations, from the day when the leaves of the 
fig tree were fashioned into raiment, until these late times when the 
product of an unsightly worm furnishes us with robes of gorgeous 
beauty, has perfected us in the former ; while an acquaintance with the 
laws of natural science has advanced us in the latter. The aim of Hor- 
ticulture is to furnish man with pleasant surroundings and a palatable 
and nutritious class of food. The great mass of our sustenance comes 
from the vegetable kingdom. The sap, bark, leaf, flower and fruit, each 
yields its portion. Man joins hands with the Maker, not only in the 
production of vegetables, fruits, flowers and trees, but in their improve- 
ment in flavor, fragrance, size and beauty. 

The horticulturist must know something of the natural sciences. 
From botany he learns that the earth produces more than a hundred 
thousand species of plants, the most of them in some way serviceable 
to man. Knowing something of the general laws, of their classification 
and structure you are able to judge with a considerable degree of cer- 
tainty as to their properties, and may by observation and study be en- 
abled to add to the number of plants now classed as useful. 



176 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Chemistry will remind you that common honesty pays ; that what 
you take from the soil must be returned or something will suffer. 

This science may enable you to discover fertilizers, but can, beyond 
these things, do little more for you. You may observe and encourage 
its mysterious processes in vegetable life, but give it a "magazine of pure 
elements and it cannot furnish you a single grain of starch, nor a crystal 
of sugar, nor anything that can be a substitute for them. The plants 
are the only chemists that can take up these inorganic materials and in 
the wonderful laboratory of their living tissues mould them into forms 
to support animal life." 

From entomology you may learn something of insect life and habits 
that may relieve you from their depredations. So great is the injury 
done to crops in this country every year by these destroyers, that it has 
been said that if a foreign nation should, in the same time, injure us one 
twentieth part as much, our army and navy would be speedily called into 
requisition to demand and obtain satisfaction. As it is, we are well nigh 
helpless, our only resource being to ask the zoologist to turn loose the 
insectivorous birds — those flying guards — the only natural protectors 
from this foe, and to insist upon the passage of laws that will prevent 
killing of them in wanton sport. 

He who ernestly and ambitiously addresses himself to the study of 
Horticulture, will find an almost illimitable field before him. He must 
know some thing of all these sciences I have mentioned. He must look 
with microscopic power into the secret laboratory of vegetable life. He 
will not pass a strange leaf without noticing its veining. The beetle 
with its drowsy hum and the crawling worm in his path will have an at- 
traction for him. He ought to possess, to some extent, the qualities of 
mind which enabled Newton to see in the prismatic colors of a trembling 
soap-bubble, evidences of a great law. 

There is a very noticeable disposition on the part of young men and 
women of this day to avoid agricultural pursuits. They are pushing 
toward the cities with trade, mechanical pursuits, the learned profes- 
sions, salaried positions, insignificant clerkships — into anything that 
will keep them off the farm. The moderate education which most of 
them receive, creates a desire for employments that will enable them to 
mix brain with muscle, and this condition of affairs must continue until 
a higher and better education reveals that there is a science in 
farming ; that this industry ought to awaken thought and develop 
the strongest powers of the mind. It must be shown that true learn- 
ing is not hidden within the covers of a printed book, but that " we 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 177 

shall find no spot on earth where there is not some alcove of nature's 
library with volumes enough to employ us for life." In the words of the 
poet we must 

" Find tongues in trees, books in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones and good in everything." 

Then we will not care so much to live within the shadow of a great 
library, nor within sight of a church spire. If thought always dignifies 
labor, then the faim should be made as fine a field of intellectual em- 
ployment as any of the learned professions. When this pursuit is un- 
dertaken with this understanding, its drudgery will disappear, and its 
rewards to those heartily engaged in it, will be certain and abundant. 

I pause here a moment to consider what I have been saying, and 
what warrarnt I have for appearing so wise in these matters. I think I 
detect signs of amazement written on many of your countenances. It 
may not be generally known that I am a member of the American Hor- 
ticultural Society, in good standing, yet if you will get the proceedings 
of their last meeting you will find it so written. I have a Pullman car 
acquaintance with most of its officers and many of its members. At 
one time I felt quite near to them. I was in California when they held 
their last meeting — two hundred miles away. When I joined the society 
the secretary was kind enough to give me a very valuable receipt — for 
the membership fee. I say valuable, for with it I am always able to show 
that I have contributed something to the cause of horticulture. 

For fear that I may have created a false impression, by some of 
these carefully conned phrases you have just heard, I must unmask my- 
self by admitting that as a practical Horticulturist I am a miserable fail- 
ure. Years ago I planted some fruit trees. The most of them are live- 
ing and making a rather tame effort to reward me. I am far from being 
satisfied, but must confess to a lingering suspicion that the average boy 
in my neighborhood has less reason for complaint. For several years I 
planted garden vegetables of all sorts, and a posey bed now and then. I 
have hoed until I could hoe no more, with my blistered hands. I have 
watered the parched earth, at early morn and in the dewey eve, until I 
haye grown stoop shouldered and mishapen. I have got out of the bed 
in the dead, still hours of night and chased a neighboring cow three 
times around the house and twice through the blackberry patch, and af- 
terwards tried to live a week like a christian, to atone for the wicked- 
ness of the occasion. I have grown short-sighted watching for the first 
indication of m)- choice and tender plants coming forth. I have seen them 

II. K. — 12. 



178 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

break timidly from the dark, cold ground into the glad, free air of the 
best country the sun shines upon, to live a few happy days and then go 
down under an unseasonable frost; or, before an army of invading cut- 
worms. I have never been able to get my cabbages to head, while the 
yield from my rank and thrifty potato vine has rarely been enough for 
the next years planting. 

These astounding results were at last explained to me by an old 
neighbor who passes by frequently. He came up and rested his arms on 
the fence once while I was busily engaged in digging a hole big enough 
for a cistern, in my frantic effort to find a potato as large as a bird's-egg, 
and remarked: 

' Your potatoes don't seem to turn out well." 

I was warm and my reply indicated that a very small sum would 
easily purchase the entire crop. 

*' Wall," said my old friend, "you lawyers think you know it all, and 
I haven't felt like meddling, but I have noticed that you always set your 
cabbage plants and planted your potatoes in the wrong time of the 
moon." 

That settled the business for me. Up to that hour I was resolved 
to persevere as an amateur horticulturist. I had reconciled myself to the 
idea that I must learn botany, entomology, zoology, meteorology and 
chemistry, but now it was plainly intimated that I must add astronomy 
to the list, and lay out cold nights watching the fickle moon, in her pha- 
ses, through a costly tel-i^scope. This was the last straw that broke the 
camel's back. Then and there I ceased to be a practical horticulturist. 
Since that day my garden spot has been the wonder of the neighborhood 
for the luxuriance and variety of its rag-weed, crab-grass and dog-fennel. 
I must admit that I have lost pretty much all interest in your art, but if 
the moon-theory happens to form the theme of some of your discussions, 
I should like the best in the world to be present. 

And now I once more bid you a sincere welcome to our little city. 
Remember, you are our honored guests, and all of our doors are open 
unto you. You must visit our asylum, where you will see the craziest 
people in the world. You will be shown our wonderful artesian well, 
and have the pleasure of trying its life-giving waters. I trust that during 
your stay here you will see so many things to admire, meet so many 
pleasant gentlemen and beautiful ladies, and be treated so royally in ev- 
ery way, that you will ever afterwards realize how great is your misfor- 
tune in not being one of us. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Kimball's remarks President Evans arose 
and said : 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 179 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

On bcheilf of the Missouri State Horticultural Society it becomes my 
pleasant duty, as its presiding officer, to thank you and Mr. Kimball and, 
through you, the people of Nevada and Vernon County, and also the 
members of the Vernon County Horticultural Society for this most cor- 
dial welcome. 

We see in this audience familiar faces of those who have come here 
from long distances, some of them hundreds of miles. Perhaps some of 
you who are not horticulturists cannot understand why 'they have come 
so far. Some may think they have an ax to grind. Not that. They 
come, as Mr. Kimball has said, ' to learn,' and to teach each other — to 
exchange ideas and profit thereby. They come to tell each other how 
to plant and when ; the difference in the soils ; the difference of varie- 
ties, and how to plant and cultivate them. 

We come here to accept an invitation tendered by the Vernon 
County Horticultural Society, believing this would be the best field to 
work in. 

It is not worth while for me to tell you that you have the nicest and 

best city in southwest Missouri. You know that. I need not tell you 

' that Vernon is one of the best counties in Missouri, you all know that. 

I want to say to the people of Nevada and surrounding country that 

we want them to attend our meetings. Their presence encourages us. 

It makes us feel good to have you here." 

When President Evans concluded his remarks, Boyd Graves ap- 
peared with a solo, assisted by Miss Maud Graves at the piano. 

Miss May Hall next recited " Enoch Arden," in a most pleasing 
manner. Her effort was received with great applause. 

Deck Graves and Miss Trix Blanton followed with a charming duet. 
Mrs-. S. M. Livermore, of Carthage, who was on the program for an 
essay entitled " Love and Flowers," was not present, but her paper was 
read by Z. T. Russell. 



180 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



THE LOVE OF FLOWERS. 



MRS. S. M. LIVERMORE, CARTHAGE. 



If you would find the sacred paradise of purity and piety, where 
virtue, wisdom and equity are assembled — look at the beautiful flowers 
of the garden. The science of spiritual life is brought home to our con- 
sciousness. Instead of the groveling of the outward senses we have the 
illumined scroll of the spirit held down to our view. 

The subject of this paper, "The Love of Flowers," brings a busy 
train of remembrances, each vieing for an expression of the passing 
beauties realized in experiences, tableted in the memories of the past. 
Being in lack of poetical expression always belonging to flowers, I 
shall aim to give you something of a practical nature, resulting from ob- 
servation. Use determines all qualities, whether good or evil. The 
love and refining influence of flowers determines their use. The value 
of all things is in their use. 

Now, as fond as we are to hear ourselves talk, and however grievous 
it might be to our vanity to yield up to comi^liments of the hour, I 
would gladly make the sacrifice if I could, by any power I possess, 
transfer you all to floral scenes more beautiful and instructive than I 
could possibly elab«rate to you in a volume, to roam through the glass 
structures in which the plants of the tropics find a climate. No doubt 
many of you have had this privilege; so much the more will you appre- 
ciate what I will say in reference to one of the finest works of art in 
flora culture. 

The place now referred to is known as Shaw's Garden, of St. Louis. 
Henry Shaw, the former owner of this garden, is a man of great wealth, 
owning a large landed estate joining the city. He bequeathed to the 
city of St. Louis the world-wide renowned Botanical Garden, to the cul- 
tivation of which he has given the greater part of his life, traveling 
through foreign countries, gathering from all lands and from every 
clime, to add to his green-houses and hot-houses, and to the architec- 
tural and horticultural designs, of which St. Louis was the happy 
recipient. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 181 

Courtesy and refinement characterized this man of flowers. 
Always complimentary to all visitors who came and went, without money 
and without price. 

The limits of this paper will not permit a description of the grounds, 
even if I were romantic enough to do so. I leave to your own imagi- 
nation to fill in, and I, in my feeble effort, fail to describe. I would be 
glad to picture to your minds, if capable, the livlier perceptions of the 
beautiful, and the expressions of purpose and usefulness of form and 
sentiment, wliich belong to these scenes of floral beauty. 

This beautiful retreat lay within a convenient distance of our home, 
and many years have intervened since the writer of this paper found it 
one of the greatest pri\"ilege?, when our city was under martial law, and 
storms of discord and unrest filled every heart and mind with dreams of 
desolation and war — that we could withdraw to that " tempered sunshine, 
and celestial hues " of the beautiful flowers to soothe our cares. 

As I entered the broad and beautiful avenues to this prototype of 
something more than earthly, " Favored of Heaven, in that blest mo- 
ment, all the past forgotton, there is nothing I see which so nearly 
blends earth and Heaven, as the scenes in part, ^o feebly described. 

There is no place where the outside world is so completely shut out 
as in floral scenes like this. 

I will quote on this subject some remarks in point by A. J. Down- 
ing : 

" All beauty is an outward expression of inward good, and so close- 
ly are the beautiful and true allied, that we shall find, if we become sin- 
cere lovers of grace, the harmony, and the loveliness with which rural 
homes and rural life are capable of being invested, that we are sile-ntly 
opening our hearts to an influence which is higher and deeper than the 
mere symbol ; and that if we thus worship in the true spirit, we shall 
attain a nearer view of the Great Master, whose words, in all his mate- 
rial universe, are written in lines of beauty. 

" And how much happiness, how much pure pleasure, that strength- 
ens and invigorates our best and holiest affections, is experienced, in be- 
stowing upon our homes something of grace and loveliness, in making 
the place dearest to our hearts a sunny spot ; where the social sympa- 
thies take shelter securely under the shadowy eaves, or grow and entwine 
trustfully with the tall trees or wreathed vines that cluster around, as if 
striving to shut out whatever of bitterness or strife may be found in the 
open highways of the world. 

"What an unfailing barrier against vice, immorality and bad habits, 
are those tastes which lead us to embellish a home ; to which, at all times 



182 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

and in all places, we turn with delight, as being the object and the scene 
of our fondest cares, labors and enjoyments ; whose humble roof, whose 
shady porch, whose verdant lawn and smiling flowers, all breathe forth 
to us, in true, earnest tones, a domestic feeling that at once purifies the 
heart and binds us more closely to our fellow-being." 

I once heard an itinerant preacher say, that as he rode through his 
district, when weary and worn, seeking some place to rest, he always 
choose those where he saw flowers in the yard and in the window. 
They were an index to what he found in the details of the household. 

The absence of flowers is not always to be attributed to the want 
of appreciation and love for such luxuries. Necessities and rush for 
greater needs often drive from the little home these refining influences. 
And now, from this sketch, you will see that the love of flowers is 
not necessarily confined to the mothers, daughters and sisters of the 
family. The love of flowers and true refinement go together. 

Show me a man who is fond of flowers, one who is ready to make 
some little sacrifice that his wife may indulge her fancy, and I will show 
you an enchanted home ; I will show you a kind, loving, tender father, 
whose sympathies are ever open to the wants of those entrusted to his 
care. I will show you cultured sons as well as daughters, and almost 
without an exception, a harmonious family. 

W. R. Laughlin, of Elm Grove, next told " The Story of the 
Leaves," in a highly interesting manner. 



THE STORY OF THE LEAVES. 



BY W. R. LAUGHLIN, ELM GROVE, MO. 



The highest authority on Ihc definition of English words says, 
"Every part of a plant that is not stem is leaf." Most comprehensive def- 
inition. It is written "All flesh is grass," it is true because all animal 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 183 



life is based on the world's vegetable life. All grass is mostly leaves- 
Nearly all of the value of all hay and all fodder is in its leaves. Silk is 
made from leaves. A very large share of the ornamenting on our globe 
is done with leaves. 

A leaf is a small, frail thing. It is not heavy like lead and the gold; 
it is not hard like the stones or the diamond, neither is it strong like the 
silk, the flax, or the cotton. As it works, its operations have not the 
blinding glare of the lightning, or the noise of the thunder, nor do they 
shake the solid ground as does the earthquake. If you touch a leaf it 
will not burn you, if it falls upon the grass-hopper it will not crush even 
him. 

The leaves as they hang from their stems are moved by the faintest 
breath; they are carried away by a gust of wind, or torn to fragments 
by the gale. They lay themselves down upon the earth to decay, and 
are leaves no more. We speak of them as "only leaves" and yet no force 
of nature nor any agent employed has played so important a part in 
bettering the earth as have these same leaves. 

If there had been no leaves there could have been no animal or hu- 
man life. If the leaves had not done their share, there would have been 
no soil, nor trees, no beds of coal. 

Without a soil, without animal life of man or beast, lacking timber 
and coal, no petroleum, no natural gas, nor any of all the manufactures or 
the arts that depend for their existence on these — no world. 

Aye, the rocks would have been in their places, the metals would have 
slept where they were created, the battles of the fires and the oceans, 
might have gone right on, the air would have been a mass of deadly 
gases rushing among itself, moved by the chargings of the seas, by the 
violent changes of forms wrought by the earthquakes, and by the columns 
of steam sent from below by the heats that melted the rocks, and made 
the waters and the very metals into vapor. 

But to what purpose; for what end would this mass of dead matter 
have been collected, held together and sent on its course among the 
planets and the stars. We. at least, can conceive of no design that 
would have been carried out, no object that could have been served, no 
progress that would have been helped. 

The powers whose heavings from below have built the mountain 
ranges, and whose struggle beneath have shaken the globe a thousand 
times and prepared the beds for the oceans, have done their part. 

In the battles between the seas, in the shocks of the mighty waves 
the rushing of '.he torrenis, the falling showers, and the gently gathering 
dews, the water has done its part, But the little leaf that ccme without 



la4 MLSSOUKl STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



a sound, whose weight was only more than tliat of a feather, that gath- 
ering from the air, carried on its work of formation and transformation 
as it hung for its brief hour, and at last dropped its insects' load of gas 
condensed to the earth below, has done, is doing a later, finer work than 
any of these. 

It has trembled when the earthquake shook the solid ground, the 
fire of the heavens has blazed, and the thunders have roared above it ; 
forests have been buried under contending oceans, or have gone heaven- 
ward from consuming fires ; orders have ceased to be, and species have 
given place that others might come. The animals and the insects have 
devoured them, or they have moldered to dust ; but the leaf has not 
failed from the face of the earth, for each year has brought its sure and 
ever new creation. 

We, for our present purposes, do . not need to be troubled with 
speculations as to the nebular theory, nor at all to go back behind 
where science has made facts plain; and knowledge positive. Let us 
look at the leaves in the light of ages untold, but without conjecture 
and without imaginings. 

The earth was without form, and void. Gravity and motion gave it 
shape. Among, and on top of this material, the fires and waters con- 
tended lor the mastery. Over all was an atmosphere, wherein no man 
could have lived for one moment. 

This was to be prepared to receive the man. The fires were re- 
strained, the earthquakes were moderated, and the seas found their places. 
From above, enough that had floated there for periods, led by the 
increasing force of gravity had settled down so that the sunlight began 
to reach the naked earth ; but the air was still heavily laden, and car- 
bonic acid gas was everywhere. No need to wonder what the first 
vegetation was — we cannot know. 

After awhile vegetation of a giant size, rude in shape, coarse of 
texture, with leaves of ^mple form and of unvaried pale, dull green, 
was extracting the gas from the air and preparing the material for the 
coal beds. 

Such trees and plants would chill to death in one of our summer 
days, or perish in one of our nights for want of poisonous gas upon 
which to thrive. But they did their allotted task, and the coal was laid 
away till the man should come, and the air was made ready for him to 
breathe ; and as vegetation grew higher in its character, a better soil 
was laid on the surface that out of it might grow the things he needt d. 
Animals preceded him and fed upon every green thing, so that when he 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 185 

came he found food of vegetables and of flesh ; but the agent that 
brought all this was the little leaf. 

And what is this leaf, this very little thing that hath wrought such 
wonders and done so much to give character to a planet ? 

THE STARTING POINT 

In all our vegetation is the seed. An invisible atom of pollen finds its 
right place in a flower and the results a seed, perhaps within an apple or 
an orange, perhaps shut in a pod as a bean or a locust, or a husk like 
wheat or corn. But be it this or that, the seed has its coatings, its 
cells, starch, gluten, diastase, coloring matter and a germ. It has also its 
definite character. From one kind of seeds men make strychnine, from 
others bread, while from still others are developed many useful articles. 
The same seed may give us food, or it can be changed into the much 
abused alcohol. 

The seed of a Lima bean is much larger than the seed of the great 
redwood of California ; but the bean produces a plant which at its heavi- 
est only weighs a few ounces, while the smaller seed grows into a tree 
that will load a hundred wagons. 

Men do not plant the seed of jimpson expecting to raise peaches, 
nor expect to produce figs from thistles. 

The germ within the seed has its chemical character, but neither 
eye nor instrument, nor chemical process can tell us what it will bring 
forth. If we know not what it is, we must bury it in the soil and wait 
to see. 

THE NEXT STEP 

in the life of vegetation is the bud, and this may be developed from the 
bark of many plants as well as from the seed. Cut off at the 
stump almost any of the trees or shrubs ; it looks hopeless, as though it 
could not live again ; but out of its own substance the snag that appears 
so dead organizes a bud, and from out its bark or from a root under the 
soil pushes a new growth. This December day on twigs that cannot 
be numbered, all over our own Missouri are the buds for another year's 
leaves and fruits and flowers. The embryo is folded carefully at the 
center, the scales are wrapped around it in nature's perfect style of plac- 
ing, and the water is shut out by the wax that cements its parts together. 
The cold will not kill them nor the wind tear them to pieces ; and 
when the spring time has breathed upon them, their scales will loosen, 
action will begin, the germ will expand, and the new born leaves, lo\ely 



180 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

for their very tenderness, will soon be at the work of their annual gen- 
eration that must be done in a few months. Tons of leaves will come 
in a few days on the acres where all the long winter only the buds were 
waiting. Each leaf will have its coatings, cells, glands, its thousands, or 
tens of thousands of mouths to each square inch, hairs to regulate its 
breathing in and breathing out, and the protoplasm and the chlorophyl 
will be moving in currents streaming all through its structure. When 
the sun shines the leaves will be taking in carbonic acid gas. When 
night is upon our side of the world they will be taking in oxygen, and 
all the time busy working these over into material for tree or plant. 
The roots will search through the soil below for their tribute and send 
it through channels that cannot be seen, up to meet the product of the 
leaves. All summer long this most wonderful of all buildings goes cease- 
lessly on. 

Chemistry is lost among these operations. Mechanics cannot ex- 
plain the comings and goings of these substances ; of the ultimate of 
the how or the why, we simply know nothing. We call it life, but what 
is life ? The immediate results are of first importance to us, and we do 
know that the fields bring forth the grains and the fruits, and the 
vegetables we need, and the flowers we so much admire ; the forests are 
reared ; the air is made fit to breathe, and all over our landscapes is 
spread a clothing of beauty ; and beauty is scarcely less necessary to 
the cultivated, refined human being than is his food. 

In the presence of the operations of nature, what need of " Robin- 
son Crusoe" or " Sinbad the Sailor;" " Gulliver" or '• Munchausen," the 
'• Arabian Nights" or the last French novel. Here are stories infinitely 
more wonderful than any of them ; not silly, sickly fancies, but facts to 
be had for the reading ; facts the searching out of which brings its own 
high reward ; beauties, the common property of the millionaire and of 
the man that sees them from the poorhouse ; knowledge to be gained 
tor the furtherance of knowledge was made a part of man's nature. 

Perhaps we cannot just now see a dollar, or food, or clothing in 
knowledge that apjjears to be entirely abstract; but allow me to believe 
that all knowledge of nature gained, adds to a fund from which only 
good will come. For the enjoyment it brings, and with confidence in 
such result, let us "get wisdom." We constantly speak of the 

PURE FRESH AIR. 

Do we ever think how impure it is, or how foul it would become if 
there was nothing to regulate its condition ? 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 187 

Stand on the hills across either rivers from Pittsburg, and see the 
stifling, poisoned smoke rising from the multitude of the great chimneys 
of the furnaces, foundries, factories and shops, and from the dwellings of 
that large city. Go among the acres of ovens where coal is burned into 
coke, and see and smell the gases, the sulphur, and the ammonia 
driven into the atmosphere in such quantities that the light of day is at 
times obscured over whole regions. Go, see and smell at the places 
where the sewers of a city are emptied. Among the fairest, freshest 
scenes out in the countr}- your nose will warn you when you come near 
a heap of decaying vegetation, or a putrefying animal. Think that such 
gases, poisons and stenches are rising into the atmosphere from every 
acre of city or country all over the world. Sum up all these and then 
imagine something as to what a fearful load of deadly poison and of 
nauseous filth goes every day into what we call our pure fresh air. Ah, 
if all this went on and there were no leaves, this globe would soon be 
again in such condition that neither human beings nor any animal could 
exist on its surface. 

The force of gravity of course brings down very much that is me- 
chanically forced upward by the heated air and the ascending smoke; 
but the gases rise here and there and everywhere and refuse to fall upon 
tlie soil, but float in the air and are only reduced by the leaves. 

The little leaf, whether nestling Close to the ground as part of some 
small plant, or swinging high in the air from the topmost twig of some 
tall tree, is standing guard between the soil and the clouds, and all is 
well. 

As time passes, will there not be a purer air, an elevated human 
race, a higher order of everything ? 

What will the leaf of the future be and what will be its work ? 

I have seen the fierce prairie fires of Illinois, Iowa and Kansas, lick 
up the heavy coat of grass, destroying in a moment the growth of a 
season; nay, not altogether destroying, for part was sent into the air and 
part was left as the annual tribute to the soil, gathered in and laid 
down by the leaves of the wild grasses. 

In many places in California, Oregon and Washington, have I been 
among the great fir forests, where the trees stood from three hundred, 
to four hundred feet above me; where, for thousands of acres, the sun 
had never seen the ground for centuries. As bushes they had com- 
menced making their deposits, and now as great trees they were drop- 
ping each year tons of leaves upon every acre of it. A foot below the 
last fallen leaves was the leaf mold formed perhaps before Columbus 
found the unknown continent. 



188 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Coming as from out of space itself, from the very bosom of the lonc^ 
the wild blue sea, as we have neared the mouth of some of the great riv- 
ers, we have met the changed waters freighted with the materia) brought 
from above, out of which to build additions to the world; and as we sailed 
over the deposits where some day will be people and nations, I knew that 
the little leaf had its full peculiar share in all that building. 

What a country will be, some day, where now the Amazon is bring- 
ing from the slopes of the Andes the products of the rocks and from the 
vastest forests and prairies of the world its immense load of decayed and 
decaying vegetation, mixing them on the road and distributing them 
over a wide spread area of sea bottom. If it were not for the work the 
leaves are doing all over half a continent, that deposit would be a desert 
of the future. 

Well might Missouri be called the State of many trees and of most 
beautiful foliage. Look carefully next season at the leaves of our wild 
woods. It is easy to tell, by their leaves, any of the oaks from any of 
the elms, to know any ash from any maple, or the locusts from the lin- 
dens. Oui native trees are nearly all seedlings. But among these seed- 
lings of any one kind, there is a literally endless varying. See the very 
plain differences between the size, form and color of the foliage of indi- 
viduals among the elms and the oaks. 

Among the thousands of millions of the human race, no two are so 
alike but they' can be told apart. The fact is wonderful ; but consider 
how very much greater is the number of the leaves on the trees in our 
woods, and yet on any of our forest trees no two full grown leaves can 
be found but yourself or your neighbor with the best mechanical eye and 
the finest eye for -color can tell directly which is which of the two. 
If you doubt this, try it next summer. 

Consider the number of different species and varieties. Remember 
the endless varying of individuals, the countless number of the trees and 
of the leaves on each tree. Compare the leaves that grow on the same 
tree, and you will have some sense of the infinite variety. 

The most skilled expert in colors, who handles the finest goods in 
any establishment in New York City, would find himself at sea among 
the endless shades of the greens of the oak trees in a Missouri grove, and 
when the myriad variations of the autumn colors have come, he would be 
far worse lost than before. 

Add to these, our own trees, the evergreens that are already proved 
for our State, and any and every day in the year may be made to show 
much of the beauty of the leaves ; and not alone for beauty, either, for 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 189 

the evergreens will hold their leaves all winter better than a wall between 
us and the winds. 

Fellow horticulturists, among the trees of Missouri is our life work — 
here it is our privilege to dwell. The leaves of Missouri foreshadow 
the destiny of the central, last formed, best formed of the States of the 
nation that leads on to the road to the destiny of the world. 

THE CYCLONE. 

Where is the field the cyclone has chosen to show its power and to 
revel in its wanton mad destruction.'' It is not among the mountains of 
Arkansas covered all over with the grand old forests. It is scarcely, 
rarely, if ever, among the wooded hills of Missouri. It is only where the 
trees are few. Dakota and Minnesota are almost bare. Naked Nebraska, 
and out on the plains, the great American Uncertainty, where naught is 
sure but steals, and nothing thrives like fraud; where the simoon withers 
the leaves on the stray, discouraged trees and dwarfs the very grass, leav- 
ing the brutes to perish, and bringing to human beings hunger and finan- 
cial wreck. 

THE BLIZZARD. 

From its birthplace, even beyond the Artie circle, from a region 
bare of all save a few stunted willows, the blizzard rushes unhindered 
over States where the grain fields and the prairie'grass are all of growth 
in summer, and where in winter the face of nature is hid from view by 
a mantle of desolation. 

But between us in Holt county and the monster of the northwest, 
lies a hundred miles of the hills and timber on either side of the Mis- 
souri river, and since white men have been there no blizzard has reached 
us without losing very much of its fierceness. ' 

The scope of hills and trees broadens south and east, beyond our 
county — so near an outpost — and the fearful power roars among the 
countless twigs of unnumbered trees, passing on, weakened at every 
mile, losing the strength of its- dreadful rush, losing the strong grip of 
its Artie cold, slowing into a gale, then to a wind that dies away where 
the clear, free water runs unfrozen among the vast forests, the deep rest- 
ful wildwoods of Arkansas. 

The leaves have gathered from the air, and the roots have sent from 
the soil below. They worked together to build the trees, and behold, 
the trees are abk: to conquer the fiercest demon of the continent. 



15)0 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

But it is not so even fifty miles west of us. Between there and the 
Rocky mountains the blizzard has its way, often far down into Texas. 
The effect is caused, in small part, of course, by the mechanical resist- 
ance ; but very much more by something else. Whether by the elec- 
trical qualities of the leaves, twigs, branches, and trunks of the trees, or 
whether the control is by means of some agent as yet unknown, the fact 
is at least a general one. There are the almost treeless prairies, and 
there are the cyclone, the blizzard and the tornado. Here are the for- 
ests, and a very important degree of exemption from the fury of all these 
storms. 

DROUTH HISTORY. 

Again, to use our own county of Holt as an illustration, or as a 
sample : 

Lying between two rivers, we are surrounded on all four sides, ex- 
cepting a part of the north, by many m.iles of uneven country covered 
with timber. Squarely between us and the hot southwest winds is the 
peninsula, timbered and uneven, that includes Doniphan and a part of 
]-5rown counties in Kansas. 

When the great drouth of i860 compelled the settlers of Kansas to 
call for aid there was no hunger in Holt, and when the greatest of drouths 
lasted for the years 1885, '86 and '87, growing worse each year, there 
was enough • to keep the animals from suffering, and no human being 
needed to lack for plenty to eat. and that of the best quality. We claim 
much of this partial ex-emption from drouth is due to our peculiar soil, 
but by night and by day the leaves were standing their guard around 
and over us, shading the soil, moistening the air, and hindering the 
winds. 

Look at the map of our state. All along our eastern border the 
Mississippi. The great Missouri running more than 600 miles of its 
course inside our bounds, and emptying into it the Nodaway, the Platte, 
Grand River, Chariton, the Osage, itself a large river, and the Gasconade 
scarcely less than the Osage ; and into these many smaller rivers, and 
into them all a host of creeks. The streams are well placed all over 
Missouri, and on either side of every stream an array of hills well nigh 
covered with timber. 

Ask history if the settlers of Missouri ever sought or needed aid. 
Nay, for the trees were here, and their leaves have covered us as with a 
shield. 

Shout for joy ye people that dwell in the shade and the shelter of 
the forests. Abide in this land, the land of peace and plenty — the 



AXNL'Al. MEETING AT NEVADA. 191 

beautiful land. Let no cunningly devised fables draw you nor your 
children away from the land of the hill and the tree. Go not forth to 
the lands that are bare ; for behold the grasshopper is there, and the 
simoon doth waste, and whether thou be in solitude upon thy ranch, or 
whether thou be in the city, the cyclone or the tornado may destroy 
both thee and thy neighbor in the twinkling of an eye. 

When thou shalt behold the illustrated pamphlet of the Flea-bite 
Town Company be not bewildered. When thine ear shall hear of rail- 
road lands at half price, on long time at small per cent be thou like the 
deaf adder that cannot be charrned, though the charmer be never so 
wise. Still abide. Then shalt thou have something to give to the rag- 
ged refugee when he driveth to your door with his tottering team and 
his hungry children. 

THE STORY OF THE LEAVES 

Is one of hope ; nay. of assurance. Progress, real progress, is the order 
of tHe universe, at least it is so upon our planet. 

Compare the few rude fossils and imprints of the vegetation of 
that time, left among the lower coal measures with the forms that are 
growing to-day upon the earth. Ask the rocks and they will tell you 
that as the periods have taken their places in the past eternity, the gra- 
dations of animal life have risen higher at every change. The mon- 
sters are going out, and animals better suited for man's purposes are 
being improved by him to meet new requirements. Call all this devel- 
opment or evolution if you will. I choose to believe in a continued, 
continual, progressive creation. 

The breech-loading rifle is fast finishing up the work of relieving 
the world of its dangerous and useless animals. Our buffaloes have 
gone. Our grizzly bear and the tiger of the jungles of India have ceased 
to be a terror to the man of nerve, who has in his hand the best modern 
gun. The wild elephant, the lion and the rhinoceros are nearing the 
close of their allotted stage ; and men will learn in due time to exter- 
minate the monsters and the cumberers of the seas. These must all 
give way. 

The insects, more afflictive than all the larger animals, will finally 
pass under the control of man, aided by the microscope and the discov- 
eries made, and to be made in that boundless field of entomologic 
science whereon now the daylight but dawns. 

Long ago the feudal system went away forever. A few months ago, 
in Brazil, the hand of a woman with a pen mightier than a sword, de- 



192 MISSOURI STATE IIOKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 

stroyed almost the last vestige of chattel slavery that was left among 
the civilized nations of the earth ; and already the nations are troubled 
by the signs of the coming of the time when the few shall cease to rob 
the many. 

Whatever of wrong, of suffering, even of despair may yet exist, 
there is reason in hope; yes, in confidence. 

Tell me not that monopolies and syndicates, combinations and 
trusts, special legislation and the power of money, and the wickedness 
of individuals, can overwhelm society and enslaven the people for all 
time. 

The bigot's hate and the fanatic's persecutions endure, but the days of 
racks and the fagots are past. Do not fear that the bigot and the fanatic 
will finally and forever enchain the humane race; that the oppresser will 
not cease forever, or that the anarchist of any and all shades, degrees or 
pretexts, shall destroy till the last state of the earth shall be worse than 
the first. 

Dry lands may sink again under the seas. The place where an 
ocean is may be lifted up and nations cover the face thereof. Empires 
and republics may grow and decay. Systems and creeds and isms may 
fade from the minds of whole races who had trusted them for centuries. 
Fancies may yield to the field of facts, and institutions that have served 
their purpose give place to better; but be not afraid. 

The plant that has ruled from the beginning will rule for the future. 
The purpose will be carried on and carried out. 

I will not — I need not believe that the worse things are to prevail, 
I refuse to be afraid when changes come. 

I look far out among the universe, to the bounds where human ap- 
pliances can reach no farther, to where their revelations have an end; on 
to where calculation can tell us no more; on to where imagination is lost, 
and conjecture impossible. 

I turn to the records within the rocks; I read the printed page ot 
human history, I walk among the leaves, and I know there is progress. 
I know that all is tending onward and upward. 

Miss Trix Blanton next appeared in a charming solo, "The Night- 
ingale," which was received with a shower of applause. 

Miss Daisy Templin followed with a choice recitation, which took 
the audience by storm. It was "A similar case," and to which both the 
voice and manner of the pretty little Miss were admirably adapted. 
It was a real gem. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 193 

With music b)- the glee club, composed of Deck Graves, Boyd 
Graves, Mrs. Hill, Misses Sarah and Maud Graves, the exercises for the 
evening closed and the audience was dismissed. 

Throughout, the evening's entertainment was most pleasing, and 
those of our people who were not present missed a rare treat. 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 9 A. M. 



Society met in the opera house, and after some arrangement of the 
fruits, the society was cal!ed to order by the President, J. C. Evans, and 
opened with prayer by Rev. Dr. Edminson. 

A telegram was 'read by the secretary, from the Kansas State 
Society, sending greeting, and was answered by the President. 

The following committees were appointed: 

Obituary — D. S. Holman, Springfield; Capt. E. P. Henry, Butler; 
Dr. Morerod, Nevada. 

Finance — Henry Speer, Butler; N. F. Murray, Elm Grove; Z. T. 
Russell, Carthage. 

Fruits and Flowers — G. F. Espenlaub, Rosedale. Kansas; Prof. J. 
W. Clark, Columbia; W. G. Gano, Olden; Mrs. G. E. Dugan, Sedalia, 
Mrs. L. A. Goodman. Westport. 

Visiting Members — A. Ambrose, Nevada; A. H. Gilkeson, War- 
rensburg; J. B. Durand, Prairie City. 

Transportation — J. Ames, Carthage; C. C. Bell, Boonville; J. K. 
Gwynn, Clinton. 

Final Resolutions — W. R, Laughlin, Elm Grove; L. Chubbuck, St. 
Louis; J. H. Logan. Nevada. 

Special Committee on Fruits from the Agricultural College 
Farm — Frank Holsinger, Rosedale; W. G. Gano, Oldeji; Henry Speer, 
Butler; D. S. Holman, Springfield. 

II. K.— 13. 



194 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS. 



BY W. G. GANG, OLDEN. 



In making this, my report on Orchards, I will confine myself to the 
south and southeast portion of the state, which is principally new, and 
but little progress has, as yet been made in horticulture, and especially 
in a commercial point of view, the principal part of the planting being 
for family use. 

I have corresponded with twenty-six counties in said southern part 
of the state, asking the following questions: 

The condition of orchards, and the causes for being good or bad ? 

Fruit crops and in what condition .-' 

Any effort being made to destroy the insect enemy of fruit .■* 

Is commercial orchard planting on the increase ? 

The per cent, of fruit trees planted that make a thrifty and profit- 
able orchard .-' 

The varieties that succeed best in your locality, and anything that 
you have observed that would be of general interest in orchard growing.'' 

From these twenty-six counties I have received replies from seven, 
and to encourage these, I will make a report from each county that re- 
sponded, separately. 

OREGON COUNTY. 

Reports planting for family use only. Over one-half of the fruit 
destroyed by insects, and more than one-half the trees planted never 
live to bear fruit. 

With proper care all kinds of fruit do well. 

Complains of apples rotting on the trees ; gave his reason for the 
causes, which I shall notice further on in this report. 

CHRISTIAN COUNTY. 

Orchards in good condition ; some commercial orchards being 
planted ; 100,000 apple, and 20,000 peach and plum trees planted this 
last year ; pears blight badly ; have a new insect that destroys the ap- 
ple bloom. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 195 

JASPER COUNTY. 

Reports orchards in good condition. Fruit 8o per cent of a crop, 
and medium in quality. 

Insects on the increase from year to year ; no particular effort is be- 
ing made to check their ravages. 

Orchard planting has increased 20 per cent the last two years, and 
90 per cent of trees planted last year are in good condition. 

LACLEDE COUNTY. 

Orchards in good condition ; some injury to fruit by cold wave and 
hail storms. 

But few commercial orchards ; all kinds of fruit do well. 

WAYNE COUNTY. 

Conditions all good. Heavy crops of all kinds of fruit. 

No commercial orchards; but planting for home use, on the increase, 
and of better varieties ; people beginning to cultivate a taste for fruit 
growing. 

All kinds of fruit do well. 

RIPLEY COUNTY. 

Orchards in bad condition ; causes improper planting ; digging a 
small hole, and wedging the roots down, starving the tree, using no fer- 
tilizer and no effort to destroy borers, or other insect pests ; but where 
proper care is taken, orchards are in good condition. 

Speaks of an apple tree 54 years old, healthy and vigorous. 

Has lived in Ripley courty 17 years, have had but one failure in 
fruit within that time, that was in '86. An increase of 50 per cent of 
orchard planting, some commercial. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Conditions good ; have had the best growing season, and crops for 
years. The quality of fruit has never been excelled, taking all varieties. 
Orchard planting on the increase ; but greatest attention is paid to 
plums and pears. The Keiffcr is the principal variety grown ; and of 
plums, the blue Damson. The number of trees planted the past year 
about 20,000. 



196 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

HOWELL COUNTY. 

Much progress in horticulture, with plenty of room for more ; a 
good deal of interest is manifested by companies, as well as private in- 
dividuals, to make fruit growing a specialty, planting largely for com- 
mercial purposes, and in this lies the future success of fruit growing. 
Orchards are in fine condition. Eighty per cent crop, 75 per cent of 
perfect fruit ; 90 per cent of trees planted in commercial orchards are 
m thrifty condition. Insect enemies are few as yet. The number of 
fruit trees planted last spring was about 40,000 ; the number planted 
this fall, and to be planted next spring, will amount to 60,000 — 30,000 
at or near Olden. 

Howell County is fast coming to the front as a peach growing 
county. 

Commercial planting is on the increase, not only in Howell county, 
but Texas, Wright, and all along the line of the K. C, Ft. Scott & 
Memphis railroad. 

I have been frequently asked the question, since I have been in this 
part of the state, the cause of apples rotting on some trees. Not 
having seen the trees I inquired if it was confined to any special 
variety.'' The answer was that the cause certainly was from some 
disease in the tree ; and on examination found it to be the case; 
for in every instance where the fruit was affected the tree was 
in a weak, feeble condition ; the trunk near the surface ot the 
ground, and larger roots were affected ; some orchards seemed in a 
much worse condition than others ; and the trees affected the most were 
those standing in rather low, damp ground ; it first occurred to me that 
those trees had wet feet, and yet think that to be the cause to a great 
extent. 

Mr. Ben Gunn, of Oregon county, says, that 7 or 8 years ago, about 
the latter part of October, or first of November, came a very sudden and 
severe cold spell, that froze the sap in the trees so that the bark burst 
on the trunks of many of the fruit trees. Very* many of them died, 
some partly recovered, but have been gradually dying out, since they 
have come into bearing, and that this freezing is the cause of the disease 
in the tree, and rotting of the fruit. In every instance where the tree 
was affected by the freeze the most, the fruit was correspondingly affect- 
ed. It first appears to be sun scald, and rot sets in before the fruit is 
fully developed. 

Is orchard planting in excess of the demands for fruit ; or, in other 
words, will fruit raising be a profitable investment, in years like this, of 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 197 

plentifulness, and low prices? We frequently hear this question 
asked, and even question ourselves to that effect. And like a great many- 
questions of this character, can be answered, yes, or no. The day has 
gone by when the typical farmer of Missouri, (he who did everything in 
a slip-shod manner,) could, perhaps, shake his apples from the trees, dump 
them into a sack, and haul them to market in a lumber wagon and get a 
good price for them ; and in the later years, he that handled his fruit 
carefully and got it to market in good condition, secured good prices; 
for the time was then, that the dealer was obliged to leave his place of 
business and go to the locality where fruit was grown ; even taking his 
help with him to make his barrels and pack the fruit bought from 
the farmers' wagons, thus spending his time and his means in or- 
der to secure the necessary article for his trade, and then frequently in 
poor condition, but it was the only way he had of securing his ten, 
twenty, fifty, or one hundred cars of fruit. The day has been, when we 
saw the quotation of bacon, we knew that it was slaughtered and cured 
by the farmer ; or the quotation of butter, we knew it was made by the 
farmer's wife, or daughter ; but those days are of the past, never to re- 
turn. He that plants an orchard with the expectation of hauling a few 
loads of fruit to market and getting a fair living price will be disappoint- 
ed ; and I care not how well grown, or nicely handled this fruit may 
be. 

But he that will make fruit growing and handling a specialty in all 
its particulars, planting the most profitable and saleable varieties, culti- 
vating and caring for his trees, so as to induce the most thrifty and vig- 
orous conditions possible, fighting and destroying the insect enemies to 
fruit and trees, picking and packing in the most careful and honest man- 
ner, and shipping his products to market as other manufacturers do, can, 
no doubt, make it profitable. When the fruit grower can put his prod- 
uct on the market and sell it strictly on its grade or class, as the miller, 
the dairyman, the meat packer, then the fruit dealer will stay at home 
and send his order (as dealers in other products do,) to the fruitgrower, 
for his five, ten, twenty, or one hundred cars of fruit, and when he sees 
his brand, will say, / know him. 

But I would by no means try to discourage any one Irom planting- 
fruit, but would say to every one that has a home, /Ar////)"////, and plant 
abundantly, it will pay to consume in your family. 

W. G. GANG. 



198 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS. 



BY HENRY SrEER, BUTLER, 



lo the Officers and Members of the Missouri State Horticultural So- 
ciety : 

As a member of your committee on orchards, I submit the following 
report : The orchards of this part of the state are in a good healthy con- 
dition, and have produced the past season a good crop of very fine 
apples, and have gone into winter quarters in good condition for the 
coming year. The interest in orchards, (thanks to our horticultural 
societies) is on the increase, and more trees are being planted from year 
to year, and many are learning the lesson that in order to have a suc- 
cessful orchard, cultivation and care is necessary, A few commercial 
orchards are being planted, but a great majority are family orchards for 
home use, and these I am sorry to say, are the ones most seriously neg- 
lected. Some experiments have been made in fighting the Codling moth 
by spraying with arsenical compounds, which have been generally suc- 
cessful, very materially reducing the ravages of this pest, and I hope at 
no distant day we may be able to entirely overcome it. The price of 
apples has not been very satisfactory, but orchards well cultivated and of 
the proper varieties have paid their owners very well. The great trouble 
in most instances has been unprofitable varieties. Our old friend, the 
Ben Davis, still holds the lead in the minds of most growers, but I have 
found the past two years in my own neighborhood, and within my own 
knowledge, that the Willow Twig has been the most profitable apple of 
all, and I believe it to be one of the very best and safest trees we have, 
especially on rich heavy soil; but let each study well his own situation of 
soil, and conditions, and plant accordingly, and intelligent planting and 
culture will be amply rewarded. The pear this season has been un- 
usually free from blight, but the crop was very light and very few are 
being planted. 

The peach in this part of Missouri was a comjilete failure the past 
season, but the trees made a good growth, and are in good condition for 
a good crop next year. I have noticed the past season that a fungus 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA, ' 199 

growth on the apple, which I, for want of a better name, call the Black 
Scab, is spreading and extending its area, and appearing on varieties 
which I had not before noticed to be attacked. The Missouri Pippin and 
Dominie seem to be peculiarly subject to its ravages, and I fear it will 
give the orchardists trouble. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS FOR 1888. 



BY CHAS. PATTERSON, KIRKSVILLE, MO. 



^ • 



Last year, most of our orchards were entirely barren, but this year 
has fully made the average good. In fact, we do not remember ever 
having as good a crop of apples, especially when we consider that they 
were proximately free from worms, and had very little scab. I have not 
the least doubt, but we could have made as good an exhibit at St. Louis 
as any county in the state, it the proper efforts had been made to collect 
it, for I have found specimens of different varieties as large as any I 
measured and recorded at New Orleans. 

Thanks to some of our merchants, who hustled around and found 
some market for them, the great .surplus has mostly gone to less favor- 
ed regons, at prices probably as good as the average, leaving quite a little 
income to many of our farmers, which they had scarcely dared to calcu- 
late until gathering time, while I have made up something like over six 
thousand bushels into cider. 

And to all appearances, the trees are in as good condition for an- 
other crop as we usually see them, as the season has been very favorable 
for tree-growth, as well as the development of the fruit. But, consid- 
ing the universal sod-bound conditon of the roots, it would surely re- 
quire the next season to be as good as this to produce even half so much. 
Neverless, it is generally the unexpected that happens, and I feel less and 
less confident of anything. 



200 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



This year has disturbed and unsettled my theories of orchard manage- 
ment, until I am completely at sea, without rudder or compass. While 
I had a very fair crop last year, compared with most others, and was 
rather wishing for a very moderate one this year, prcfering to not ex- 
haust the trees for future crops, I was not at all prepared to see very 
nearly all of the heavy crop drop off, when at the size of cherries and 
hickory nuts. Various theories could be assigned as the cause of this, 
but I regard all as the merest guess-work. I sprayed them with Paris 
green, 7 oz. to 54 gallons water, but trees have been sprayed over and 
over again, with stronger proportions, without hurt to either fruit or fo- 
liage. But something did hurt even the foliage, so that the off condi- 
tion was plainly visible to casual passers on the road, although the ex- 
tremities made a very fair growth, and the bark on bodies and bra nches 
is bright and healthy. I washed the bodies with Canada potash, one 
pound to six gallons of water, for borers, but there is no sign of hurt, on 
the bark frorh that, even on young trees and last year's growth of sprouts. 
They have been cultivated every year since planted, 1878, and that fact 
is perhaps oftener referred to as the cause than any other, because it 
seems to favor those whom I have been urging to break up their ten 
year old sod. Mr. Thomas Luke, of Trenton, writes me that his orchard is 
about the same age and condition, and always drops its fruit, and he will 
now sow it with clover and never plow it again. I have tried to pull up 
my end even with friend Murray on this subject, but I begin to fear he 
will have to give me longer lever, if not allow me to ride awhile. I in- 
fer that he has an older orchard, cultivated continuously, and probably 
knows of others, and I call upon him to put his experience against this 
record. My orchard is nearly all in Raspberries and Blackberries, which 
we have for years cultivated as shallow as we could, but, as soon as I can 
replacd them elswhcre, I intend to sow it in clover. But I will watch 
the trees closely, and whenever they begin to make short growth, I will 
break it up at a venture. And I will cultivate the berries still shallower 
if possible, after this. However, if I should have a good crop next year, 
that might change my program. I do not feel hurt, and am not com- 
plaining. I have got more fruit from that orchard now, than another 
orchard of similar size and age, not cultivated, and my trees are nearly 
as large again. I can afford to let it rest another year or two, and then 
get more fruit in one year, than all the others ever produced. But 
we want to learn all we can from it. 

I have not had time to inform myself minutely of the conditions of 
orchards in other counties in my part of the state, but from all I have 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 201 



learned, and the soil and climate being so nearly uniform, until we get 
near the rivers, I think the same remarks would apply to all Northeast 
Missouri. 

I am sorry that your time of meeting conflicts with the Cider and 
Cider Vinegar Makers' convention in Chicago, which deprives me of 
the pleasure of a personal " shake." 



SETTING OUT AN APPLE ORCHARD AND CARING FOR IT. 



BY H. A. ENSIGN, NEVADA. 



This subject has furnished the theme for many an article of more or 
less merit. The public has had precept upon precept, here a lesson and 
there a lesson, yet ignorance as respects the best methods to pursue is 
the rule, and enlightenment is the exception. Our admonitions have 
evidently fallen upon sluggish ears and have not been heard, or, if heard, 
not properly heeded. Many farmers set their trees very nearly as you 
would set a fence post. They dig an 8xlo hole in the ground supposed 
to be deep enough to cover the roots of the tree, and then proceed to 
cut off and to double in until they arc able to force the tree into its 
prison house, afterwards throwing on a little dirt to make everything se- 
cure. In this condition the tree stands between life and death until 
some unruly bovine come along and breaks it down and its epitaph 
should be, died from brutal treatment. There has unquestionably been 
enough fruit trees set out within the boundaries of our state to convert 
every farm into a fruit paradise, but a decent regard for truth compels 
me to admit that not a few of our oldest farms have not to-day a dozen 
fruit trees of any description standing to cover their nakedness, \\hile 
one-half of our farms have not sufficient fruit trees upon them to sup- 
ply the wants of their occupants, to say nothing about commercial pur- 
poses. Under such circumstances what shall we do. I answer, "we 



202 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

should cry aloud and spare not." We must continue to preach the 
gospel of tree planting and tree protection, "in season and out of 
season," until the masses come to know and feel its importance, and 
shall conform their practices thereto. 

The first step preparatory to setting out an orchard is to determine 
how large it shall be, and right here let me advise you not to approach 
this question in a mean, stingy, parsimonious spirit. You are for once, at 
least, to do something for posterity as well as for yourself — let your 
magnanimity of soul be equal to the occasion. After determining the 
size of your orchard and its location, you should next in order set about 
preparing your plat of ground to receive its treasure. If the land lays 
high, is rich and under a good state of cultivation, there is not much to 
be done. If, however, the soil is thin, the land low and flat, with a cold 
clay or sub-soil, there is some work to be done in this case. You 
must be liberal with your fertilizers and tiling. Plow deep and harrow 
thoroughly until the ground is light and mellow, suited to a wheat or a 
corn crop and then you can tend it. Having progressed thus far, it is 
now proper that you should select and dig your trees, if you have not 
already ordered them, from some responsible nurseryman. In making 
your selection, choose thrifty trees not over three years old. As to va- 
rieties, you must be governed by an intelligent knowledge of what 
kinds succeed best in your locality, and for what purpose you are set- 
ting your orchard, whether chiefly for home use, or for market purposes. 
A few choice varieties giving a rotation of fruit in their season, is bet- 
ter and more profitable than a multitude of varieties chosen at random. 
Your trees are now ready to go to your grounds, and to be healed in at 
one or more points adjacent to your proposed orchard, each variety kept 
distinct from all others. 

The ground is now ready to receive the trees, and they are ready 
to be set. How shall the work be done .'' There are several methods 
of accomplishing this, all probably possessing more or less merit, but 
I am here to tell how I do it, and with your indulgence, I will proceed 
to do so. To make myself better understood, I will suppose that I have 
set apart ten acres for orchard purposes. If my lot is square and I set 
my trees thiity feet apart each way, I can set twenty one rows or 441 
apple trees and have a border left of fifteen feet around the entire plat 
to be occupied in time by the growing tops. I therefore set my first 
row of stakes in line across one side of the plat 15 feet from the 
outer line. This done, I follow in line of these stakes with a 12 or 14 inch 
bar shin plow, cutting a furrow as straight and as deep as I can across 
the plat of ground, returning (if the plow is right handed). I give the 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 303 

near horse the furrow, and by this means the furrow is usually made 
sufficiently deep and wide to receive the roots of the tree without fur- 
ther digging. In like manner I continue until my furrows are all open- 
ed out. There is now but one step more to take before commencing to 
set my trees, and that is to set two or more stakes in line crossing my 
furrow at right angles and 15 feet inside of the outer line of my plat of 
ground. These stakes are to guide me in setting my first row of trees. 
Armed with a shovel and aided by two boys, one to bring the trees, and 
the other to steady them while the roots are being covered with mellow 
earth, a man can set from 100 to 125 trees a day and do it well. After 
the trees are in the ground and the dirt has been thoroughly pressed 
about their roots, a strong horse rode by a boy, attached to a 10 or 12 
inch plow, by a stout singletree, should pass up and down on each side 
of every row of trees throwing tlie loose earth back into the furrows 
you made in which to set your trees, filling them up. This plan of set- 
ting an orchard has several advantages over the usual method of dig- 
ging a hole in the ground of more or less magnitude to receive the 
roots of the tree. By planting in a furrrow it does not matter how 
long the roots are, you have room to extend them indefinitely. Another 
advantage is by planting in a furrow, you secure better drainage, there- 
by enabling the tree to better withstand the extremes of wet and dry. 
This is a vital point. 

As to the after treatment of your orchard, grow it as rapidly as you 
can by good care and cultivation. Corn is a very good crop for a young 
orchard, at first giving your tree the space of a single hill, and after- 
wards more latitude as the top expands, but whatever you do, don't 
grow weeds in your orchard; they are a reproach and nuisance wherever 
found, and doubly so in an orchard. Having grown your trees so that 
they are now capable of bearing up a reasonable burden of fruit, you 
can safely check their growth somewhat by seeding your orchard down 
to tame grasses. This will probably bring it into full bearing, gladening 
your heart with an abundance of luscious fruit good enough for angels to 
feast upon. But if you expect to maintain the vigor and fruitfuUness of 
your orchard be liberal to it, feed it well. Don't undertake to get two 
full crops from it the same season, one of grasses and the other of fruit. 
If you do, your greed will socfncr or later destroy your orchard and you 
will find when it is too late, you have " killed the goose that laid the 
golden egg." 

There are other matters growing out of my theme to which I would 
gladly refer if time would permit, such as trimming the orchard, head- 



204 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ing back the tops of such trees as are inchncd to grow too rampant, and 
keeping the bark on the trunks of the trees clean and smooth, but of 
that I will speak some future day. 



ADAPTATION IN HORTICULTURE. 



BY J. AMES, CARTHAGE, MO. 



In the business of fruit growing, the question of adaptation or fit- 
ness should enter into every step, from the first purpose formed in the 
mind to have an orchard or fruit garden, thence onward at every succes ■ 
sive step or stage of development, to the completed fruit farm. We are 
considering and deciding questions of fitness or suitableness. In no 
other business is there so great a necessity for wise discrimination and 
intelligent action. 

In illustration of my subject, let us first see the relation of the 
orchard and fruit garden to the home. Is it important that we have a 
home .'' How can we suflficiently express and emphasize the value of a 
home .'' A rural home without trees, or an orchard or fruit garden ? What 
kind of a home would it be .-• Is there any other thing so well adapted 
to the home to beautify it, and delight the eye, and be a kind of perennial 
spring of luxury, a continual feast .'' 

When God formed man out of the dust of the ground, and breathed 
into him the breath of life, and he became a living soul, God at once 
planted a fruit garden, and there put the man whom He had made. In 
this garden the Lord God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to 
the sight, and good for food, and the tree of life also in the midst of the 
garden, and made it man's business to dress it, and keep it, saying of 
every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat — except — . Here you 
have God's idea of a home; and it should be man's first and chief purpose 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 205 

of life, to come into possession of this birthright of God. Here we have 
the basis of that important plank in the labor union platform protecting 
every man's right to an inalienable, God-given home. And here to-day 
I love to think of this horticultural meeting as a kind of Labor Union 
Society, not gathered here, seeking to find seme new, sharp, short cut to 
great fortune through horticulture, not by union and co-operation to 
mass our strength to defeat or take any advantage of our neighbor, in 
this or any other profession. But I trust we are here as disciples to 
learn God's methods as expressed in tree and plant life, and the laws 
that govern all things in the mineral and vegetable kingdom, and all 
these in their relation to man. We shall most undoubtedly find that 
men do not gather grapes from thorns nor figs from thistles, that a cor- 
rupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit, neither can a good tree bring 
forth evil fruit. Be not deceived, God is not mocked, for whatsoever a 
man soweth that shall he also reap, whether in natural or spiritual things. 
We have a right to believe that God intended that we should have homes 
patterned after this perfect, this Divine model, wherein every tree that 
is pleasant to the sight and good for food, is made to form so important 
a part, and reared in such a home, and taught as God directed when He 
said : " These words that I command thee this day, shall be in thine 
heart, and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and thou 
shalt talk to them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou riseth up, 
and thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine he.id, and they shall be 
as fruitlcts between thine eyes, and thou shalt write them upon the posts 
of thine house, and on thy gates." May we not expect to see genera- 
tions of people going forth from such homes, filled with the spirit of him 
who made us in his own image and likeness to a life of usefulness, to a 
life of service to others, and not of self only, and so became exalted in 
the highest sense of exaltation. 

Leaving the question of the relation of horticulture to our homes 
and passing all those questions of adaptation of the various kinds of fruit 
to succeed best in our own location and climate, what exposure is best, 
whether north, east, west, or south for orchard growing, and what kind 
of soil is best adapted to this or that variety of apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, or cherries, and when to plant, and which varieties of each to 
plant, and how to protect from rabbits, insects, and other enemies, pass- 
ing all these questions so very important in the science and art of horti- 
culture, we will endeavor to consider some questions pertaining to the 
adaptation of our fruit growing to the market, and the changes likely to 
occur in the future. In the past the markets for our small fruits have 



200 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

been principall)-. in the West, in Kansas and Colorado, and North as far 
as Kansas City and St. Joe, but very little has gone as far North as to 
reach Iowa. Are we to conclude that this state of things will continue in 
the future.-* Shall we continue to plant with reference to supplying our 
own latitude and climate only.-* Or shall we plant expecting to feed our 
neighbors four, five or six hundred miles to the north or northwest of us."* 
And if we find difficulties in the way by reason of bad connections, too 
high rates or any other obstructions, however numerous or great, shall 
we abandon the effort.^ Or shall we rise to the importance of the occas- 
ion and by massing the forces of all our Southwestern fruit growers, pro- 
ceed to removing every obstacle we find in the way, and go in and pos- 
sess the land.'' 

Our market for apples also in the past has principally been in the 
South and Southwest. Very little of this crop has gone to the North 
and Northwest. Is this the best and only thing we can do with our 
apple crop of Southwestern Missouri ? 

Is it not a fact that our Red June and Early Harvest apples ripen 
from four to five or six weeks before the same varieties do in Michigan, 
Northern Illinois and Ohio, and with equal facilities can we not place 
these apples on the markets in Iowa, Minnesota and Dakota and have 
our entire crop disposed of before Michigan can get her apples on to 
those markets.-* And is not the same true of the Maiden Blush, the 
Lowell, the Golden Sweet, and other varieties that ripen and fall to the 
ground during our long summer and go to decay and are lost, which 
might be gathered early and shipped in refrigerator cars and sold from 
cold storage on the markets in Minnesota and Dakota to supply the 
October and November market. 

Is it possible that this Southwest Missouri with all her possibilities 
for fruit growing has no mission of usefulness in the way of feeding the 
hungry millions of the great Northwest as well as the South and South- 
west .-* We believe that in the near future we shall find that we have 
not planted enough early summer and fall apples to supply the great 
markets that shall soon be opened to us in this vast extent of rapidly 
developing Northwestern country, and that there will be a necessity for a 
re-adaptation for our orchard planting to adjust our fruit growing to a 
great market that wants something besides the Ben Davis. 

A. Nelson^ Lebanon, then read a paper on " Orcharding on the 
Ozarks." He had cleared two farms in York state and was free to say 
he had made no mistake in coming to Southwest Missouri. For gen- 
eral fruit-growing the Ozarks and Southwest Missouri in his opinion, 
stood at the head as a fruit-growing section. An elevated soil north 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 207 

and east slopes, he thought best adapted to successful fruit culture. His 
long residence in the fruit-growing section of New York enabled him to 
estimate properly the capacity of Southwest Missouri for growing fruit 
and he wanted to say that in his opinion no part of the United States 
was better adapted in both soil and climate than Southwest Missouri. 
He was of the opinion that the Ben Davis was the apple for the Ozarks. 
He took a car load of apples from the Ozarks to his New York home 
six years ago, in order to determine the quality of the fruit grown in 
Southwest Missouri. These apples were to have been hand gathered 
and packed in the orchard. That which was honestly packed he found to 
be in excellent condition, showing that our fruit will keep. Those apples 
however, which were hauled in wagons to the car were in very bad shape. 
Why, in New York state a man would as soon think of hauling a thou- 
sand dozen eggs loose in a lumber wagon as hauling his apples loose. 
The only way to handle apples is to hand pick them and hand pack 
them in barrels right under the trees which bear them. If this is done 
our fruit will reach the market in prime order and command the highest 
prices, as our fruit is as fine as grows in the land. This was a very valu- 
able essay and was heartily applauded. 

Jacob Faith, Montevallo, by invitation, read a paper on " Will Ap- 
ple Culture Pay r He began a very interesting and exhaustive paper 
by asking the question and answering it affirmatively, going on to show 
by facts and figures, that, considering the cost and labor expended, no 
investment made better returns. 



208 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



ORCHARDING ON THE OZARKS. 



15Y A. NELSON, LEKANON. 



Mr. Pj-esidenty Ladies and Gentlemen of the Missouri State Horticul- 
tnral Society : 

Your worthy President has assigned to me the subject of "Orch- 
arding on the Ozarks." In this [ am fearful he has made a mistake, as 
it is known to a few of you at least, that I am only a newcomer on the 
Ozarks, and to grand old Missouri, yet I am proud to-day in saying that 
so far as truit interests are concerned, I made no mistake in locating on 
the Ozarks. 

Six years ago I commenced cutting out bush and timber clearing 
off land to make me a home. In this time I have cleared up and put 
in cultivation about three hundred acres of land. During my six years 
here I have not been idle by any means. I have tried to be a close ob- 
server of what I thought was for the interest and prosperity and bet- 
tering the condition of those in my locality, and have, I believe, proved 
beyond a doubt, this fact, that for general fruit growing,' the Ozarks 
stand at the head, and before I close this paper, I will try and give my 
reasons for this belief. 

First, be it known to you that the Ozarks or the raw lands of the 
Ozarks are to-day covered with a growth of timber. This with her soil 
so well adapted to orcharding and other fruits, attracted my attention 
as well as the attention of other fruit growers who have visited our part 
of Missouri and examined her orchards and her fruits. I have come to 
this conclusion in making examination of different fruit grounds in dif- 
ferent localities, and soils; that for long-lived trees giving good crops 
of first-class fruits, we must select the elevated localities, and if a 
northern or easterft slope, so much the better, for I find that for fruits 
grown on our uplands, which are all thin soils, such fruits are equalled by 
few and excelled by none; and all that is now wanting to make South- 
west Missouri the leading fruit growing locality of the world, is live, 
wideawake, energetic and progressive men, who will force the old fogy 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 209 

element into the last ditch, and men who will keep abreast of the times 
by joining with and taking part in meetings of state and county horti- 
cultural societies. 

With such progressive pushing men in the field who dare attempt 
to put on paper what the results will be twenty to thirty years from now 
in the way of fruit growing. 

The subject of fruit growing, while new or nearly so to me in Mis- 
souri, is not the case while living in the state of New York, for be it 
known to you that in coming to Missouri, I came from a land and a 
home of fruits and flowers and how could an ordinary man help being 
imbued with a spirit of progress, when living among life-long fruit men, 
such as T. G. Youman & Sons, of Walworth, New York; Elwanger & Barry, 
Rochester, New York; the Haulses, of same place; James Vick, also of 
Rochester; Hiram Sibley and others. By these men with ample means 
and great efforts put forth in the propagation and cultivation of the dif- 
ferent fruits, shrubs and flowers, Western New York has gained for her- 
self a most enviable name — a name that the people may well feel 
proud of, and in order to hold up Missouri fruits to the position now 
assigned her, much earnest work is to be done, of which I w^ill refer to 
before closing. 

My first visit to Southwest Missouri was made six years ago last 
October. I came to spy out the land, its facilities and conditions for 
general agricultural and horticultural purposes. I traveled over Laclede 
county, parts of Camden and Dallas counties, and much of Webster and 
a small part of Greene county. In my travels lasting some twenty days, 
I made many examinations of orchards, the different soils I found them 
planted on, the size, quality and condition of the trees and fruits. In 
the examination of the old orchards, I found many of the York State 
varieties — New York Belle Flower, King of Tompkins County, R. I. 
Greening, Golden Russett, Newtown Pippin, Spitzenburg, etc., etc., while 
in the young orchards I found apples that to me were new. 

But it was in meeting with the old varieties of York State apples 
that I was entirely familiar with, the growth, habits and qualities, that 
made the deep impression on me that this was truly a wonderful fruit 
county, and from this I was forced to believe that soil and climate had all 
to do with the quantity and quality of Missouri fruits. As my own apple 
orchards arc yet too young to give results, let me give you results of a 
small Ben Davis orchard that is located four miles west and north of 
our city, owned and managed by ex-Judge Daniel Beckner. This orchard 
is now thirteen years old from the graft; trees were .set in orchard as 

II. R. — 14. 



210 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



yearlings; set twenty-four feet apart; have had careful pruning, though 
not excessive; all superfluous limbs and water sprouts have been rubbed 
off or cut off twice each year. The land was cropped regularly the three 
first years, then seeded down, and pasture for hogs since that time. Now 
for financial results : There has been five crops of apples taken from 
this orchard, and Mr, Beckner has kept a correct account of his mer- 
chantable fruit, and has to the credit of each tree the sum of $7.50 per 
tree, besides the culls and second quality for drying and making cider. 
At seventy trees per acre it is easy to see what kind of a profit there is 
in orcharding in Southwest Missouri, or I may say in any part of Mis- 
souri, where you have the same soil and climate that we are blessed 
with. 

Mr. Beckner, while a man of nearly sixty years of age, is preparing 
to put out about 2000 Ben Davis this coming spring, having a strong 
faith in the future prospects of fruit growing on the Ozarks, and right 
here I want to make a statement that affects to-day and will affect for 
all time to come unless changed. (This may come up under another 
head and in some other way, but I have been there and I know whereof 
I speak.) After my travels over the country six years ago and after hav- 
ing seen and examined the fruits and other crops of Missouri, I made up 
my mind that I would take a car load of apples to York State with me, 
and, in doing this, I could then fully determine the keeping quality as 
well as the general quality of the fruit. I bargained for a car of fruit 
that was all to be hand-picked, barreled and put in good shape in the 
orchard. I paid for my fruit and left directions for shipment, and I left 
for my native state. In about three weeks car arrived at Buffalo, N. Y., 
and I had arranged to place from two to six barrels of fruit in the hands 
of different families in the City of Buffalo. When car arrived I went to 
see it and began examination of fruit. What did I find.' J\\\ fruit that 
had been properly field-packed in orchard was in splendid condition, but 
the fruit that had been drawn loose in wagons — about thirty per cent — 
was fully twenty-five per cent rotted or spoiled, and result was a serious 
loss out of the experiment yet, I think, it w ill prove a good investment 
in the long run, as I have fought this ruinous and slovenly way of hand- 
ling our fruit ever since I located in Missouri, and if we want to hold 
up the reputation of our fruits in the markets of the world, we have got 
to sit down on this miserable practice of handling our fruits, and I feel 
sometimes that a law should be passed that would enable a true horti- 
culturist to have a man arrested that was caught drawing first-class 
apples to market in a lumber wagon loose. And while on this most im- 
portant point I hope this body, representing, as it does, one of the great- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 211 

est. grandest and noblest interests of Missouri, will take this matter in 
hand and enter their solemn protest against such handling of fruits. To 
my mind, the only way for apples to be handled is to be hand-picked 
and packed in barrels in the orchard and under the trees in which the 
apples grew. In this way and this way only can the fruit of Missouri be 
held up to that grand position now assigned to her and the grand posi- 
tion she has won through the labors and efforts that have been put forth 
by the members of the State Horticultural and County Societies. 

And now to my own labors in way of orcharding and fruit growing 
on the Ozark. Four \'ears ago, last spring, I put out different varieties of 
apricots, plums, cherries, crabs, apples, etc., etc.. also setting out different 
varieties of peaches and some 750 apples. The following fall I put out 
800 peaches and icoo apples, and same years put out 7000 hills of 
black raspberries, and following year 20O0 red raspberries, and last 
spring put out 1 5C0 Ben Davis apples and 100 Tulpahocken or Fallawater 
apples. We had about three thousand apples, 800 peaches and some 
berries to look after. A part of my peach trees have given me two full 
crops, another part one full crop, while a large majority has not borne at 
all. I have, no doubt, made many mistakes, yet some one has to make 
mistakes or else lookers-on would gain no benefits. 

My first orchard I put out I put it in new seeded ground, seeded to 
grass alone. After trees had been set one year I had my men take 
spading forks and work the ground all up mellow about the trees, a cir- 
cle four feet across. This I have kept up each year, leaving orchard still 
in grass ; trees are making a good healthy growth. A few Ben Davis 
bore fruit in 1887, and last spring it was a sight to see the bloom on this 
young orchard, and I was looking ahead for a big job plucking fruit or 
thining out from the young trees. But Dakota saved me the trouble by 
sending one of her cold waves down here after fruit was nicely set, and 
that cold wave did more in one night than I could have done in a week 
of good work. Result— this season a strong growth of good wood, and 
if Dakota will keep her blizzards at home next spring, I hope to show 
you fruit next winter from that orchard. 

In closing I want to say one word about planting trees from an 
ornamental standpoint as well as financial. When a small boy living at 
home in York state, father set out a row of maple trees on two sides of 
his farm, lying on the main road; this must have been fifty years ago, for 
at fourteen years of age I left that home to work my own passage 
through life, and the trees were then fair size, but I returned afterwards 
to that old home and many a time have sat under and enjoyed the cool 
shade of those grand maples that I had helped to plant in my boyhood 



312 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

days. As the time passed on the trees grew, while the family were rest- 
ing. Father had many chances to sell his farm at $io, $15 and $20 per 
acre more than other farms in same locality. By and by a man came, 
dropped in the neighborhood and offered father $80 per acre for his 
farm — he sold it ; and fourteen years from the time of my leaving home 
I returned, but a change had taken place. The old home was occupied 
by a stranger, and that stranger was ready to sell me the old home back 
at $5 less per acre than he paid for it ; I was once more in the old home 
to enjoy the shade and hear the birds sing from the branches of the 
trees I had helped to plant twenty years before. But another change 
was to take place, I put the old home in nice shape again, here and 
there, and thought I would be contented, but fourteen years had made 
great changes. Some of my school mates that had played with me un- 
der those trees or in the orchard, or fishing or swimming in the pond 
near by, were sleeping their last sleep, some were in one part of 
the country, some in another and it did not prove to be the happy home 
it once was. I sold the old home at one hundred round dollars per 
acre, other farms just as good in all respects, excepting the maples, could 
have been bought at $75 to $80. I know by this that every man own- 
ing a home, let him be the young man just starting out in life, or the 
middle-aged man, or the man who is nearing the end of life's journey, 
if you have vacant ground, plant a tree, if not a fruit tree, or a slip, 
then plant a shade tree and if you and I do not live to enjoy it, 
our children may. And when we pass away our neighbors and 
friends may truly say of us, he has made this part of the country better 
by his having lived in it ; and in closing can do no better than quote the 
beautiful lines written by Lucy Larcom on planting a tree : 

PLANT A TREE. 



He who plants a tree 
Plants a hope. 
Rootlets up through fibres blindly grope ; 
Leaves unfold into horizons free. 

So man's life must climb 

From the clods of time 

Unto heaven's sublime. 
Canst thou prophesy, thou little tree, 
What the glory of thy boughs shall be ? 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 213 

He who plants a tree 
Plants a joy ; 
Plants comfort that will never cloy ; 
Every day a fresh reality. 

Beautiful and strong, 

To whose shelter throng 

Creatures blithe with song. 
If thou couldst but know, thou happy tree, 
Of the bliss that shall inhabit thee. 

He who plants a tree 
He plants peace ; 
Under its green curtain jargons cease, 
Leaf and zephyr murmur soothingly ; 

Shadows soft will sleep, 

Down tired eyelids creep, 

Balm of slumber deep. 
Never hast thou dreamed, blessed tree, 

Of the benediction thou shalt be. 

• 

He who plants a tree 
He plants youth ; 
Vigor won for centuries, in sooth ; 
Life of time, that hints eternity ! 

Boughs their strength uprear, 

New shoots every year 

On old growths appear. 
Thou shalt teach the ages, sturdy tree. 
Youth of soul is immortality. 

He who plants a tree 
He plants love. 
Tents of coolness spreading out above 
Wayfarers he may not live to see. 
Gifts that grow are best ; 
Hands that bless are blest ; 
Plant. Life does the rest ! 
Heaven and earth helps him who plants a tree, 
And his work its own reward shall see. 

— L7icy Larcom. 



214 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT ON ORCHARDS. 



BY J. B. DURAND, TRAIRIE CITY. 



I wish to give a few observations and calculations which I have 
made on actual experience or trials. I object to making theoretical cal- 
culations in any branch of business, and much more so in the products 
of our orchards. Neither do I approve of taking the products of a sin- 
gle, or even a dozen trees, and upon the yield of these, make calculations 
of an orchard of several thousand trees. If you do this you will cer- 
tainly be disappointed. Just as certain as was the lady, who, with one 
speckled hen, obtained one egg each day ; she purchased one hundred 
speckled h^ns, calculating on just one hundred idee fresh eggs each day, 
but what was her chagrin when it took a whole week to obtain that num- 
ber. So It will be with the orehardist who calculates the income from a 
large orchard on the proceeds of a few individual trees. 

When I planted my orchard I tried to keep my estimates below, 
rather than above, but I have not reached more than one-half my most 
sanguine expectations. However, I am not discouraged, when com- 
paring my receipts with those of my neighbors, who have been engaged 
in other vocations. 

The figures I give below include one year of nearly a total failure. 
This record is the actual sales, in barrels, for the four years named, not 
taking into account any that were evaporated, made into cider, sold, or 
used at home, which would about pay expenses. 



1885. 



Jonathan, 


500 bbls. 


Raise 


d 


1,500 


bbls. per 1,000 trees 


Grimes, 


88 " 


<i 




880 




Yellow Bell, 


45 " 


(( 




135 




Ben Davis, 


450 " 


(> 




500 




Janet, 


400 " 


(( 




450 




Rome Beauty 


% 30 " 


K 




300 





Winesap and Gilpin, all ci^er. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 



215 



Jonathan, 


50 bbls. 


Grimes, 


35 " 


Yellow Bell, 


15 " 


Ben Davis, 


60 " 


Janet, 


40 « 


Rome Beauty, 


20 " 


Winesap, 


7^ " 


Gilpin, 


25 " 



Jonathan, 

Grimes, 

Yellow Bell. 

Ben Davis, 

Janet, 

Rome Beauty, 

Winesap, 

Gilpin, 



219 bbls. 

9 

47 

12 

19 
197 

108 



1886. 



Raised 160 bbls. per 1,000 trees. 





350 




45 




72 




50 




200 




150 




250 



1887. 

Sold 730 bbls. per 1,000 trees. 





90 




160 




194 




14 




190 




330 




1,080 



(1 



1888. 



Jonathan, 


165 bbls. 


Sold 500 


Grimes, 


105 


(( 


1,200 


Yellow Bell, 


201 


(1 


603 


Rome Beauty, 


100 


(1 


1 ,000 


Winesap, 


430 


>( 


" 720 


Ben Davis, 


400 


K 


" 500 


Janet, 


600 


(( 


750 


Gilpin, 


80 


11 


800 



This is the product of my orchard of seventy acres, planted in '74 
and '75, four hundred of the trees were planted later and arc just com- 
\\v^ into bearing. It also includes a few White W. Pearman and Rus- 
setts, which have made nothing. 

The whole number of barrels for the four years was 4,646. 

The average price received per barrel, $1.20, making $5,583.00; 
about $80 per acre ; $20 a year, which is more than the land was worth 
when the orchard was planted, and take out the year 1886. which was 



216 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



almost a failure, and count the other three years, would make as much 
each as the land is worth now, without the trees. 

This is not very large, but I consider it better than other farm 
crops. 

I would like to hear statistics from other orchards, so* as to know 
whether I am doing well or not. 



WILL IT PAY. 



BY W. R. LAUGIILIN, ELM GROVE. 



Will it pay to raise apples for market, in Missouri.^ 

It is a question of net proceeds; of sum totals, and of years. 

It is a problem in which many a factor is involved, and where some 
unknown quantities can only be revealed by processes and time. To 
some extent it combines changing conditions with possible features of an 
unknown future. 

Perhaps it is in proper order first to inquire whether it has paid in 
the past. On this search for truth, let us turn the electric light of expe- 
rience. Let' facts — bushels, barrels and dollars — be submitted to him 
who inquires the evidence to him whose care is to know the truth. To in- 
dividuals the right answer may mean a life success; or the wrong one 
may write all over his earthly span, failure. 

To the state, the importance of a correct conclusion as to this busi- 
ness, is immense. 

Years ago it was too late to harbor doubts as to the productiveness 
of the trees, or as to the size, color or quality of Missouri apples, and this 
year the nation and the world has had an opportunity to see, and taste, 
and know for themselves. The great fruit show at St. Louis, drove the 
nail clear through; and the show at our state society meeting, at Nevada 
clinched it. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 217 



STATEMENT OF G. W. HARVEY. 

Mr. C. McGonigle, of the firm of Moses & McGonigle, who bought 
Mr. Harvey's apples, writes me, " He, Mr. Harvey cultivated in corn for 
several years, also in clover, and usually allows hogs during the summer. 
He is not a severe pruner. The tops of his trees begin near the ground, 
and in case of over-bearing, the ends of the lower limbs rest on the 
ground and support them above. He always picks his apples direct into 
barrels from the trees, never piling up in the orchard nor hauling in 
bulk.'' 

APPLES SOLD. 

In 1881, $169.30 

" 1882, 301 barrels, at $2.75 per lb 852.50 

Varieties not kept. 



Total, 1021.80 

In 1883, 443 barrels, Ben Davis, at $2.75, 1,210,00 



6y 


(< 


Willow Twig 




184.75 


6 


(< 


Wine Sap, 




16.50 


9 


<< 


L. Romanite 




24.75 


3 


(i 


Janet 




8.25 


2 


(C 


W. W. Pearmain 




5.50 


89 


li 


Fall Apples at 


$2.00 


178.00 



610 lbs 1,627.75 

In 1884, 34 barrels, Summer, at $1.40 170.00 



74 


t< 


Fall, 


1. 00 


74.00 


640 


>i 


l^en Davis 


1.90 


1,216.00 


152 


(1 


Willow Twig 


(1 


288.80 


44 


it 


L. Romanite 


n 


83.60 


2 


K 


Janet 




1.80 


4 


a 


Wine Sap 


<t 


7.60 


5 


(i 


Belle Flower 


<( 


9.50 


3 


(( 


Jonathan 


(< 


5.70 



958 $1,857.00 



318 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



In 1885, 


9 


barrels, Fall,' at 1.40 


12.60 


(1 


72 
81 


« Ben Davis, " 2.25 
lbs. 


162.00 




174.600 


In 1886, 


124 


barrels, Summer, at 80c 


99.20 


li 


45 


" Fall, •' 90c 


40.50 


it 


80 


Dominie, " 90c 


72.00 


a 


1,061 


" Ken Davis " 1.30 


1.379-30 


(t 


177 


Willow Twig 


230.10 


« 


76 


Wine Sap " 


98.80 


•< 


142 


" L. Romanite " 


184.60 


<( 


31 


" Janet 


44.20 


(( 


27 


W. W. Pearmain " 


35.10 


(< 


8 


" Newtown Pippin 


10.40 


(( 


586 


bushels, Cider Apples, at 12^ 


c 73-37 




2.358 


2,267.57 


In 1887, 


63 


barrels, Summer at 1.50 


94-50 


(< 




Sold in bulk 


46.55 


»( 


180 


" Ben Davis " 2.50 


450.00 


«( 


54 


Wine Sap " 


135.00 


(( 


192 


Willow Twig " 


288.00 


(( 


60 


" L. Romanite 


150.00 


<< 




Cider Apples, plenty, say, 


40.00 




549 


1,204.05 


In 1888, 


67 


barrels. Summer at 1.05 


70.35 


(1 


100 


u Fall 


105.00 


t ( 


472 


" Ben Davis " 1.20 


566.40 


t( 


109 


Willow Twig 


130.80 


t« 


106 


" L. Romanite " 


127.20 


1. 


68 


Wine Sap " 


81.60 


t< 


7 


" Janet 


8.40 


(( 


8 


" W. W. Pearmain " 


9.60 


<( 


6 


" Newtown Pippin 


7.20 


(( 


3 


Milam 


3.60 


(< 


300 


bushels Cider Apples 


30.00 



945 



1,1 10.15 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 219 

NUMBER OF APPLE TREES. 

Ben Davis, 280 trees, about ten per cent, now dead. 
Willow Twig, 100 trees, twenty per cent, now dead 
Wine Sap, 70 trees, five per cent, now dead. 
Little Romanite, 50 trees, five per cent, now dead. 
Janet, 20 trees, in good condition. 
Jonathan, 20 trees, in good condition. 
Belle Flower, 15, one third dead. 

Quite a number of Summer and Fall apples, not worth naming in 
this. 

Dominie, 20 trees, ten per cent. dead. 

This orchard was set out in 1876, and was four year old trees. 

STATEMENT OF N. F. MURRAY. 

" Eight acres of old orchard, planted seventeen years ago, twenty- 
four feet each way. 250 Ben Davis, 150 Wine Sap, 50 Janet; balance 
over 40 varieties of family and experimental orchard. 

This orchard was planted in corn for five first years, then clover; 
weeds and hogs for three years. The last nine years it has had clean 
cultivation. 

The showing of my books may be briefly told, by saying that for 
the last twelve years, the average per acre, per year, has been $64.32. 
Had the entire orchard been Ben Davis, the average would have been at 
least $100 per acre. My figures are for net proceeds, after paying all 
expenses. My large family used a great many apples, and we make a 
good deal of cider, and feed an amount of refuse — especially during years 
when the Codling moth has been so bad — to stock. 

Apples used are not counted. My orchard is now in good condi- 
tion. It was planted on land that had already been cultivated in usual 
new country crops and style for twenty-four years. 

Mr. Muriay's style of pruning is exactly the same practiced by 
Mr. Harvey. Low heads, careful, timely cutting. He has hauled in 
bulk to the station, also in barrels filled under the trees, and at times 
has shipped choice apples in one-third bushel boxes. Sells his whole 
fall crop at the station most years, but has several times shipped car 
loads. 

I have made earnest efforts to get figures on the orchard of John 
W. Davis, of New Point, Holt County, but am able only to state gen- 
eneral facft, but mostly of my own personal knowledge. 



220 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Davis has a large orchard, say i,200 trees, of two ages. His 
practice is, and has been corn for the first few years, then clover, weeds 
and hogs. He is quite particular as to the time of year when his hogs 
shall or shall not be among his trees, and now has no damage done 
by them, but much good. For some years his only cultivation of the 
soil has been the hogs. His style of prunning is essentially the same 
as in each of the other cases. Has marketed in the different ways. 
Both Mr. Davis and Mr. Murray went this fall with car loads of their 
own apples to the markets. I am safe saying that in Mr. Davis' orchard 
profitableness ranks close alongside of Mr. Harvey's and Mr. Murray's. 
Several varieties besides the Standard, Ben Davis and Winesap have 
done notably well for Mr. Davis. 

The statement of Mr. Harvey challenges our admiration for its 
minuteness of detail, and for its arrangement. In our region where he 
is well known, its accuracy goes without question. 

Mr. Murray's orchard joins my own place, and has been before my 
eyes and subjected to my frequent and very careful inspection at all 
times of each season for eight years. 

Mr. Davis lives fifteen miles away, but I have been often among 
his trees during the past seven years, and have constantly heard of their 
good health and large crops. 

All three of these orchards stand on the Loess soil: Mr. Harvey's 
and Mr. Murray's among the hills, and Mr. Davis' on high prairie. 

No two of them have been treated precisely alike, but they all 
teach us of thorough cultivation, while Mr. Harvey's and Mr. Davis' 
point strongly to clover and hogs used with care and judgment, and al- 
ternated with clean cultivation. 

These orchards furnish instances, fair and just, to be used in an- 
swering the question: Will it pay ? When we ask the same question 
about any other business, we do not go for an answer to the man who 
through either ignorance, laziness or incompetence has failed ; but to 
the wdde-awake man, who, learning all he could, has pushed his business 
and succeeded ; or if he has failed, has done so because it would not pay. 

Cost of land, of trees, of cultivation, of marketing, the element ot 
time, the certainty or uncertainty of crops, the liability to losses — set 
the figures beside each other, and see which has paid the best per cent, 
of net profit, these three orchards or the three most successful farms in 
your county during the same period of years. And remember, that 
during the time these orchards are accounted for has occurred the longest 
series of the worst years for the business ever known in Missouri. The 
great three years' drought that scourged so nearly the whole country 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 231 

from the Rocky Mountains to the Hudson for 1885-86 and '87. The 
literal cooking of the pollen by the hot gale of last of April and 
1st ol May, 18S7, and some years when the Codling moth destroyed 
one-half the value of the crop. 

DO NOT EXPECT 

any one variety to do equally well everywhere in Missouri. The varie- 
ties of apples already proven inside our state are very many. The va- 
rieties known to be quite profitable in given places for the commercial 
orchard numbers a dozen, or a score. A goodly number of seedlings 
and of new apples that look well, and of which we have good reports, 
have been shown at our state meetings. 

The distinct kinds of your soils are many, and the mixtures and 
blendings of these have endless variations. The Loess, the Upper Coal 
Measures, can each be found inside our bounds in perfection. 

The deposit that filled up the Great Lake, and the red lands, when 
the outlying smaller lakes left their mud. Hill-top, slope, valley, on its 
surface lies the varied material that is to give Missouri a greater range 
of successful varieties than any other state. 

Now, we know something as to the soil or the exposure on which 
to plant some particular varieties — there is much to learn. 

A few weeks ago I was among the splendid orchards of Mr. Durand, 
of Bates county. Little wonder that the Jonathan is his pet, growing 
from the deep, rich, black soil of a second bottom near the Osage river. 
But do not expect to get such results if you plant the Jonathan on poor, 
or washed land, or on the flint hills, where lead and zinc are the staple 
products. 

CODLING MOTH, AND PESTS. 

At our State Society meeting, held at Lexington, December, 1886, 
Mr. M. G. Condon, of Clinton, Henry county, Missouri, by letter to our 
Secretary, Mr, Goodman, and read before the meeting, made the Socie- 
ty, and so the public, a present of his invention of wire-cloth screening 
— to be placed around young trees to protect them from rabbits, etc. 
Alter two years careful experimenting here, we are, at least, very hope- 
ful that it is an entire protection against rabbits, borers, and sun-scald ; 
whatever sun-scald may be. 

Dr. Goslin, of Oregon, Holt county, at our winter meeting for 1887, 
held at Boonville, gave a pycscription for dissolving white arsenic in 



222 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

water in which a little alkali had already been dissolved. See Annual 
Report of the Missouri State Horticultural Society for 1887, page 232, 
The Dr.'s prescription, applied from pumps costing $7.50 each, was tried 
this year in our county, by several men, on large orchards, and the suc- 
cess has been so marked that we, of Holt, have about lost fear of the 
Codling Moth. The same medicine applied from the same machine will 
easily and surely dispose of the Canker Worm, and probably of some 
other pests. 

If events shall finally and fully prove that we have learned now so 
to fix our trees as to be secure from rabbits, borers, and from the bad 
effects of the direct rays of the sun, winter and summer, by the simple 
device of wire-cloth, and that, too, at a cost of three to five cents per 
tree, then we have made, not only a step, but a long run, on the road 
that leads to successful apple raising. 

If spraying with a cent's worth of potash and arsenic to each bear- 
ing tree is to rid us of the Codling Moth, as it clearly did when it was 
tried here in the year 1887, it looks as if the time was at hand when we 
might shout victory, and advance with confidence to the final rout of 
other pests. 

I ask the attention of the members of our own, and of other State 
Societies, of the public, and of Legislators, to the fact that Mr. Con- 
don's invention for the use of wire-cloth, and Dr. Goslin's method of 
making a proper solution of arsenic, both world wide as to their import- 
ance, were given to the world through the medium of the Missouri State 
Horticultural Society. 

It pays now. When the seasons shall have returned to their prop- 
er balance, when the insects that vex the trees and mar the fruit shall 
be under control, and when our only means of transportation, the rail- 
roads, shall be willing to live and let live, then it will pay to raise ap- 
ples in Missouri for the markets, not only of the United States, but of 
the world. One half is in producing the apples — the other half is in 
marketi7ig them. 



ANNUAL MEETlN(i AT NEVADA. 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 6tii, 2 P. M. 



DISCUSSION ON ORCHARDS. 



Major F. Holsingc7\ of Kansas, referred to Dr. Ensign's paper, and 
intimated that when planting an orchard, he looked for good healthy 
trees, with good tops; that if the top was all right, the roots soon would 
be, and advised the planter to keep his knife in his pocket, not to cut off 
any of the top because some of the roots had been cut off in taking up. 

Mr. Henry — My friend thought it was not very necessary to look 
after the roots. I think he is wrong. I always select trees with good 
roots, even though the stem may not be such as I desire. In time I can 
make it such, if I have good roots to insure a vigorous growth. The top 
and the root should be in proportion, as in nature, and as we must cut 
the roots more or less in digging the tree, the tops should be corres- 
pondingly shortened. Before planting, I would smooth off the mu- 
tilated ends of the roots, cutting from below upward. 

Mr, Holsinger — If you should get your feet cut off, would it be 
necessary to cut off your head .'' 

Mr. Henry — The case is not analagous. The roots are the life of 
the tree. 

VARIETIES. 

f 

Mr. Holman — I will give the opinion of a friend who could not at- 
tend this meeting — Mr. Scholton. He has had fifteen years experience, 
and would confine his planting for commercial purposes to three varieties, 
Ben. Davis, Willow Twig and Jonathan. He will plant only these three. 

Mr. Lision — On timber land, sandstone timber, the Rome Beauty 
is not worth planting; McAfee in my orchard, on sandstone prairie, is 
not worth having. Jonathan does better on timber land, but it does not 
pay on sandstone prairie. One of the best soils for orchards is red or 
mulato timber land. Most varieties will do well on such land, but 
man}- will not do well on prairie land. 



224 MISSOURI STATE IIURTICl'LTUKAL SOCIKTV. 

Mr. Murray — We are very much inclined to go from one extreme 
to the other. About twenty years ago everybody was planting Early 
Harvest. They got two dollars per bushel for them in the orchard; but 
this did not last long. The Early business was overdone and a reaction 
took place. Now there is a scarcity of good summer and fall apples in 
the market. The fruit commission men of Omaha say that good early 
apples and good fall apples are paying well. Early Harvest netted me 
fifty cents per bushel in Omaha this past season. Eastern growers can 
not compete with us as the early fruit will not stand such long ship- 
ments. I found in Omaha last week that the market was overstocked 
with apples from Missouri and Michigan and Nevv York. They are all 
ripe, and every man wants to sell, but they would buy good, sound, 
solid apples that would keep. I find that the Winesap is growing in 
favor. It keeps well. Grimes" Golden is also growing in favor. 

Mr. Goodman — I wish to state one fact that was given me by a very 
extensive fruit grower of Southern Illinois, at St. Louis, They grow 
Winesap for the Chicago market, and ship them there, and they are 
sold before other winter varieties are in the market, They send Ben. 
Davis to the St. Louis market before we hardly think of gathering ours. 
We should grow the varieties that are suited to the markets to which we 
send them. 

Mr. Holman — The Jonathan ripens early and can go to any 
market. It always sells. I saw a man in St. Louis who wished to know 
why we did not grow more Jonathans. 

Mr. Durand — I have seen the Jonathan sell for $4.00 per barrel, 
when other apples were worth from $2,00 to $2.50. I never have found 
any trouble in selling my Jonathans at just as good prices as any other 
apple, and I generally have a good crop of them in proportion to other 
varieties. 

Mr, Faith — I expect to plant 1600 more apple trees next spring. I 
will plant Jonathan, Ben Davis and Little Romanite. 

Mr. Henry : — In the north, in Minneapolis, the Jonathan sold for one 
dollar per barrel more than any other kind in the market. The Missouri 
Jonathan was better than that of northern Illinois or any other place. I 
think, the Jonathan is a safe kind to plant. 

Mr. Holman — We should not leave out the Grimes ; it is a fine ap- 
ple ; I cannot keep it, we eat them up. They sell higher than any other 
kind but the Jonathan ; it is earlier than the Jonathan. 

Mr. Speer — The Jonathan is always in demand, in the South as well 
as the North. The Willow Twig is coming to the front very fast with 
us. In my part of Bates County they pay better than any other variety. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 225 

Mr. Russell — I would like to know something of the Lansingburg. 
Some keep it till August in a common cellar. 

Mr. Gano — That is all : they can't be sold at any time ; there is 
nothing in the Lansingburg. 

Mr. Durand — How is the Grimes succeeding } It trunk blights 
with me very badly. If the tree fails, it will not be profitable. 

Mr. Holuian — It will not do well with wet feet, but on dry land it is 
quite at home. Our trees are healthy and look well. 

Mr. Liston — In the last few years I have lost nearly two-thirds of my 
Grimes on dry land. 

Dr. Ensign — I saw the original Grimes near Cleveland, Ohio. It is 
short-lived there ; but some, grafted on natural seedlings about four feet 
high, are healthy, though on wet land. 

Mr. Benedict — The Missouri Pippin is doing very well. 

Mr. Dnrand — I have only four Missouri Pippin ; they have always 
done well with me. » 

Mr. Evans — The Gano is identical with the Ben Davis in every re- 
spect except color. 

CULTIVATION. 

Mr. Murray — I am in favor of cultivating the surface of orchards 
not too deep ; and every four or five years plow deeper, cutting the roots, 
thus inducing the growth of new feeding roots. Constant, clean cultiva- 
tion saves the moisture, which is very important in this land of dry sum- 
mers. It will pay. I have netted not less than an average of sixty-four 
dollars per acre per year since my orchard began to bear. 

Mr. Ilolsingcr — I think, corn is better in a young orchard than root 
crops ; it shades the trunks of the trees. 

PRUNING. 

Mr. Faith — Pruning is of more importance to the fruit-grower than 
any other subject. We prune too much here in the south-west part of 
the state. Our S9il makes such a growth and form of head that don't 
require much pruning. If I prune* for growth I prune in the winter when 
the tree is asleep ; if I prune for fruit I wait till the tree expands the full 
size of the leaves. When we strike at the life o'' the tree by removing 
its leaves or lungs that makes it grow fruit buds for the ne.xt year ; no 

II. K. — 15. 



226 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



two trees are alike in growth, hence no two require the same kind and 
amount of pruning. Upright growers should be thinned out and some of 
the drooping branches should be removed from spreading or straggling 



growers. 



Mj-. Murray — I would leave some water sprouts on trees whose 
branches have been bent over with heavy loads of fruit ; they will renew 
the tree. This is especially applicable to the Winesap. 

Mr. Laughlin — I think pruning should be a preventive measure to 

keep trees in the right shape, so you will not have to remove large 

branches when the tree gets older. I would prune only the last of May 

or first of June, just as the tree is making the most rapid growth of the 

season. Wounds made at this time will soon heal over, and you will 

have long-lived trees. ^ 

•f- 

THINNING FRUIT. 

* 

Mr. Spcer — I have been studying about it and I think it will pay. 
If any person has had any experience as to how expensive it is, let us 
have it. 

Prof. Clark. — In the east I spent twenty-one days work thinning 
a crop of peaches that made 800 bushels ; every peach sold, and we got 
more bushels than if we had left them all on the trees. We got $3.50 a 
bushel instead of $1.50. 

If plums are thinned so as not to touch, they will not rot, and the 
fruit will be finer. It pays to thin fruit every time, and apples in the 
bargain. 

MARKETING. 

Mr. Nelson. — I won't take back anything I said in my paper. I 
think the apples should be packed into the barrels under the trees in the 
orchard where they grew. Some varieties are so tender you cannot 
move them in any other way. 

Mr. Henry — In my opinion the most important thing about market- 
ing is honesty on the part of the man that packs the fruit. The man that 
puts in two layers of good apples and then fills up the barrels with trash 
is the man who breaks down the market. There ought to be an effort 
made to compel every man to put his name upon every barrel he packs. 
Honesty in packing fruit would double the market in the northwest. 

Mr. Murray — I think w^e ought to use clean, new, full-size, uni- 
form, standard packages. Apples should be packed in what are called 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 227 

eleven peck barrels, though they hold, when filled, i 50 pounds of Ben 
Davis and 165 pounds of Winesap. 

Mr. Gilbert — I have sold hand-picked, carefully packed fruit for 
$3.00 per barrel, when other fruit could be bought from $1.50 to $1.20. 

Mr. Evans — Honest fruit, honestly packed, in honest packages 
with the grower's name upon it will sell. If a buyer finds that your 
brand is good, he will look for it. It is like buying a pocket knife, you 
would not buy a knife on which the maker would not put his name. 

Mr. Speer — I once bought a basket of peaches that were very 
nice on top, but when I took off the first layer, I found that a large 
part of the others were contemptible little apples. I put my name upon 
every package I send out. 

Mr. Hohingcr — I am proud to know that I am in a crowd of hon- 
est men. 

Mr. Evans — Excuse me, Major, we will congratulate you that you 
have just got over the line. [Laughter.] 

Mr. Holsinger — When I pack fruit I am like your merchants here 
in Nevada, I put the best in front. Somehow or other the big fruit gets 
on top. 

Mr. Bell — I find that, as a dealer and shipper, I am a target for 
both the producer and the consumer. The one thinks I cull too much 
and the other thinks I don't cull enough. What am I to do .'' In Missouri 
it is a matter of impossibility to send your barrels into the orchard and 
let the producer fill them under the tree. Our friend, Mr. Henry, struck 
the keynote when he said that honesty was the thing most needed in 
packing and marketing our fruits. This thing of everybody packing 
and shipping is what breaks down the market. I find, in Missouri, that 
the only way I can handle fruit is to have it loaded into large wagons 
and brought to my packing stations, where I pack it under my own su- 
pervision, or that of some man that I can trust. The average fartiier 
does not even know the different varieties, unless it is the Ben Davis ; 
perhaps most of them know it. I have packed over 16,000 barrels this 
season and I have only saved myself by seeing the apples and supervis- 
ing the packing myself. In the present state of things it is impossible 
to take the fruit just as the farmer picks it, unless the buyer has a great 
deal of money to lose. Some of them put almost everything into the bar- 
rel except the tree. We need honest packing to begin with, full measure 
and to make two grades of our apples. When shipping long distances 
you must have only the very best fruit, and you must certainly have 
honest packing. 



228 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Durand — I gather my apples in bushel boxes. I fix the watjon 
so that it will hold thirty bushels without putting one box upon another. 
These we haul to the barn or packing house. These boxes cost me thir- 
teen cents each. 

Mr. Bell — I will try the boxes hereafter. 1 will also buy apples by 
weight. The farmer can unload the boxes quickly, take empty boxes 
back. 

Mr. Ames — The question of marketing also involves the question 
of transportation." What is the best market and how to reach it is also 
a very important question. Our position or latitude enables us to reach 
northern markets before our eastern friends can reach them. We must 
plant more so that we can get the transportation companies to give us 
better rates. 



EVAPORATING FRUIT 



BY J. ]]. DURAND, PRAIRIE CITY. 



Mr. President : 

, There is one subject connected with fruit-growing which I consider 
of much importance, that has been discussed but very little in the meet- 
ings of this and our local societies. I speak of fruit evaporating. I 
will only consider the subject from a fruit-grower's standpoint, and not 
as a business within itself. I hold that every fruit-grower, no matter 
how large or how small, should have an evaporator of sufficient capacity 
to work up all of his second-class fruit of every kind — apples, peaches, 
or berries, and sell nothing in a fresh or green state except strictly 
choice fruit — evaporate everything else. By pursuing this course, you 
will sometimes realize more from your culls than you will from your 
choicest fruit. For instance, two years ago, I received for my picked 
apples 33 cents per bushel and evaporated my culls, which, after count- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 229 

ing out cost of evaporating, netted me 40 cents per bushel — 7 cents 
more than my best apples brought me. You may ask why I did not 
evaporate all. Well, for two reasons : 

1st. I did not know that I would receive so much for them. 

2(1. If I had known it, my evaporator was not large enough. 

Last season I put up a new evaporator and prepared nearly 8,000 
pounds of choice fruit and sold most of it at home for 10 cents per 
pound. One lot I shipped to Colorado brought me 1 1 1 cents after pay- 
ing freight. None of the fruit worked up would have been marketable 
in any* other way, and would have been mostly wasted, but for the evap- 
orator. 

Another advantage in having an evaporator, is that you will have a 
finer lot of shipping fruit, you can afford to cull closer and will do it, 
when the culls will bring you very nearly, if not fully as much, thrown 
out, as they would thrown in, and you will therefore have a fruit pack- 
age of a fancy quality, which will bring you more money. So you not 
only sell your culls for a good price, but receive more for all your fruit. 

In seasons of full crops and dull markets, when prices are demoral- 
ized and fruit will bring scarcely enough to pay freight and packing, 
evaporate all and pack in new, clean packages, either barrels or fifty 
pound boxes and you can store them away until the market revives. If 
properly dried and put up, they will keep for any length of time. We 
arc now using. some we put up four years ago, and they are just as good 
as new. Great care should be taken in preparing the fruit for the evap- 
orator, to thorougly trim off ail specked or bruised spots before placing 
in the evaporator, so that your fruit will have an even look. The price 
of evaporated fruit is now more per pound than any other farm product, 
and raspberries and pared peaches are worth more than any other food 
product from anywhere. 

Where there is a market for cider, a good cider mill can be used to 
good advantage in connection with the evaporator. There are a great 
many apples that arc too small to pare and prepare for the evaporator, 
and these with the cores and peelings, can be made into cider and 
thereby save everything. It is not what we make that makes us rich, 
but what we save ; so save all the apples and turn them into money. 

With the Eureka parer, a good, active boy can pare and slice from 
fifty to seventy-five bushels per day ; so that preparing the fruit for the 
evaporator is not the task that it would be with the old style apple 
parer. 

In speaking of using the culls, I do not wish to be understood to 
mean green, wilty or tough fruit, but fruit that is full)- matured and well 



230 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ripened, and is first-class in quality ; bruises, rotten specks or wormy 
defects must all be cut off before dried. Nothing will injure the 
sale of your fruit so much as to use an inferior quality, such as green or 
wilty fruit that is tough and leathery. 

An invitation was sent in for the society to pay the asylum a visit. 
The invitation by motion of the secretary was accepted with thanks. 

At the conclusion of the papers and discussions, the report of the 
committee on Small Fruits was called for and the following reported : 



REPORT ON SMALL FRUITS. 



BY J. N. MENIFEE, OREGON. 



The small fruit crop in Holt county the past season was fully as 
good as the outlook reported at the June meeting, and found ready sale 
at fair prices. And the prospect for the coming crop is good, having a 
fine growth of plant wood, which goes into winter well matured. Some 
facts, of practical value, have been gained the past season, especially by 
our experimenting with new fruits. In strawberries, we found Bubach a 
wonder, both in size of fruit and productiveness. Gandy's Prize proves a 
superb late kind ; Itasca, worthless ; Monmouth, a poor plant, while 
Hampden, Daisy, Haverland, Bomba, Logan, Warfield No. 2, Townsend's 
No. 1,001, and Ohio Centenial, are all healthy, vigorous growers, but have 
not fruited for us yet. 

In Raspberries, we have learned that, with all the blowing done, the 
Carman and Wilborne ripen with the Hopkins, and are no better. The 
old Blackcap, Souhegan and Hop'kins are our standard blacks, and 
Schaffer the only red worth cultivating. 

In Blackberries, we have been greatly disappointed, especially in 
the Freed and Erie, and somewhat in Western Triumph and Lucretia 
Dewberry, all having failed in properly maturing a full crop of fruit, 
while Snyder and Taylor were loaded down. We still hope another 
year will warrant us in reporting more favorably on them. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 331 



An invitation of Cotty College to visit their college at any time, 
was sent and read before the society. Moved that it be accepted and 
thanks of the society returned. 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS ON SMALL FRUIT. 



BY Z. T. RUSSELL, CARTHAGE. 



If the word "practical" had been omitted from the subject assigned 
to me, it would have been easier. It is an easy matter to write line af- 
ter line and to add page upon page; but to make what you write practi- 
cal omitting all mere theories and manifestations of "crankiness," is no 
easy task. However, I shall make the effort and indulge the hope that 
if I wander away from the subject, or fail in confining my remarks to 
that which is practical, I may be excused on account of inexperience in 
composition. 

Beginning with the preparation of the soil, I will say that, during 
eight years' experience, I have never plowed for small fruits of any kind, 
deeper than about five inches; and in some places not more than three. 
Plowing to the depth often to twelve inches, and sub-soiling to the 
depth of twenty inches, as often recommended, may be a very wise and 
profitable thing to do in some soils, but I have never subsoiled. Most 
of my soil is full of. stumps, and some of it is rocky. 

Sub-soiling on such land is simply impossible. I have raised 
some very fine strawberries on land that was so rocky it could scarcely 
be plowed at all, certainly not more than two. or three inches in depth. 
Hence I say that deep plowing, however desirable it may be considered, 
is not absolutely necessary to the growing of strawberries. They natur- 
ally prefer new land and on such they will do better, with shallow plow- 
ing, than on old land with deep plowing. 



232 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



CAREFUL PREPARATION OF THE SOIL REQUIRED. 

But it must not be inferred from what I have just said that I do not 
beh'evc in a careful preparation of the soil. On the contrary, I claim 
that success depends, in a great measure, upon having this well and 
thotoughly done. With my soil, a clay loam, I consider it desireable to 
plow the land twice; say late in the fall, and again in the s^Dring; or very 
early in the spring, and again when ready to set. If plowed in the fall 
it should not be harrowed, but should be left rough so as to be exposed 
to the action of the elements as much as possible. In the spring the 
ground should be plowed and harrowed, the oftencr the better, until the 
top soil is thoroughly pulverized, thus securing that fine, moist and at 
the same time compact, condition so much appreciated by the strawberry 
and secured by oft repeated work only. 

Before beginning to set I like to 

HAVE THE PLANTS ALL READY. 

They are prepared by removing all old runners, and leaves, and if 
late in the spring all fruit stems, and by straightening out the roots and 
tying in bunches. After this is done the roots are wet, a little dirt is 
sprinkled on them and they are packed away in a cool shady place, so 
that the roots can not become dry, but with the leaves exposed to the 
light. In this condition they will throw out large numbers of little white 
rootlets along the main roots in two or three days. Now they are ready 
to set, and if this is well done in soil prepared as directed above they 
will every one live, no matter how dry the weather or how long contin- 
ued the drouth. 

MY MODE OF SETTING 
I 
I 

is, after everything is in readiness, to run a furrow where the row is 
wanted with a single shovel plow, and before the fresh-turned moist 
earth can dry the plants are dropped and covered. They are carried in 
a bucket of water and dropped where wanted by one person, while 
another follows and covers with a hoe, pressing the soil down firmly 
about the roots with his feet. In this way there is no chance for the 
roots to become dry, which would be a great damage, if not entirely fatal 
to them. This is the best method I have tried when setting largely. 
It is quite rapid and the plants are sure to live. But there may be better 
or more rapid ways of setting than this that will give equally as good 
results. If there is I shall be glad to hear of them. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 233 

THE BEST VARIETIES. 

Having experimented with many varieties for the last eight years, 
I have at last settled on the Crescent and the Capt. Jack as the best. 
Some years other varieties have done equally as well, but on an average 
for a number of years those named are ahead. They are hardy, healthy 
and unequalled in the production of good-sized, firm berries of good 
color. For profit a commercial berry must be selected; one that yields 
heavily and that can be handled and shipped to distant markets. No 
large, soft berry will do; and as a rule the extra large berries are not 
only soft, but most of them are unproductive as well. Firmness I re- 
gard ot first importance; size only secondary, and quality last. At the 
East it is said to be different; quality and size being considered of 
primary importance, but for my own part, I doubt there being much in 
this cry often heard for better quality. In fact, the acidity of the old 
Wilson, the Crescent and others of that class, is not, in my opinion, so 
much of an objection as is sometimes claimed. They come at a time 
when the system requires and the appetite craves an acid, and in what 
better form, I ask, can it be obtained than in the luscious, aromatic 
strawberry ? Then let the theorist raise the large-sized, soft, sweet 
berries, if they will, and educate the public up to the appreciation of 
good fruit; but let the man who desires a healthy bank account with a 
good balance on the right side of the ledger, stick to those kinds that 
can be depended on for a large yield of firm, good-sized, but not large, 
berries. They are the kinds to plant for the money there is in them, 
and this, after all, is what most of us are in the business for. I would 
rather raise Crescents on my place, and sell at any given price, than to 
raise Sharpless' at ten times that price. 

It takes a strawberry about four weeks to ripen after it blooms. 
When the danger from late spring frosts is considered, it is the opinion 
of the writer, that earlier sorts than Crescent and Wilson are not 
desirable, and that late kinds are comparatively unprofitable. I usually 
get the last berries of the season from Capt. Jack, anyway, and the 
Crescent lasts nearly as long. They both last, on my place, about six 
weeks, from the first to the last picking. They cover the whole straw- 
ben y season completely and well. The Cumberland Triumph has few 
equals for home use, but it is not a commercial berry. It is too soft and 
lacks color. 



234 MISSOURI STATE UURTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



WE WANT BETTER KINDS. 

Notwithstanding the Crescent and the Capt. Jack have done so well, 
they arc by no means perfect. We still look for something better. But 
for their superiors, we must look to the new.cr, untried varieties. Of 
these the most promising that I know of are Warfield's No. 2, and 
Speece's Perfection. The former has not yet fruited in this country, but 
has made a very satisfactory growth this summer, and will fruit the 
coming season. The plant appears to be very vigorous, but of rather 
slender growth, much like the Crescent, and entirely healthy, so far. It 
makes about twenty-five per cent, more plants under similar circum- 
stances than the Crescent. Its conduct next year will be watched with 
a great deal of interest. 

Of Mr. Speece's seedling, I might say a'great deal, but since he has 
prepared a paper on the subject of his seedlings, I deem it unwise and 
unnecessary. But I wish to add that, from what I have seen of it, the 
Perfection is enormously productive of very large, fine, well-shapen, 
bright scarlet berries. It being originated here in the Southwest, is a 
strong point in its favor. I consider it very promising. 

In conclusion, Mr. President, allow me to add a few words concern- 
ing 

EARLIER AND LATER VARIETIES. 

Since I began to read horticultural literature, ten years ago, a num- 
ber of " earlier " and some " later " varieties have been introduced ; each 
one, in turn, " a week to ten days" earlier or later than the then known 
earliest or latest var'ety, as the case may be. Let me illustrate : the 
Wilson is early, the Kentucky, late. The Great Early is introduced, 
and said to be ten days earlier than the Wilson. Next we have the 
Earlier, a week or ten days earlier than the Great Early, and this is fol- 
lowed by the Earliest, a week or two earlier than the Earlier, and it in 
turn by the Very Earliest, and so on. On the other hand, the Late, 
which was ten days later than the Kentucky, was followed by the Later, 
this by the Latest, and it in turn by the Very Latest, each one, in turn, 
a week or ten days later than its predecessor. It reminds me of a para- 
graph which I read recently, anent the anouncement by one of the rail- 
roads, that they had dropped thirty miles of distance between Kansas 
City and Chicago, whereupon the Paragrapher asks, " How long will it 
take, at that rate, for Kansas to get over into New England .'' " 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 335 

Now, with the great number of new early and kite varieties being 
introduced, how long, I ask, will it be until the Very Earliest and the 
Very Latest strawberries will come together with their ripening 
seasons in the middle of the winter ? But, in view of all this, how much 
earlier do we get berries now than we did ten years ago, or how much 
later is the 'Jumbo" than the Cumberland Triumph ? 



PROFITS OF SMALL FRUITS AND HOW TO GET THEM. 



J. H. LOGAN, NEVADA, 



Mr. President and Members of our Horticultural Society: 

As I have been placed on the program for a paper on the profits of 
small fruits and how to get them, I will at first admit of my inability to 
prepare a pajoer that, I think, would interest the members of our society. 

The profits of the business is what we are all looking after, for I 
suppose there are only a few at least who are laboring in the orchard or 
vineyard merely for pleasure, the first question that generally comes up , 
when speaking of a business, is : Does it pay ? 

Now, the profits in any business generally depends upon the ability 
of the person engaged in it, and, to obtain good profits from small fruits- 
requires a great deal of tact. I think there are a great many engaged in 
fruit cultLU"c that do not get what really belongs to them when it comes 
to the marketing of their crop. Now, to give any information relative to 
the profits of the business, it would first be necessary to make an item of 
the expense of starting in the business. I will simply give a brief esti- 
mate of putting in a five acre tract in strawberries, raspberries and black- 
berries, presuming that the individual owns the land and performs his 
own labor in setting the plants. We will start out with strawberries, 
two acres, 10,000 plants per acre, at a cost of $2.50 per thousand — $50 
for plants ; and two acres in raspberries, 2000 plants per acre, at $7.50 
per 1000 — $30; and one acre in blackberries, 2000 plants — $15. Now 
we have expended for plants $95 ; the expense of cultivation the 



230 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

first season can be performed by one man and team, provided he 
gives it all his time. As for the e.xpense ot labor performed in 
preparing the ground, setting the plants and cultivation, that can 
be easily calculated, as it only requires ordinary farm work mixed in 
with good common sense and an hour's reading each day of some good 
horticultural book or paper. I will say that a fair crop of strawberries, 
with good culture on land well prepared to begin with, is about 
5000 quarts per acre or 200 crates of twenty-four quarts each, which will 
generally bring two dollars per crate on an average. Now wc have from 
two acres 400 crates of strawberries, for our first crop, $800 — and from 
two acres of raspberries, which we will estimate at one-third of a crop 
from the first year's growth, or about thirty crates per acre, twenty-four 
quarts each, worth $2.50 per crate, presuming that a large part of the 
crop are early berries — $150. Now we have $950 for our gross proceeds, 
the expense of picking, paying for boxes and crates will cost about $200, 
add ten per cent commission for selling, making ninty-five dollars. We 
have a total expense of $295 from the crop of four acres, which leaves a 
balance of $655 to pay the expenses of putting in the crop, and first 
year's cultivation; will not estimate anything from the one acre of black- 
berries until the third year after setting. Now, aside from the above 
estimate quite a revenue may be obtained from the sale of plants. This 
estimate is made up on the presumption that we are situated near a good 
market, and that the ground is well prepared and thoroughly cultivated 
to begin with ; no time to be allowed for destroying dry goods boxes 
with a jack knife. 

I have in my mind a gentleman in our own locality that purchased 
a ten acre tract a few years since and started in the small fruit business, 
and his experience was something like that of our Hon. Mr. Kimball's 
experience in horticulture, as related by himself in his address of welcome 
before our Society. 

Now from the second crop we should be able to obtain about three 
times as much from the raspberry crop as from the first season, and we 
can safely estimate at least $150 from the one acre of blackberries and 
about the same results from the strawberries. In addition to the above 
I will submit a brief report of our sales the past season : 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 237 



From 5 1-2 acres of strawberries, all grown in a young 
orchard, we sold 700 crates at the average price of 
$2.00 per crate $1,400 

And from 7 acres of raspberries, set out two and three 
years, and 3 1-2 acres, one, year old, 750 crates 
which brought an average price of $2.60 per crate $1,950 

Also sold about $50 worth at retail at 50 

Our total sales from berries amounted to $3,400 

Aside from this we sold $1 50 worth of Wild Goose plums 

from the same ground 150 

Giving us as gross sales , $3>5 5° 

We also have sold strawberry and raspberry plants to 

the amount of $300 , 300 

$3,850 
Our expense in round numbers for box and crate ma- 
terial, picking and commission for selling 950 

Leaving a balance $2,900 

This $2,900 has been realized from less than 17 acres of land, with 
a fine, thrifty young orchard growing on the same land. We had ob- 
tained the above results by persistent work. We kept one team hauling 
barnyard manure, continually, from the city and scattered broadcast over 
the land, and gave our berries good culture. Now we can readily decide, 
I think, that small fruit culture will pay, but in order to obtain a fair 
price for our fruit we must first select a good variety, and in picking our 
berries it will pay to assort them, especially if we have many small ber- 
ries ; it does not pay to ship inferior berries ; do not allow the fruit to 
get too ripe to ship ; then look out for the commission men, for you will 
find plenty of them willing to exchange their experience for your labor 
and capital ; require them to report the proceeds from consignments 
promptly; if you don't hear from them within a day or two after receiv- 
ing goods, you had better begin to look after them. 

Now this paper has been hastily prepared, having taken no time for 
it until to-day, being quite unwell for several days and a great deal to 
do that has taken up all my time, but I hope something maybe gleaned 
from it that will encourage those who may have a desire to enter the 
field of horticulture. We have the soil and climate to produce great re- 
sults if we go into it with a determination to succeed. I am fully con- 



238 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIET\. 

vinced from years' experience in the cultivation of small fruits in South- 
west Missouri that there is no occupation that will repay the tiller of the 
soil as quick and so profitably as small fruit. We want to produce it in 
larger quantities and get better methods and cheaper rates in transpor- 
tation. 

DISCUSSION. 

Mr. Faith — My experience is that the soil of this part of the state 
is very productive, but that the taste of the people requires more culti- 
vation than the berries. 

Mr. Espenlaiib — In reply to the question as to how raspberries do 
when planted in check rows, so that they can be cultivated both ways, 
I will say that we find it better to plant in hedge rows as the wind blows 
them over when planted in hills. 

Mr. Logan — The Crescent and the Downing are our main reliance 
for strawberries, and the Souhegan and the Gregg for raspberries. 



L. A. Goodman, Secretary Missouri State Horticultural Society : 

Knowing now that I cannot be with you at Nevada, I will send you 
my report. 



STRAWBERRIES. 



All my old beds burned up in 1887 except Bubach and Jessie, which 
were set out the spring before. Both of these behaved well, and bid 
fair to hold a place in the front ranks. 



RASPBERRIES. 

Centennial, Hopkins and Gregg, for black; Turner and Schaffer, for red ; 
do best with me, and never fail to yield a fair crop. 

BLACKBERRIES. 

Snyder, Stone's Hardy, Taylor and Western Triumph are all No. i 
blackberries with me. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NE\'ADA. 289 

CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 

Almost a total failure, I think, from the drought last summer, 1887. 

CHERRIES. ' 

The best crop of fruit in ten years, conspicuous among which were 
Gov. Wood, May Duke, Rein Hortense, and Napoleon. 

PLUMS. 

Marianna, Wild Goose, Deep Creekj Golden Beauty, DeSoto and Damsons 
all matured their fruit. Deep Creek is the best flavored of any native I 
have tasted ) et. DeSoto is very fine also. 

Golden Beauty is quite late, very handsome, but must be well 
thinned or they will be small, as it sets about four times as many as it 
should carry through; the curculio don't seem to affect them. In 
Marianna I am disappointed ; not good enough, and rots on the tree too 
much. 

GRAPES 

Were a pretty fair crop, although the rot at one time threatened to 
make a clean sweep of them. Jewel, the earliest and a superb one, 
dried in the sacks and make good raisins. 

Early Victor, Moore's Early and Worden are all good and early. 

Moore's Diamond, among the earliest, was again best of all the white 
ones. 

Empire State was splendid, and the quality superior to what I ex- 
pected. 

Pocklington was very fine and ripened quite late. 

Triumph was splendid in appearance, but the foliage suffered some- 
what and prevented the fruit from ripening perfect. 

Brighton was a show, and the fruit of extra fine quality. 'Tis a 
great pity that this grape is not hardy. 

Niagara, I did not get a ripe berry and did not put on the sacks in 
time and they all rotted. 

The fact is we cannot grow grapes here with any certainty unless 
we do sack them, and that must be done in time. As soon as the fruit 
is set is the safest. 



240 MISSOURI STATE ilURTlCULTURAL SOCIETY. 

PERSIMMONS. 

The Kansas seedless, which is, however, not entirely free from seed, 
but has fewer than any other that I am acquainted with, is the hirgest I 
have, and cjuah'ty of the best. The tree is very ornamental also. 

St. Thomas, Ruby, Josephine and Early Golden all bore a crop, all 
good but St. Thomas and Ruby. Trees still full of fruit. 

Having been summoned as a witness on a murder trial, it comes 
just at the time that will prevent me from attendingour own stite meet- 
inii: as also the Illinois. 

These infamous law suits are an intolerable nuisance. 



NEW STRAWBERRIES. 



HENRY SCHNELL, GLASGOW. 



I planted my first strawberries here at Glasgow, Missouri, in the 
spring of 1882, and since that time have tried many of the new candi- 
dates, as they appeared with their glowing descriptions. Though, 
strange to say, I have found none to take the places of the old standard 
varieties that I started with, and I still depend on these for the bulk of 
the crop, and they are Crescent Seedling, Windsor Chief, Capt. Jack, 
Harts' Minnesota, Mt. Vernon, Chas. Downing. Cumberland, and 
Sharpless, the first four named occupying three-fourths of the ground. 
Having failed so far in getting a new one to supersede these older sorts, 
I do not wish to be understood that I lay any blame on the originators 
or disseminators of these new berries. We all know what a change of 
soil and climate, etc., brings about, and while I may grow a seedling 
that will excel anything I now have growing, if it be taken perhaps 
only one-half mile away in a different soil, it may prove entirely worth- 
less. I remember during the berry season of 1878, while visiting friend 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 241 



Sam. Miller, at Bluffton, he had growing in a sandy soil on the bank of 
the Missouri river a few plants of the Martha, at that time a new one, 
and among thirty or forty varieties, I thought it the finest one among 
them; large, luxuriant foliage, with fruit stems ten to twelve inches 
high, standing erect, loaded with fine large berries. 

The following spring I got some of the plants, and they were 
planted in a heavy clay loam. The next year when they fruited, I was 
surprised to have a low spreading weakly plant, and the berries had 
almost to be dug out of the ground, or just the opposite to what it was 
on friend Millers' sandy soil, and thus it is that we are so often disap- 
pointed with our new "two dollars per dozen strawberries," Though 
I am still buying and trying them, and I presume most of the 
berry growers are also, and so we should, and when a good one comes 
around we get the benefit of it. Every grower must experiment for 
himself to find what sorts succeed best on his soil, and a few plants are 
sufificient for this purpose. It would be folly for anyone to plant largely 
of any new variety, paying perhaps twenty, thirty or even fifty dollars 
per thousand for them, and going entirely on others' say so. I have 
often said and still say it, that every berry-grower should grow seedlings 
of his own until he gets a good one. Take any of the new ones sent out 
during the past ten years and go to the originators or disseminators' 
grounds and there you can see them in all their glory, because the soil 
and clime suits them. 

There is nothing in horticulture more pleasant or interesting than 
the growing of new seedlings. I have now a row of about one hundred 
and fifty seedling strawberries that will fruit next year. Just think of it, 
to have that many or more plants to fruit and no two of them precisely 
alike. They already differ in growth, in color of foliage, shape of leaves, 
etc. When in bloom some will be pistillate, others hermaphrodite. 
Son;e will ripen their fruit early, some late ; some large, some small, 
sweet and sour; from a pale red to a dark crimson in color, etc. What 
is more interesting.^ Some will say we have about attained perfection 
in the .strawberry, but I find there is still room for improvement. My 
ideal strawberry would be of the following type: first, size of Sharplcss; 
second, flavor of the wild strawberry; third, perfect shape of Cumberland; 
fourth, firmness and shipping qualities of the Wilson; fifth, vigor, hardi- 
ness and productiveness of the Crescent, and last but not least, to suc- 
ceed everywhere. I do not think the good Lord ever intends for us to 
get such a berry, but we can get nearer perfection than we are now. It 
is with the strawberry as it is with other fruits and also the human family. 

II. R. — 16. 



242 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Everyone has some fault or weak point. Among the long list of berries, 
we have to-day very few that will score over one-half the points men- 
tioned above. When we have size, vigor and quality, we lack product- 
iveness and hardiness, or vice versa. For fear that my paper becomes 
too long and tiresome, I shall not go over the entire list and shall just 
mention those that have done well with me and I can of course only 
speak of their behavior here, in a sandy loam soil. 

Manchester is the only one I planted the past spring, of all the new 
ones, excepting those fruited for the first time this season, I shall 
plant it in place of the Cumberland. It is up to it in size and shape 
resembling it in color, is much firmer and twice as productive. Jersey 
Ouccn, Jewell, Cornelia and Crawford's No. 6, are all fine, large berries, 
but I do not think enough of either one, to plant them largely. All 
need high cultivation to succeed well. The past season they were as 
fine as any one could wish; but last year, they were almost an entire 
failure. Jersey Queen seems to do better as the beds get older, but can 
not stand drouth well, and the other three the same. Parry was a failure; 
Belmont, ditto; Lovett's much-praised Monmouth, lacks vigor — don't 
hold its size — a few large berries on the start and the rest worthless. 

May King, claimed to be superior to the Crescent, docs not near 
come up to it, but is of good flavor and early as Crescent, and may become 
valuable as a fertilizer for the Crescent. Jessie did not come up to ex- 
pectations, and will have to stand another year's test before planting it 
largely. In vigor of plant, and standing drouth, it is all that can be de- 
sired. 

Bubach'sNo. 5 — this berry, I think, has come to stay. In plant and 
foliage, it stands without a rival, robust and healthy. Fruit very large, 
holding its size w-ell to the last. Somewhat irregular in shape. Very pro- 
ductive. Season medium to late. Its defects are irregular in shape, lack- 
ing some in firmness and quality, but none of these will keep it from be- 
coming popular. From what I have seen of it, I shall plant it largely. 
Of the later ones, that I have not fruited yet, and for which there seems 
to be a future, are Warfield's No. 2, from Illinois, Haverland Seedling, 
from Ohio, and Hoffman's, from the south. All of these are taking the 
lead in their respective locations. 

In conclusion, I will say that I have several new ones of my own 
and after another year's trial here, if they .should come up to their past 
record, I shall be glad to give such members who desire them, some 
for trial. I think I have one a week earlier than the Cresent; resembling 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 243 



it in growth and plaint, u.p to it in size, and better quality, but need an- 
other year's test. 



The following was then read: 



SOME SEEDLING STRAWBERRIES. 



BY B. W. SPEECE, CARTHAGE, MO. 



One of the best and most proliiic strawberries in the world, is Speece's 
Perfection. This berry was originated by B. W. Speece, in the city of 
Carthage, Mo., from seeds taken from three varieties, namely: Crescent, 
Glendale and Sharpless. I judge it to be from a Crescent seed, as its 
habits and foliage favor chat variety, except the foliage is a lighter 
color; but it his ban well fertilized with the Glendale, Sharpless and 
other varieties that were near by. The plant is very hardy, a strong 
grower and makes about as many runners as the Crescent; makes no run- 
ners scarcely till fruiting is over. The mother plant from the seed, when 
less than a year old had on thirteen fruit stems and eighty-two berries; 
there were six of the berries ripe, the balance ranging from full grown 
to just out of bioom. Mr. Wiggins was so excited and surprised that 
he slapped me on the shoulder and said: "Oh! Bowen, you have your 
fortune in that berry," and he insisted that I should cut the stems and 
send them to Samuel Miller. I did so and notified him by letter, but 
for some cause he did not get them until they were all spoiled. It 
being a very dry summer, I loosened the ground and gave it water a 
few times, it made runners lively, and in August I set out two hundred 
and thirty-seven plants from it. It still continues dry; some of the plants 
made a few runners; the next spring I set out from them one hundred 
and fifty more plants; when warm weather came they began to stool out 
wonderfully, and sent up a great many fruit stems, one plant had on one 
hundred and fifty-four berries, which if they had teen all ripe* at once 
would ha\e made over four quarts of fruit. The other plants were just 



244 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



as full according to size of plants. Those berries were sold in the home 
market; they sold for double and some select ones for three times what 
common berries sold for. I think its shipping qualities better than the 
Crescent. When ripe its color is a dark scarlet, its shape beautiful and 
its flavor the very best. This last spring I had a patch 125x150 feet; in 
the patch were five rows of late set plants, and three rows of various 
seedling that did not yield much. I picked off the patch 145 crates, 
— we used during the season about five crates in the family. My net 
profit was three hundred and sixty-seven dollars and eighty-six cents. (I 
will have no more plants for sale before next August.) The Beauty is a 
very promising berry, also the Carthage Queen, very prolific and very 
large — the largest beny I ever saw. 

The Royal Gem is a very fine berry, large stamen bloom; will 
make a good fertilizer. The Comet is my old stand-by for a fertilizer, 
and is very prolific. I have a number of others not fully tested. (Notice 
will be given in due time when they will be on the market.) 



THURSDAY, DECEMBER 6th, 7 P. M. 



Society met and order was called, after the people of Nevada and 
the members had spent some time in examining the fruits on the tables. 
This part of the program is a very pleasant and instructive one, because 
it gives people an opportunity to examine the fruits, and compare 
them, to learn the names of many varieties, and to decide on what to 
plant 

The exercises of the evening were opened with a piano duet by 
Misses Maud Graves and Edna Smith, followed by an invocation pro- 
nounced by Elder E. B. Cake. 

Boyd Graves then sang a solo, after which Miss Jessie Holloway, ot 
Butler read a well written paper on the care of flowers, which was heard 
with marked evidences of appreciation. 

Miss Trix Blanton next sang one of her charming solos, for which 
she was heartily encored. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 245 



ESSAY. 



BY MISS JESSIE IIOLLOWAY, BUTLER, MO. 



The faculties of the mind are three in number, Intellect, Sensibility 
and Will. The recognition of the beautiful elevates the mind and re- 
fines the taste. This is an intellectual faculty. The taste must be culti- 
vated and refined. This may be done by close observation and the 
study of the beauties that surround us. The person uncultured and un- 
used to the beautiful, can no more judge correctly in a matter of taste 
than one unused to size and shape can form correct decisions on tJiese 
subjects. 

Beauty is objective only ; we may admire an object for its particular 
beauty; the object may be appropriated, but the beauty cannot. 

We behold the sun as it is sinking behind the golden clouds, reflect- 
ing its streaks of soft yellow light on the blue canopy of heaven, we feel 
awe-stricken, as we seem to stand in the presence of a supreme being. 
Looking on the picture so beautifully painted before us, we exclaim: 
How beautiful! How grand! The soul says it, the lips, perhaps, utter 
it; if they do not, it is a mental affirmation. 

In our every-day life, when the business cares weigh heavily on our 
mind, what a pleasure, what a relief to step out and inhale the fresh, 
fragrant air and behold the beauties of nature. The little birds are 
caroling their praises to their Creator from the graceful tree tops. The 
flowers, that have been our tender care, seem to smile to us as they nes- 
tle their modest heads among the green leaves. 

We view the landscape, with its level valleys, bordered with the 
dark green foliage of the forest; the green sward, dotted with bright 
wild flowers. We say, within ourselves, it is indeed beautiful. 

There are beauties all over this grand old world of ours, which the 
ever searching, ever inquiring eye of mankind have not found. Deep 
down in the bed of the rolling ocean are many beauties, no doubt, which 
will never be found; and within the bosom of mother earth, are beauti- 



',MG MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

fill gems, of great value, some of which have been brought to our view, 
and, perhaps, there are others that may never be seen by the eye of man- 
We may not be situated to view the landscape, or possess the priceless 
gems, but we may possess objects of more comfort and more real beauty 
to us. These are the beautiful flowers which God has placed around us- 
They are appropriated in every stage of life, from our first coming 
into existence to our exit from this world. They are used to cheer the 
room of the sufferer as he lies tossing his aching head upon his pillow. 

What a comfort to him to have a bunch of flowers placed in his 
room by the hand of a kind, loving, friend. They cause him to forget 
for a time his suffering, and think of the one who so kindly remember- 
ed him and of the outer w^orld. 

We strew the paths of the newly wedded pair with flowers as a 
token or emblem of our wishes ancJ desires that their path through life 
may be ever strewn with flowers, and that trouble and sorrow may es- 
cape them. 

We place on the coffin-lid and grave of those we love the tender 
flowers as a token of our love for them. 

We might enumerate other instances where flowers are used, but it 
would be consuming time. We all see these instances nearly every day 
so 'tis no need to mention them. 

Anyone, no matter to what state they have fallen, on beholding a 
beautiful, attractive object cannot keep from admiring it. The sight of it 
will no doubt call to memory days long flown. We no doubt have met 
persons who have wandered away from home and native land, when 
they see a happy household, or are asked about their childhood days, 
will tell of a dear old spot perhaps miles away which was once their 
home. There they toiled day after day on the old homestead, planting 
a tree here, there, yonder, that they may have fruit in years to come, or 
planting the flowers whose blossoms rival in beauty of the rainbow col- 
or — making the old home happy, cheerful and attractive. He will paint to 
us the cottage home where the bright sun shone smilingly upon it ; 
where happiness and joy ever reigned; 'twas there he played in the 
shade of some broad-spreading tree with his schoolmates and was happy. 
He never grows weary talking of the beauties of the old home, and 
holds the home of his childhood days sacred in his heart. 

Everyone may have flowers of some variety on their lawns. They 
add to the beauty of the home, and they speak of the culture and hap- 
piness of the inmates. 

The way to make our homes happy, is to make them beautiful and 
attractive ; of course not to go beyond the means at command. Nei- 



ANNUAL MtETlNC AT NEVADA. J.il 



Ihcr intel'ierence nor refinement -re found in the home with bare walls 
and floors where no books, papers and flowers are to be found. A day's 
or year's work spent in the cultivation of flowers or trees, are not lost. 
They not only afford us pleasure, but those around us. " He is most blest 
who leaves as his bequest an added beauty to the wo'-ki." 

We do not intend to slight the window garden by any means. 
These are of most use in making home cheerful. When the trees are 
stripped of their green coats, and the ground is white with the driven 
snow, 'tis then that all nature seems to be dead. How could we do 
without them .? How pretty .they are blooming in our window. They 
revive and cheer us, and 'tis v/ith great pleasure we await the spring 
which brings life to even the smallest plants, causing the tiny brown 
buds to burst open. Then the green leaflets appear, after these the 
lovely blossoms pouring their fragrance into the air foretelling of the de- 
licious fruits that are to follow. 

" I could write such a beautiful poem, 

About this summer day. 
If my pen could catch the beauty. 

On every leaf and spray. 

And the music all about me, 

Of brook, and breeze, and birds, 
But the greatest poet living, 

Cannot put them into words." 

Mi.ss Leotie Smith recited Kate Shelby in charming style. Her 
rendition of the piece was largely artistic. 



REPORT OF SECRETARY L. A. GOODMAN ON OUR MIS- 
SOURI FRUIT SHOW. 



According to our plan at the June meeting, your secretary visited 
Si. Louis and began arrangements for the fruit display. The beautiful 



248 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

room — 6ox8o — was offered to us, but no promise could be obtained for 
any amount of money to assist us in the work. Arrangements, how- 
ever, were made and fruits were sent in to the cold storage companies 
at St. Louis and Kansas City, who kindly consented to hold our fruits 
free of charge. 

Arrangements were also made with the express companies for car- 
rying our fruits at half rates. 

In August the president and myself visited St. Louis again, and 
succeeded in getting from the Exposition management about $500 for 
the defraying of the expenses of the arrangement in the hall, plates for 
the fruit, covering for the tables and bunting and ornamenting. 

With this in hand we completed our plan and had the tables put up 
as the following cut will show: 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA, 



249 



J 



N I 55 OUR 1 FRUIT SHOW/ 



-h Ground Plan -> 



a 



(M'.^oz-. 



Ho 



tc. 



'iFnutCo. 

irtllCo. 



CO, 



'j^CL-ie. \ 









Coop^ 



'er 



Ag. College . 






■U3]sq^/^ iio'i)i7>^ luvvrry ni'^ld 






-J 



Green. 



■I 




HOKE ENC.CO. 






5 "^ 






a 



in 



o 
(/I 

t 

^1 




•2r,0 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



It was admirably arranged, so as to show to the best advantaj^c and 
i"« 'MIC place was better than the other. 

The following counties made displays, and there was never seen to- 
gether more perfect fruit which the society ever showed; there was never 
together fairer, larger or more beautiful specimens of fruit than that 
gathered together by our counties in the St. Louis Exposition for the 
six weeks from September 5 to October 20, 1888: 

Adair. — 42 Apples, 4 Pears, 3 Crab Apples. Sent by Adair Coun- 
ty Horticultural Society. 

AndrE'A'. — 23 Apples, 6 Pears. Sent from St. Joe Fair by our 
members. 

Bates. — 1S6 Apples, 10 Pears, 40 Grapes. Sent by Bates County 
Horticultural Society. 

Barton. — 48 Apples, 6 Pears, 3 Crab Apples. Sent by C. H. Fink, 
Lamar. 

BOOXE. — 55 Apples. By State Agricultural College. 

Buchanan. — 49 Apples, 14 Pears, 28 Grapes. By members from 
St. Joe Fair. 

Cooper.— 138 Apples, 9 Pears, 3 Crab Apples, By Central Mis- 
souri Horticultural Society. 

Callaway. — 42 Apples,8 Pears, 2 Grapes, 2 Crab Apples. By R. 
L. Bailey Fulton and Dr. R. T. Murphy, New Bloomfield. 

Crawford. — 14 Apples, 4 Pears. By L. G. Grover. N. Jones, and 
Dan. Curtiss, Cuba. 

Clay. — 40 Apples, 14 Pears, 12 Grapes. By Dan. Carpenter, Bar- 
ry, J. C. Evans, Harlem. 

Carrol — 16 Apples. By W. S. Crouch, Carrolton. 

Dent. — 6 Apples, 2 Peaches, i Pear. By W. T. Lyle, Salem. 

Franklin. — 96 Apples, 4 Peaches, 13 Pears. By J. Bagby & Son, 
New Haven, J. T. Perkins, Bates, and C. H. English, Sullivan. 

•Greene. — 180 Apples, 12 Pears, 3 Crab Apples, 2 Quince, 6 Grapes. 
By Greene County Horticultural Society. 

Gasconade. — 42 Grapes. By Henry Henze, Herman. 

Howell — With Olden Fruit Company. 

Holt. — 182 Apples, 12 Pears, 10 Grapes, 5 Plums, i Chestnut, 6 
Crab Apples. By Holt County Horticultural Society, Oregon, and 
Mound City Horticultural Society, Mound City. 

Jasper. — 107 Apples, 8 Pears, 8 Peaches, 4 Grapes. By Jasper 
County Horticultural Society. 

Johnson. — 67 Apples, 2 Pears, 4 Grapes. By W. M. Mohler and 
A. H. Gilkeson, Warrensburg. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 251 

Jackson. — 58 Apples, 16 Pears. 12 Grapes. By J. W. White and 
L. A. Goodman, Westport. 

Knox. — 8 Apples. By Peter Dailing, Kdina. 

Laclede. — 42 Apples. By A. Nelson, Lebanon. 

Lewis. — 10 Apples. By F. Harlan, Canton. 

Montgomery. — 73 Apples, 8 Pears, 8 Grapes, 2 Crab Apples. By 
Montgomery County Horticultural Society. 

Mound City Horticultural Society. — With Holt County. 

Mercer — 32 apples ; 2 pears. By Mercer County Horticultural 
Society. 

Oregon — 42 apples. By S. W. Gilbert, Thayer. 

Olden Fruit Co., Olden, Howell County — 85 apples ; 8 pears ; 10 
grapes ; 27 peaches ; 2 quinces ; 2 crab apples. By Olden Fruit Co., 
Olden. 

Pike —6 apples. By W. H. Avis, Clarksville. 

Putnam — 20 apples. By J. T. Scott, St. John. 

Polk — 4 apples. 

Platte — 47 apples ; 24 pears ; 2 grapes ; 3 crab apples. By J. A. 
Durkes, Weston. 

Pettis — 140 apples ; 14 pears ; 8 grapes ; 6 plums; 4 crab apples; 
By G. H. Shephard, Lamonte, and F. G. Tcubner, Sedalia. 

St. Louis — 45 apples ; 20 pears ; 8 peaches ; i plum ; 18 grapes ; 
2 quinces. H. J. W^eber, Gardenville, Gast Wine Co., St. Louis, C. W. 
Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, 

St. Charles — 94 apples; 26 peaches; 4 pears; i plum; 3 grapes; 
2 quince; 4 crab apples. By C. T. Mallinkrodt, St. Charles. 

Vernon — 176 apples; 12 pears; 4 peaches; 3 plums ; 4 grapes , 4 
crab apples, l^y Vernon County Horticultural Society. 

Wright— 10 peaches. By J. E. Elliott, Cedar Gap. 

Wayne — 4 apples; 4 pears. By S. A. Bales, Piedmont. 

Warren — 18 apples; 3 pears. By PoLster Bros,, Wright City. 

Webster — 17 apples. By T. L. Montgomery. Marshfield. 

A. Zeitinger, Zetonia, 17 plates. 

We have the following list of 

evergreens furnished. 

C. T. Mallinkrodt— St. Charles. 
A. Ambrose — Nevada. 
C. I. Robards— Butler. 
HoUaway & Skinner — Butler. 
N. F. Murray — Elm Grove. 



253 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETX, 



H. T. Kclsey — St. Joseph. 
Stark Bros — Louisiana. 
Chas. Patterson — Kirksville. 
Colman's Rural World — St. Louis. 
Blair & Kaufman — Kansas City. 
C. H. Fink — Lamar. 

Nearly two hundred evergreens were furnished, planted in pails and 
used for decorating the hall. All praise is due to our nurserymen for thus 
liberally donating the ornamental for our use. 

In giving this list of names of those who have so nobly assisted in 
our fruit display, I find it impossible to mention all those in our counties 
where our local societies are at work, and have given due credit to the 
societies where there are such. But I believe that I have given the names 
of all others, and, if there be any omission, it is because of over-sight in 
the hurry of arrangement. 

But whoever has had a part in this great display, can rest assured 
that our Society fully appreciated all the work which has been done by 
our members, and that they may be sure they have assisted to show our 
state fruits as they never were before shown. The result of this will be 
a great prominence of our fruit interests in the future. 

Foremost among our helpers has been Colman's Rural World, and 
what they say about the result, the benefits and the value of such work^ 
as well as the long efforts in bringing this matter to such a satisfactory 
conclusion, shall be stated in some clippings taken from the Rural : 



THE MISSOURI FRUIT SHOW. 



THE OUTCOME. 



We have presented herein a view of the Great Show of Fruit 
made by the Missouri State Horticultural Society at the Exposition Hall 
in St. Louis during the past autumn. The engraving gives but a partial 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 253 



view of the scene presented during the entire of those memorable forty 
days, of the crowds that entered the hall and fully and critically ex- 
amined the fruit on exhibition, and much less of the extent, variety, 
show and quality of the fruit. We can sit back in our chair and shut our 
eyes and view the scene as we meditate upon its greatness as a whole 
and the completeness of the many county exhibits, but we cannot, either 
in cold type describe or by means of an ordinary newspaper illustration 
reproduce the grand picture. We may see the same thing duplicated 
here or elsewhere, and have some lingering hopes that such may be our 
great pleasure, but just here and now are willing to admit that such a 
scene is one of a lifetime. 

In this connection we also have to indicate where the enterprise 
of the Rural World comes in. It may not appear seemly to boast of 
one's own work, but that "light under the bushel" business comes to us 
on good authority, and even if it did not, there exists no good reason 
why after first of all suggesting the effort, and spending weeks of time 
and traveling thousands of miles a year for three years, to say nothing of 
valuable columns of space devoted gratuitously to the work we should 
not mention it, and at the hands of those who come after us claim that 
we did something in our day and generation to make the merits of this 
grand state known to the people of the world. On this page is the first 
article that was written on the subject. It appeared in the RURAL 
World, Nov. 26th, 1885. It is truer to-day than then. 



354 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



A MISSOURI FRUIT SHOW. 



We believe in advertising our own goods, our own county, our own 
state. We believe in doing it thoroughly and well, in order that all 
who ought to know might know, and if they don't want to know we will 
make them anyhow. Some think ignorance is bli.ss, we do not ; particu- 
larly when the bliss consists in knowing nothing of our grand state and 
its grander future. There is hardly a crop prominently known to Am- 
erican horticulture which it is desirable to cultivate that cannot be 
grown in Missouri as abundantly, and with as good or better returns as 
in any state in the union. The people of other states do not know this, 
and not knowing do not appreciate it when told. Thousands of men 
pass through Missouri every year with their wives and families, and the 
wealth they have acquired, and settle in other and less favored states be- 
cause they know nothing of this state. They know nothing of our pro- 
ductive lands, of our immense orchards, our wheat and corn, our cattle 
and sheep, our colleges and schools, our churches, and social and domestic 
surroundings, and the peace and plenty which permeate our rich and no- 
ble state, because it has not been advertised in every paper, at every 
railroad station, and roadside , inn, and on the granite hillside of their 
own states ; because their country has not been deluged with highly col- 
ored pictures and fairly-worded pamphlets describing it as it has of the 
states and territories beyond ; therefore they go farther and do not fare 
as well as they would if they knew something which we would tell them 
of Missouri. Such ignorance is not bliss, neither is it desirable or 
profitable. 

The great St. Louis fair has done much to advertise St. Louis, for 
many have attended it from a distance, either as exhibitors or sight- 
seers, who have carried away with them impressions of its magnificence 
and of the extent of its manufactures and commerce. But whilst these 
in a measure must convey an idea of the surrounding country and the 
productiveness of the land to sustain such a city, it does so only in part, 
and a very small part at that. True, when' we make a show of grandly 
improved stock it conveys an idea of our advanced farming, but the ex- 
hibits ar^ open to the world, and the stock one sees is as likely to be 
from Mfiine or Kansas as from Missouri. And what is true in that re- 
gard of stock is equally true of nearly everything shown at the fair. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 255 

Wc want something that shall ?how the capacity of our orchards 
and the quality of our soil as a state ; something that shall command 
the attention and admiration of other states and of other peoples far and 
near, that shall convince them that Missouri is worthy of attention and 
deserving of more than a passing notice; that shall impress them in such 
a way as to compel them to cry for more ; then will they discover, what 
many thousands ought to have known years ago, that this is one of the 
grandest states in the union, and the one above all others in which they 
can settle to advantage both to themselves and their children after them. 

There are many ways of doing this, and in a council of promi- 
nent men there would develop a great variety of opinions as to which is 
the best. We are just now presenting an idea for the consideration of 
the members of the State Horticultural Society, and one which they 
can make work to advantage, viz : a Missouri Fr ait Show, a show that 
shall command at once the attention and the admiration of all, and 
whose very greatness shall compel its publication far and wide even if it 
does not bring the people to see it. Such a collection of fruit as we 
contemplate, could be made from the counties of Missouri, and the 
largest hall on the St. Louis fair grounds would be too small to contiin 
it. Each one of fifty counties would take pride in collecting, packing 
and displaying its own production, and in making the most and best 
of them, and a committee ot the State Horticultural Society have the su- 
perintendence of the whole. 

Should the society contemplate such an effort, we doubt not that 
the fair association would afford them space, though we have not ap- 
proached them on the subject, and facilitate the enterprise all they prop- 
erly could. Will the enterprising secretary, Mr. L. A. Goodman, think 
of this and submit it to the society at its annual meeting.? — Rural 
World, Nov. 26th, 18S5. 



}56 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MISSOURI A GREAT FRUIT STATE 



Missouri a c^rcat Iriiit state ? Missouri makes a c^reat show of fruit 
such as has never before been equaled ? That cannot be. I know 
Missouri is a great state, and ranks among the first in the production 
of corn, wheat, oats, hay, mules, horses, hogs, cattle and sheep ; but for 
fruits we must go to Pomona's realm among the orange groves of Cali- 
fornia and Florida ; the peach orchards of Delaware and Michigan, and 
the apple orchards of New York, and the region around the great lakes. 
Doubtless Missouri grows considerable fruit for home consumption, but 
it cannot be expected that the state can produce fruit sufficient in quan- 
tity, or good enough in quality to compete with the products of locali- 
ties more favored in soil and climate for fruit-growing. The foregoing 
expresses very nearly the opinion held by the general public regarding 
Missouri as a horticultural state. Those who have studied the natural 
advantages and resources of the state know that altogether too low an 
estimate is put on them in this particular as well as in others. They 
know that in no like area on the continent is there more fertile soil, or 
that which, from its diversified character, is adapted to a wider range of 
products than in Missouri. They know too, and the fact should be 
patent to anyone who will glance at a United States map, that Mis- 
souri's geographical location is such as to give her an unequaled climate. 
Far enough south to escape the effects of the northern blizzards, her 
northern line marks in that direction the limit of successful apple cul- 
' ture. Her southern counties do not extend into the region of too great 
and enervating heat, and between her southern line and the Ozark 
mountains is the future great peach country of the world. On the hill- 
side and mountain crest of Southeast Missouri, on the rich prairies of 
Southwest Missouri, which extend to and across the northern part of the 
state ; along the 400 miles of Missis'^ippi river shore on the eastern 
line of the state, and the 400 miles of Missouri river that flows along 
the northwestern line and through the center of the state ; upon almost 
every one of the 69,000 square miles of Missouri land, fruit can be 
grown in profusion and of a quality unsurpassed. 

It has been a long struggle to make these facts known, not only to 
home-seekeis from other States, but even to our own people, to con- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 257 



vince them that a peach orchard in Southern Missouri, a small fruit plan- 
tation in Southeast Missouri, or an apple orchard almost anywhere in 
the State is, well taken care of, a paying thing. But thanks to the Rn-. 
ral World and Missouri State Horticultural Society, the people are 
becoming convinced of the truth of what has been iterated and reiterat- 
ed a thousand times. Thousands of acres of orchards are now being 
planted yearly, not simply family orchards for home use, but commercial 
orchards of from ten to fifty acres, and it will not be long till Missouri 
apples will comprise a large share of those put on the market. And 
they will sell because they will be equal to or better than any grown in 
other States. Have not Missouri apples been shown at meetings of the 
Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society, the American Horticultural So- 
ciety, the American Pomological Society, at the World's Exposition at 
New Orleans, and on many minor occasions, when the best fruit in the 
Union were contestants for honors } And never yet has Missouri failed 
to take first honors where her fruit was shown. And these results have 
been obtained almost without State aid, with but little co-operation on 
the part of transportation companies, and only by the officers of the 
State Horticultural Society going down into their own pockets for money 
with which to pay expenses, and by giving their time and labor without 
stint to the cause, even to the neglect of their own business. 

Could they do any more than had been done .'' To ask them to do 
more was almost like riding a free horse to death, but the Rural World 
wanted to see one thing more accomplished, and two or three years agcy 
proposed that the Missouri State Horticultural Society make, in St. 
Louis, a show of Missouri fruit such as had never before been seen in 
the history of the world. Such an undertaking involved an inconceiva- 
ble amount of labor and the outlay of considerable money, but the offi- 
cers of the Society knew that the purpose could be accomplished if suf- 
ficient funds were to be had, and it was not until this fall that the effort 
could be made. 

Early in the summer, arrangements werd made with the manage- 
ment of the St. Louis Exposition to make the fruit show in connection 
with the exposition, which opened Sept, 5 and continued forty days. 
One of the finest rooms in the building was secured and the directors of 
the exposition assisted the society in fitting it up for the show. 

Then began the work of collecting the fruit. The officers and 
members of the state society, the local societies, individuals, and the 
press took hold of the enterprise and the result was the grandest show 
of apples both in the number of plates and quality of fruit, that has c\er 

II. K,— 17. 



258 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTUKAI, SOCIETY. 

been gotten together. Thirty eight counties of the state had fruit on 
exhibition, the entire collection comprising over 3,000 plates, and pro- 
nounced by experts of a quality never before seen. 

The show surpassed in extent and quality even the most sanguine 
expectations of its promoters, and to the hundreds of thousands of vis- 
itors from this and other states it was a wonderful revelation. 

To collect this fruit and place it on the table, keep it in good order 
for forty days, replacing decaying specimens every few days, was a task 
that cannot be appreciated by the uninitiated, but those who gave their 
time and labor, and contributed to its success, believe that the state will 
be amply remunerated for a 1 of the outlay in the impetus it will give to 
fruitgrowing and in the elevation of her reputation. How these men 
are to be paid for their services is another question, but it is to be hoped 
that the people of the great State of Missouri will appreciate their labors 
in her behalf enough to ask the next legislature to place funds at the dis- 
posal of the Missouri Horticultural Society, to enable its officers to 
carry out such enterprises as this, without their being too great a burden. 

In connection with the view of the Fruit Show, which we present 
herewith we present the ground plan, showing the location of the differ- 
ent county exhibits. 

Upon the officers depended the greater part of the labor incident 
to the show. They have all served the state's interests, not only in con- 
nection with this Show but in every way in which they could advance 
horticulture, but all will heartily accord Secretary Goodman the most 
credit for what the society has accomplished. The organization has 
been in existence thirty years, but by far the most important part of 
what has been accomplished has been since Mr. Goodman's incumbency. 
He is a practical and expert horticulturist, a good business man and a 
pleasant gentleman, whose equal for the position he occupies would be 
hard to find. Major Evans has filled the office of president for many 
years. He is a large and successful farmer and fruit grower, a man 
ot rare judgment and a model presiding officer. Mr, Murray is one of 
Holt county's most successful nurserymen and fruit growers, and is a 
man whose counsel is sought and whose friendship is valued. D. S. 
Holman, the Treasurer, is now well advanced in years, but still vigorous 
and one of the most indefatigable of workers in the cause of horticulture. 
— Coleman's Rural World. 

How successful this has been and what it will do for us, as well as 
some thoughts on the subject, are thus given b}- the Globc-Dcvwcrat of 
September 30, 1888: 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 259 



MISSOURI FRUIT. 



SUCCESS Ol' THE I)TSPI,AY MADE AT THE GREAT ST. LOUIS EXPOSITION. 



Entering the room occupied by the Missouri State Horticultural So- 
ciety at the Exposition, one is impressed with the magnitude of the fruit 
display. The whole of the room formerly occupied by Barr's exhibit is 
given up to the fruit display. Here, arranged by counties, are the fruits 
which each has sent, to show the people that their county is adapted to 
fruit-growing. Thirty-erght of the counties of the State are represented, 
some with a large and elaborate display of 250 or 300 plates, embracing 
all the varieties of apples, pears and grapes grown in their counties. Here 
are seen apples from the very earliest — the red June — to the latest of the 
winter varieties, which are not yet even ripe. When one begins to 
count the trouble and expense of such a collection of all the summer, 
fall and winter fruits, and of keeping them up for a space of six weeks, 
they then see the necessity of work and money to make such a showing; 
all of these county displays made by members of the State Horticul- 
tural Society, for the glory of the state, and without a cent of pay, even 
in many cases paying their own expenses, and in every instance giving 
their time without recompense ; it seems that the enthusiastic horticul- 
turist is not only anxious to let the world know what can be grown in 
the State, but to tell them how to grow it. 

This display is thus made by the fruit-growers of the state to let the 
thousands of visitors from the different states see that Missouri is pecul- 
iarly adapted to fruit-growing in all its branches. In fact, they want to 
prove to the visitors, and to man}' of the people of their own state as well, 
that Missouri is what the}' claim for it, " The very best state in the 
Union for fruit-growing." ^ 



THE OlijECT OK INCREASE. 

As one of the members stated, " There is no better opening in any 
ine of business than <j(iocl, intellicrent. s\-stcmatic fruit-growing, on the 



260 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

• 

cheap lands of Missouri. The fact is, that when we can get large, com- 
mercial orchards at forty, eight)' or one hundred and sixty acres in bear- 
ing and a dozen or so of them in any one piece, then we can get good 
paying prices for our fruits. The more we have at any one place of good 
shipping fruits, the easier it is to sell them " 

Some of these counties, in their display, have had on their tables 
over 200 varieties of fruit. These have to be replaced every two or three 
days and fresh fruit put in their place. The peaches, pears and grapes are 
nearly past their time, and their places will betaken with apples as they 
disappear. Some of the county displays are made up by one individual, 
who has enough love for his business and public spirit to at least send in 
a fine collection of fruit ; these have been put up by the State Society 
and their county sign put over them. The visitor finds among the fruits 
apples of all sizes and colors ; he sees the beautiful little " Lady Apple,' 
which has a world-wide reputation as a "party" apple, and near it the 
"Monstrous Pippin" and "Gloria Mundi," which measures from fifteen to 
seventeen inches in circumference and weighs from twenty-four to thirty 
ounces ; perfect monsters. Here he sees, also, the perfect specimens of 
hundreds of varieties of apples, some for family use, some for special 
amateur use, and some for purely commercial use. 

MOUTH-WATERING SPECIMENS. 

But what strikes the fancy of the visitors most is not so much the 
large or small varieties as it is the beautiful colored specimens of eating 
apples. They do not want the very large or the very small varieties of 
fruits, but they want these nicely colored and extra good in quality. 
Hence, the beautiful specimens of Jonathan, Grimes' Golden, Huntsman, 
Flora, Ladyfinger, Northern Spy, Wagner, Fall Pippin, Penn Red Streak, 
Maiden's Blush, Belle Flower, Winesap and such class of apples striking 
their fancy the most. Their inquiry is always, " where can we get such 
varieties of apples for our own use ?" It seems as if it would pay some 
commission men to have had a display there for their own advertisement. 

The wonder of another class, and very many of them, too, is when 
they enter the room and see the signs all around of so many different 
counties of Missouri, to ask the question, " Is all this fruit grown in 
Missouri.'" " Well, I am astonished. I did not have any idea that Mis- 
souri could grow such fruit, and especially apples." Many a man from 
the east and north, who is looking for a home in a milder climate, has 
thus expressed himself, and has gone away with his mind made up to 
look further into the matter. Two men by the name of Withers, from 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 261 

Cook County, III., said they had frozen up long enough in the north, and 
were eoine into Southern Missouri to look out homes for themselves 
and friends. 

Thus so soon are seen practical results from this grand display of 
Missouri products. 

THE NORTHERN COUNTIES. 

One other point seems to astonish people as they inquire about fruit 
lands, that up near the northwest corner of the state, at the Iowa and 
Nebraska line, on the " Loess" formation of the Missouri river bluffs, it 
is possible to produce such wonderful apples as are shown from Holt 
County. The fact is that on those " Loess hills" there is one of the 
grandest apple regions in all the west. It seems to be the end of the good 
fruit lands of the northwest. Here is the best market in all the whole 
western country, for the people of Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa and the whole 
northwest are anxious to get every bushel of fruit that the growers can 
give them, and at very remunerative prices, too. 

Again, the question is asked by hundreds of people, "Is not this fruit 
show a new thing ?" In regard to this exposition, of course it is, and a 
very pleasing one, too. But as to being a new thing for the state so- 
ciety, it is by no means. Around the room are seen hanging some 
twenty or more certificates of awards, many of them from the World's 
Fair at New Orleans, one for the " best and largest collection of apples 
grown in the southern district," one for the "best collection of lOO va- 
rieties of apples," one for the " best collection oi 50 varieties of apples," 
and seventeen other certificates for varieties shown. Besides these are 
shown one gold medal from the World's Fair, two Wilder medals for 
large displays made at the American Pomological Society, one medal 
from the Mississippi Valley Horticultural Society for the largest collec- 
tion of apples made at their opening show here in St. Louis at its or- 
ganization. 

The visitor is also shown two diplomas from the St. Louis Fair As- 
sociation for the " best and largest collections of fruits," one for the 
year 1885 and one for the year 1886. 

NEVER TOOK SECOND. 

Besides all these, the society holds four other medals and has made 
many shows in different parts of the United States, and has never yet 
taken second place in any of the awards given. The enthusiastic of- 



262 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ficcrs of the state society say that they do not believe there is a better 
state in all the union for a man to come to if he wishes a ^ood, pleas- 
ant, delightful home, and wishes to make money growing fruits. 

There are represented in this display the following county horticul- 
tural societies : Holt county, Mound City, Jasper county, Greene coun- 
ty, Vernon county, Ikites county, Montgomery county, Mercer county, 
Cooper county, Howell county — ten in all. 

Other displays are made by the counties direct : Callaway, An- 
drew, Clay, Gasconade, Crawford, Johnson, Oregon, Barton, Franklin, 
Platte, Jackson, Adair, Wayne, St. Louis, Pettis, Putnam, Buchanan, 
Olden Fruit company — eighteen in all. 

When it is understood that this display is collected and made by 
the members of the local societies of the state and the working members 
in the counties where there are no societies, without a cent of pay for time 
spent or fruit given, and often times without a dollar for even expenses, 
ore can but just get an inkling of what could be done would the railroads 
treat the fruit interests of the state as they do the states west, south and 
north. But while Kansas, Nebraska and Arkansas railroads will even 
take hold and make a display for the credit of the state, pay for all help, 
for time, and transporting both fruit and men free of charge, yet this 
great state of Missouri can scaicely get a cut rate for fruits sent in, and 
no assistance whatever in regard to transportation of the members in 
working up the matter, or in attending to the display, when they are 
giving their time free of charge. 

THE RAILROADS' DUTY. 

It seems that if the railroads would give the Horticultural Society 
its just dues, they would on all such occasions give free transportation 
for all who are working in the cause as well as the fruits. They are the 
first to reap the benefit of all such planting and immigration, and should 
assist these enthusiastic horticulturalists who are working for the honor 
and good of the state. 

The secretary says they have received many favors from the ex- 
press companies in sending fruits at half rates, from the exposition man- 
agement in its very great assistance, without which the display could 
not have been made, and from our local societies, enthusiastic fruit- 
growers, who have so freely and gladly done their part in this work. 

The fruit display shows about 3000 plates of fruits, and this hardly 
p;ives an idea of what amount of fruit there has been sent in or will take 
for the exhibit. Many of the earlier varieties of apples and all the 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 263 



grapes and peaches have been replaced two, three or four times ah'eady, 
and will take as many more changes before the end of the exposition, 
so that it is easily seen that it will take 12,000 to 15,000 plates of fruit 
to keep this display up until the close. What work this involves in col- 
lecting, wrapping and shipping, to say nothing of the changes made on 
the tables, the cleaning up the exhibit every morning and the handling 
over and over the plates of fruit, only those who have done and are doing 
the work can realize. 

Taken, then, the Missouri Fruit Show, as it now appears, and the 
officers given assurance that it will be improved every week up to the 
close, the visitor has to say that no other display has ever begun to show 
the extensive capabilities of the great state of Missouri in the fruit line 
as has this one. No one can view the extensive display and say aught 
against Missouri as a fruit district, and it is the firm belief that it will 
do very much to induce the people of other states to find a home in 
Missouri. 

Also this report given by the Star-Sayings, St. Louis: 



OUR MONSTER SHOW. 



THE TIDE OF CURIOSITY SETTING IN AT THE EXPOSITION — COUNTLESS 

OBJECT LESSONS — AN ARRAY OF WONDERS CONFUSING 

TO THE UNTUTORED MIND. 



You know when you are near the pomological display of the Mis- 
souri State Horticultural Society, at the Exposition, long before you get 
there, for the fragrance of apples permeates the atmosphere like an or- 
chard at ripening time. To an apple lover, it is not unlike being in Tar- 
taros, to walk through the large room filled with the fruit treasures of 



2C4 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the state, which are pretty enough and smell good enough to rouse 
in the heart of the most moral a desire to break the unwritten law of 
"hands off." Poor old Tantalus ! If you want to know how he felt, just 
take a stroll, about noon time, through the [)omological exhibit. 

There are apples as yellow as the fabled three which lost Atalanta 
her famous race, and gave Hippomenes a wife ; apples that have been 
kissed by the sun-god into a permanent blush ; apples that are not as 
green as they look ; streaked apples, mellow apples, hard apples, crab- 
apples — all kinds of apples, except apples of discord and Dead Sea ap- 
ples. 

Nor are apples alone to be seen, although they form the most prom- 
inent feature in this magnificent exhibit ; for Gasconade County alone 
sends 40 different varieties of grapes, and there are pears in abundance, 
some vieing in beauty with the California production, and all of exquis- 
ite flavor. " There is an impression abroad," said the gentlemanly sec- 
retary, "especially in the Eastern states, that 'old Missouri' can raise 
nothing but Jesse James gangs and border ruffians, and even, in our own 
cities it has grown to be a custom to send North and East for winter apples. 
Now, we want the people to see just what the state can do as a fruit 
state, hence this display from 36 different counties. This is not a money 
making scheme, and we have no object but furthering the .state interests 
as a fruit growing center, and rousing the farmers, themselves, to an ap- 
preciation of the vast resources in their possession. This exhibit, there- 
fore, is gotten up by eight local county societies, and the remaining, by 
private individuals and nurserymen." 

The eight societies, which have separate displays ranging from 250 
to 300 plates each, are, respectively: Holt, Bates, Vernon, Jasper, Mont- 
gomery, Mercer, Greene and Cooper, and the different pyramids of fruit 
are beautiful in the extreme. Every day the plates are looked over and 
the fruit renewed, so that they present a fresh appearance constantly. 

The other counties, where the displays are those of individuals and 
nurserymen, and vary from 30 to 150 plates, are: Callaway, Gasconade, 
Johnson, Barton, Clay, Platte, Howell, Adair, Wayne, Pettis, Buchanan, 
Franklin and St. Louis, three of which will send in their contribution in 
a few days after their local fairs are over. A visitor from the Cincinnati 
Exposition yesterday was heard to remark that one pyramid of the fruit 
in this vast exhibit was equal to the entire collection of the Cincinnati 
Exposition. The gentlemen in charge of this display are very proud of 
it, and with every reason to be so, as it is the largest ever made by the 
society and beyond praise in itself, but is fine enough to place the state 
in the front ranks of the fruit growers. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 



"Wc are willing to meet any eastern horticultural exhibit," says one, 
"on either size, quality or perfection of color now, although our collection 
will not be at its very best before October i, when all the varieties of 
winter apples will be ripe enough to ship, and we will have some beau- 
tiful specimens then that are not represented now at all." 

The general arrangement of the large room devoted to, the Horti- 
cultural Society is very attractive. • The large center pagoda, with its 
trimming of evergreens, breaks the distance and takes from the great 
height of the ceiling, while its environment of pomological treasures is 
both prominent and refreshing to the eye. The secretary's of^ce is a 
charming bower, half octagonal, with its pillars garlanded with wreaths 
of ground pine, its roof filled with potted evergreens that soften the glare 
of light from the lofty windows, and its further adornment of fruit in 
clusters, plants and goldenrod 

Greene County sends a plate of a new variety of apples that won the 
first premium at Springfield tor beauty. 

Jasper County has not completed its display, but has a collection of 
sftch quality and extent as to place it ahead on fruit as well as minerals. 

This society received the gold medal at the World's Fair in New 
Orleans, two silver medals and a premium of $500. They have also three 
Wilder medals from the American Pomological Society, first premium 
and diploma in 1885 and 1886 from the St. Louis Fair, besides num- 
bers of minor testimonials. 

Especially interesting it is to know that our extreme Southwest 

comes so nobly to the front in fruit culture, the Ozark region sending 
delicious peaches, to the culture of which this region is peculiarly 
adapted. The entire display is worthy of several visits from all, as all 
alike are interested in the subject. Whether farmer or city man or 
woman, we all belong to the great army of consumers, and in this beau- 
tiful exhibit there is all that is pleasure to the eye and tempting to the 
palate. 

A list of fruit shown by each county has been prepared, but it will 
be too long to embody, and only a list of all the fruits shown will be 
given; thus giving our friends an opportunity of seeing how great and 
diversified are the fruits of Missouri. And, when we realize that many 
of our earlier fruits were lost before that time, and that less than one 
third of our counties made any show at all, and that only ten or twelve 
made an extra effort at that. If. on top of all this we could have had a 
nice large collection of our small fruits and stone fruits, in jars, how 
great would have been the result; and that at least one hundred of our 



266 MISSUURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

counties could have done nearly as well as our best, if they had had the 
men and money to do it, then we begin to realize how great and varied 
arc the advantages of Missouri, for fruit growing. 

A committee of four persons were invited from other states, to p.iss 
upon the.exhibits, and their report is submitted. 

The committee were; A. C. Hammond, of Warsaw, 111.; Frank 
Holsinger, of Rosedale, Kas.; W. M. Samuels, of Clinton, Ky. and E. A. 
Reihl. of Alton, 111. 

The following is their report. 

To the Officers and Members of the Missouri Horticultural Society : 

It affords us great pleasure to have the privilege of examining such 
a collection of fruit and make such a favorable report. 

The Missouri Fruit exhibition, was a collection of fruit contributed 
by about thirty-eight counties of the state, shown in the P^xposition build- 
ing, by the officers of the State Horticultural Society. The show con- 
sisted of about 3,000 plates of fruit; 2,300 plates of apples, 300 plates 
pears, 200 plates grapes, 100 plates peaches and roo plates of plums 
and crab-apples and some miscellaneous fruits. 

The exhibition was as good in arrangement and quality of fruit as 
it was large, and in many ways showed the work of the careful, scientific 
horticulturist, and plainly demonstrated that Missouri possesses some of 
the finest locations for fruit growing on the continent. 

No better method of advertising the capabilities of the state, in the 
way of fruit growing, and attracting settlers to her unoccupied lands, 
could have been devised ; nor a better place found, in which to 
make the show, as the Exposition is visited, not only by tens of thous- 
ands of her own citizens, but by thousands from other states, who, seeing 
what can be done in this line, will be attracted to her, and make their 
homes on her fruitful farms. 

Such exhibitions are of incalculable benefit, not only do they at- 
tract the right kind of settlers from abroad, but they show the citizens 
of the state that makes them, their own resources, and stimulates fruit 
tree planting, not only for commercial purposes, but also for home use, 
thus adding to the health happiness and general welfare of the people. 

This exhibition clearly showed the good accomplished by local hor- 
ticultural societies. 

Usually the largest, and always the best exhibits were from those 
counties having a live horticultural society. Bates, Holt, Vernon, How- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 267 

ell. Jasper, Greene, Montgomery, Pettis and Cooper counties showed 
plainly by the exhibits made, that they had within their borders live, 
practical^ as well as scientific horticulturists. 

The exhibit made by the Olden Fruit Co., of Howell County, was 
particularly good and interesting. Specimens of some of the ordinary 
varieties, such as Ben Davis, Willow, Rome Beauty, Ortly and Winesap, 
were so large that your committee scarcely recognized them, and. taking 
size, quality, color and general appearance into consideration, we think 
it a very fine collection. 

The exhibition from Boone County was entirely from the University 
orchard and was exceedingly interesting. It consisted of fifty-five varie- 
ties of apples, and included a large number of very promising new varie- 
ties, some of which will doubtless be heard from in years to come. 

GVeat credit is due President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treas- 
urer of the State Horticultural Society for the earnest, persistent work 
they have done in planting and arranging the details of this show and 
making it such a grand success. They have doubtless been ably sec- 
onded by other officers and members of the Society and by. the local 
Horticultural Societies of the State, but the principal burden has rested 
on them, and whatever expense they have incurred should be refunded 
by the state, as the benefit of such an exhibit of the products of the state 
cannot fail to be a thousand times greater than the cost. 

We have, no doubt, but hundreds and perhaps thousands of strang- 
ers, who were seeking homes in the West, will be induced by what they 
saw here of the wonderful capabilities of this great State to cast their lot 
within her borders and plant trees on the soil that produces such wonder- 
ful fruit. 

We would suggest, that this show be repeated in the future, and that 
other states consider the propriety of holding similar exhibits. 

A. C. Hammond, Warsaw, 111. 
E. A. RiEiiL. .Alton, 111. 
Frank Holsinger, Rosedale, Kas. 
W. M. Samuels, Clinton, Ky. 

Committee. 

Again, as an evidence of the value of our display, we received many 
com{)liments from hundreds of the visitors, and the following letter from 
Secretary Johnston of the Exposition, and also a series of resolutions from 
the officers and executive committee, showing how much they thought 
of the " Fruit Show." 



2G8 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

St. Louis, Oct. 23d, 1888. 

L. A . Goodman, Secretary State Poinological Society : 

Dear Sir. — You will permit mc on behalf of this organization to 
express our high appreciation of the valuable exhibit made, during the 
exposition just closed, by your society. 

The result of your efforts to place the resources of our st te intelli- 
gently before our people, as you have unquestionably done, will, I am 
sure, be productive of great good to Missouri. I earnestly hope that 
your association will not remain satisfied with what has been accom- 
plished this season, but rather make your plans sufficiently in advance 
of another year, to enable you to again be with us. I trust that our 
legislators will make an appropriation sufficient ly generous to enable 
you to do the state full justice. With best wishes to yourself and col- 
leagues, I am dear sir, 

Yours very truly. 

J. H. JOHNSTON, Secretary. 



St. Louis, Oct., 23d, 1888. 

Resolved, That the directors of the St. Louis Exposition and Music 
Hall Association cannot permit the Fifth Annual Exposition to close 
without expressing their high appreciation of the value of the display 
made by the Missouri State Horticultural Society, not only to the ex- 
position as an attraction, but to the state at large. 

Resolved That while the splendid array of fruits exhibited has cer- 
tainly awakened very wide and extended interest in the capacity of Mis- 
souri as a fruit-growing state, second, we believe to none in the union, 
it is a matter of regret that circumstances have limited the display of 
the production to only thirty-eight out of one hundred and fourteen 
counties, many of the most fruitful being unrepresented, and we hope 
that in future years, with the example already established, the interest 
of the fruit-growers of the state in this work may be very largely ex- 
tended. 

Resolved, further, That we recognize in Mr. J. C. Evans, of Harlem, 
president, and Mr. L. A. Goodman, secretary of the Missouri State Hor- 
ticultural Society, gentlemen whose unselfish and well-directed labors 
in making and superintending the display of 1888, are calculated to ex- 
tend the reputation of the state, and to induce immigration and settle- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 269 

ment of the most valuable kind, and we commend the society they rep- 
resent to the legislature as one worthy of the greatest encouragement. 

By Officers and Directors. 

In order to get a good idea of the display as a whole, and that 
those who did not see the show can realize something of the importance 
and beauty of the room, we have had a sketch made, and from it the 
following cut, thus giving everyone a fair impression of the room as it 
appeared at its best. 



270 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 







ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 271 



A meeting of those present was held at room 4, Exposition Build- 
ing, and the following report of that meeting will give some idea of 
how we felt over the success of our truit show. The display seemed to 
surprise even ourselves, and we are happj' to report that the most un- 
bounded enthusiasm was awakened in the minds of all by our success. 



A HORTICULTURAL MEETING AT THE ST. LOUIS EXPOSE 

TION. 



In response to a call issued by Secretary L. A. Goodman ot the Mis- 
souri Horticultural Society, there assembled in one cf the reception 
rooms of the Exposition building, Friday evening, October 5, a company 
of horticulturists and those interested in horticulture who were attend- 
ing the Missouri Fruit Show. 

Pres. J. C, Evans called the meeting to order and in a few remarks 
stated why it had been called. We could not, he said let pass the op- 
portunity of having a reunion of those who were visiting the show that 
we might talk over what had been accomplished and get ideas for future 
work. Besides the Missourians present, Kentucky, Illinois and Kansas 
were represented in the meeting and it would be well to have some ex- 
pressions from those gentlemen as to what they thought of the Fruit 
Show. 

This had been a departure from the usual order of fruit exhibitions, 
and we should like to know what the gentlemen thought of it. Hereto- 
fore, exhibitions of fruit have been made a matter of contest for premiums 
or some mark of distinction. States have contested with states, counties 
with counties, societies with societies, and individuals with individuals, 
for honors, the result being that while some win victories, others must 
suffer defeat. In this case individuals, counties, and societies have 
united in a fraternal effort to win for our commonwealth praise and 
honor, and to make brighter and more illustrious her name among all 
our people. We want to know if the effort has been commendable and 
is worthy of repetition by ourselves and imitation by other states. 



272 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 



Mr. Murtfcldt expressed the thought that no calling contributed 
more to the dignity and pleasure of man than did horticulture. The 
senses of sight, smell and taste were gratified. He spoke of the sjjlendid 
display of fruits which was reflecting so much honor on grand old Mis- 
souri. The preeminence of the state in fruit growing was plainly shown 
in this exhibit. All parts of the state were represented. The people of 
this state are much indebted to those who have made this display, and 
all who see it must be benefitted. No man or woman of taste can pass 
through the room and go away unmoved. 

Mr. W. M. Samuels, of Clinton, Kentucky, commented on the new 
departure in exhibiting fruits by counties, without expectation of win- 
ning any premium, but merely for the sake of demonstrating the advan- 
tages of each for fruit growing, and he thought it an excellent idea. He 
said Missourians ought to be proud of the State. The .show had clearly 
proven her superiority in the production of apples at least. He had at- 
tended many fruit shows but had never seen finer fruit anywhere, and 
hoped that this would not be the last show of the kind. 

E. A. Riehl, Vice-President of the Southern Illinois Horticultural 
Society, Alton, Illinois, thought the Show a grand, good one, and that 
those who have made it deserve great credit. He, being a native of the 
state, was proud of her. The Show, he said, would do the state great 
good, for it will teach even her own people that she can produce better 
fruit than they knew. Fruit supplies to the human system what is 
needed to displace the intoxicants like whisky and tobacco. Illinois is 
trying to emulate Missouri in the development of horticulture. Their 
State Society meets at Alton next winter, and he hoped to see many of 
the friends from Missouri present. 

Prof. F. E. Nipher, of Washington University, Director of the Mis- 
souri Weather Service, was introduced and asked to make a few remarks 
on the relation of horticulture to meteorology. He said it was not nec- 
essary to go into an explanation as to how meteorology affected horti- 
culture. That was clearly enough understood by those present. He 
would explain, however, what the work of the State Weather Service had 
done since its organization ten years ago. The observations had been 
on temperature, rainfall, etc., are made by volunteer observers, some 
forty, in number, scattered over the state. The work of the central 
office in reducing the observations to tables and in form to be given to 
the public, had been done by himself, at his own expense, with the help 
of a few interested friends. Being engaged as a teacher, he could 
only devote some of his leisure time to this work, and being under the 
necessity of earning a living, he could not afford to spend much money 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 273 

for the benefit of the public. Six years ago he made an attempt to get 
some aid from the state Legislature to carry on this work, but did not 
succeed. 

If such aid could be obtained the service could be made useful to 
the state. Not only should climate be studied, but we should do some- 
thing to develop a system of local storm warnings. When patents on 
telephones expire, as they will in a few years, and they become less 
costly, farm houses can be connected with town, and the different towns 
in a section of state connected. It will then be quite possible to de- 
velop such a system. 

• Major F. Holsingcr, Secretary Missouri Valley Horticultural So- 
ciety, Rosedale, Kan., thought the exhibit of iruits showed conclusively 
which of the counties in the state had progressive horticultural societies. 
The novice will often select large, overgrown, imperfect specimens. The 
collection was, on the whole, very fine, and Missouri is undoubtedly the 
finest fruit state in the union, especially for apples. We in Kansas, he 
said, cannot compete with you No state in the union has such general 
advantages as a fruit state, and this display will do much to advertise 
that fact. 

The $30,000 spent by Kansas a few years ago in making a display 
of her products resulted in adding over 100,000 to her population. Mis- 
souri is a better state than Kansas to live in. 

Prof. L. H. Pammel. of the Shaw School of Botany, spoke of the 
cotton blight which he had been investigating in Texas during the sum- 
mer. As this blight, which to him, seemed to be caused by a fungus, 
seemed also to affect fruit trees and plants, it would be a matter of in- 
terest to horticulturists to know something of it. 

Mr. N. F. Murray, Vice-President Missouri Horticultural Society, 
Elm Grove, Mo., commented on Prof Nipher's remarks, and said there 
was more in the matter than we might at first think. There was no 
question in his mind as to the value to be derived from an efficient 
weather service but we know how difficult it is to get our legislators to 
see this. 

He lost $300 worth of celery one season, by frost, on the 17th of 
October, which he could have saved, had he had twenty-four hours no- 
tice of the fall in temperature. Major Holsingcr has just told us how 
Kansas made money by spending money to advertise her advantages. 
Missouri could spend money in similar ways to a good purpose. 

Judge Samuel Miller, of Bluffton, Missouri, said, that when the idea 
of making a show of Mis.souri fruits was suggested to him, he thought 

II. K. — 18. 



274 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the undertaking was too vast, but what do we see here ? He had, he 
said, seen all the big fruit displays in the East, but this Missouri display 
was the finest of them all. Missouri is the garden of Pennsylvania. 
The show is a great credit to the state, and to the United States. Could 
this collection of fruit be set down in iVew York, how surprised they 
would be that such specimens could be produced in Missouri. 

D. S. Holman, Treasurer Missouri State Horticultural Society, 
Springfield. Missouri, being called on, said he had enjoyed listening to 
the remarks more than he would speaking. Horticulture, he said, had a 
manifold mission. There is nothing sel.i.sh in the calling ; it unites men 
and states, and creates a feeling of sociability. He had been surprised 
in the last few weeks to see the fine specimens that had coine in from 
all parts of the state, and he was proud of her. He thought this meth- 
od the best way to convince the people of the worth of Missouri as 
a horticultural state, and wished that he was a young man, that he 
might grow apples. 

Z. T. Russell. Secretary Jasper County Horticultural Society, Car- 
thage, Missouri, expressed his pleasure in having had the opportunity of 
seeing such a grand display of fruits and studying the different varieties. 
He would return home with renewed zeal in the cause of horticulture, 
and would do better work in the future. 

After a few farewell remarks by the President, the meeting adjourn- 
ed. — Riiral Wo7'ld. 

The result of all this work and labor of so many can be only appre- 
ciated in time. Day after day and year after year will prove what we 
now state, that no greater success was ever made by any fruit show in 
the United States. The work of going over the whole of the show every 
day or two, dusting, wiping, cleaning, taking off the decayed ones and 
replacing with fresh can only be realized by those who have tried it. 

At the close of the exposition there were on the tables nearly one 
hundred and fifty bushels of fruit, and I suppose that there were used in 
the whole nearly five hundred bushels of fruit, to keep it up during the 
forty days. At no time did the display deteriorate, but each time, day 
by day, it grew better, so that at the end it was better than it ever had 
been. 

About one hundred and twenty plates were selected and sent to 
Washington, there to be prepared for the display to be made in Paris 
next year. I am sure that no better specimens could be found anywhere 
in the whole United States than those we sent. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 275 

About twelve barrels were saved for this meeting, a lot of baskets 
were filled for the officers of the exposition, a lot was given to the men 
who assisted in carrying up the boxes and barrels, and the rest were sold. 

As a final result, the expense was about $700.00, and that report 
will be furnished by our Treasurer, and we feel that at least we have done 
some good, and that the State Society is entitled to the credit for it. 

L. A. GOODMAN, 

Secretary. 

Miss Edna Sterrett than gave an artistic rendering of " Gone with 
a Handsomer Man." After which Mrs. T. J. Modie sang a solo most 
charmingly. 



HORTICULTURE. 



WILLIE FOREMAN, NEVADA. 



Horticulture, according to Webster, means " The Art of Cultivating 
Gardens." As an art, horticulture dates back thousands of years but as 
a science it is new. When man ceased his nomadic roamings, he had no 
wild herbs, such as onions, garlics, etc , which he gathered along, to rely 
upon, but had to follow horticultural pursuits more or less. Like to-day 
he traded and trafificed. One man might put his whole time and atten- 
tion to agriculture, while another would have his little herd of cattle or 
sheep. We find from history, that the Egyptians were the first to culti- 
vate the soil, and each nation afterward follows agricultural pursuits more 
or less, excepting the Carthagenians, who were traders ; being traders, 
they required the rights of the Mediterranean, and, as nations grew up 
on their opposite borders, they disputed their rights, and, it is said, had 
it not been for its wars, it would not have been known. Therefore we 
see the nations, which had the most agriculture, rank foremost. There is 
Rome, who had the most agriculture, stood the conquerors of the world. 



276 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is said when Diocletian and Maximum resigned the throne, Dio- 
cletian amused himself by working in his garden and when Maximum 
sought to draw him out of his retirement, he wrote : " If you could see 
the cabbages I have planted with my own haijd, you would never ask 
me to remount the throne." There has been a great improvement in 
horticulture from that day down to the present; as man has improved, 
God has made the plants and their ways similar to that of man; first 
the i)lant breathes the same as man, the only difference it inhales nitro- 
gen and exhales oxygen and man inhales oxygen and exhales 
nitrogen; second, if a good plant of the same kind be placed with 
a bad one, the pollen of the bad plant will affect that of the 
good one, and make a plant which is not as good as it would have been, 
but by placing two good ones together, the same changes will take 
place, but it will form a new plant just as good — if not better, it will not 
be any \vorse. The same with man, if a good boy be placed with a bad 
boy to grow up to manhood, the good boy will take the bad boy's ways 
seldom ever the bad boy takes the good boy's ways) and be a bad boy, 
too; and third, trees are like men — the wide spreading oak and the old 
apple tree represents the liberal and charitable man, its wide limbs af- 
ford Q rest for each tired bird as it flits along, and the long slender pop- 
lar with its limbs pointing straight up and down affording no place for 
the tired bird to light upon nor no shade for man nor beast when scorch- 
ed by the noonday sun, represents the stingy man who cares for no- 
body but himself, just so he has his palaces to roam in, he cares nothing 
for his poor brother who is dying with hunger and frozen with cold. 

Horticulture is as nice financially as it is to the palate. The sup- 
posed gardens of the Hesperides were surrounded by a wall eighteen 
fathoms high. The garden was inhabited by three stern sisters, the 
Hesperides, and was guarded by a three-headed dragon which never 
slept. Among the trees of this garden were golden apples. The elev- 
enth labor of Hercules was to carry off the golden apples, which he did. 
When I look on those golden apples, I would like to be Hercules. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 277 



FLORICULTURE. 



ESSAY READ BY MRS. GEO. E. DUGAN, " MAY MYRTLE," OF SEDALIA. 



"And the spring rose in the garden fair, 

Like the spirit of love, felt everywhere; 

And each flower and herb on earth's dark breast, 
Rose from the dreams of its wintry rest." 

It has been truly said, "that a gift of flowers is always a most charm- 
ing and acceptable one. A queen may give them to her subjects, and 
the poorest subject may offer them to a monarch." They are pledges 
of friendship, of love and of good will. The coy maiden may give a fra- 
grant boquet to the object of her adoration and the sweet blossoms will 
whisper the tenderness her heart feels but modesty forbids her to utter. 
The sighing swain who is too bashful to speak his sentiments to the one 
so dearly beloved, may give her a rose, and the delicate messenger will 
tell the sweet story in the most beautiful and poetical of all the lan- 
guages. 

Who wonders that the dainty forget-me-not is such a favorite, when 
it says so prettily to the one receiving it, " I come to you with a mes- 
sage of true love." 

The myrtle too, mingles love with sadness, and is a fit emblem to 
wreath the white shafts, where our beloved dead lie at rest. 

The language of flowers is a most interesting one. Very few of the 
young people ever neglect to master it. Handkerchief and fan flirta- 
tions, are rude and unrefined, but the heart's tenderest emotions may be 
spoken in celestial language of flora, as delicately as the fragrance ex- 
hales from the petals of a rose. These gentle missionaries from paradise 
have a wonderful hold on human sympathy, for they seem to speak to the 
soul, and to speak of a brighter and happier land beyond this "vale of 
tears." 

I have sometimes endeavored to imagine what this world would re- 
semble, if all the bright and beautiful blossoms had been omitted from 



278 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

the list of created things. Surely we need no greater evidence of the 
Creator's tenderness towards us than the loveliness everywhere visible 
in nature. 

Each succeeding season has its own peculiar radiance, its own spec- 
ial mission tending to bless and benefit humanity, and very seldom do 
we find a person who cultivates and loves flowers, who does not also 
acknowledge and worship the Giver of these precious gifts. 

It would be impossible to frame into language the emotions called 
forth by the occupation of flower culture, or to convey an adequate idea 
of the pleasure it affords. 

Lamartine, in a little story entitled " Picciola," which word is, I 
think, of Spanish origin and means small, has more clearly defined the 
intense happiness which may result from the cultivation of even one lit- 
tle plant than any other author I have read. ' Picciola " was a tiny p'ant 
that had crowded its way up between the bricks of a court-yard in which 
prisoners of St »te were allowed to take their daily exercise, and the 
small, silent missionary of good, gave hope, joy, love, and eventually 
liberty, to a despairing, cynical soul, that had been hardened and embit- 
tered by " man's inhumanity to man." 

To watch the budding and unfolding of a rose, is to grow, insensi- 
bly, happier and nearer to that perfect life, which animates all things, 

" There is to me 
A daintiness about all fragrant flowers, 
That touches me like poetry. 

They blow out with such simple loveliness among 
The common herbs of pasturage, and they breathe 
Their lives so unobtrusively, like hearts 
Whose beatings are too gentle for the world." 

Who does not remember the old-fashioned garden of his grand- 
mother, where there were always, from early spring until late autumn, a 
succession of fragrant blossoms. 

Ah, me ! I seem to smell those grass pinks now, and the great 
purple clusters of the lilacs, the lillies and roses. There were holly- 
hocks, too, snowballs, snowdrops, blue-bells, and splendid crimson peon- 
ies. Then there were poppies later on, marigolds, bachelor buttons, and 
ever so many more annuals. It seems to me that we do not have such 
great golden marigolds, nor such delicate silken poppies these days, but 
childhood has a glad radiance peculiar to itself and we out-grow our en- 
husiasm as the years shadow us, and yet. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 279 



" Scenes must be beautiful, 
Which daily viewed, please daily ; 
And whose novelty survives 
Long knowledge and the scrutiny of years." 

In the culture of flowers I have had considerable experience, and 
have tried to make intelligent use of the experiences of others who have 
kindly given the best fruits of years of study to aid the amateur. 

Roses are my pride and delight, and all who will take the trouble 
may grow them. The hardy varieties need no especial care except 
good soil and proper pruning. But the delicate teas must be treated 
with careful consideration, or the results are not satisfactory. I ob- 
tained my knowledge of how to plant and care for roses from the Hor- 
ticultural Art Journal, a book as useful as it is beautiful, and I could not 
bestow upon it greater praise. 

In planting roses of the tenderer sorts, first dig a pit or trench two 
feet deep, fill it to a depth of six inches with coarse sand or gravel, 
over this put a layer of well-rotted compost, one foot in depth, then a 
top dressing of rich, fine loam. Here plant your roses, keep them shad- 
ed from the hot sun until the roots get firmly established, but always 
give them the night air and a couple of hours of the morning sunshine, 
keep them well watered in dry weather, and you will have all the roses 
you wish. Leave them out as late in autumn as you dare, without the 
risk of freezing, let them remain sometime after the nights are crisp and 
frosty, but cover them just enough to protect from frost. When it will 
not do to leave them out any longer, pot them in the same soil, and in 
the same manner as they were treated in the yard; cut them back slight- 
ly and set them for ten days in a dark place, gradually bring them to 
the light, and you will have roses all winter long. 

For my house plants, I have a box six inches deep in which is four 
inches of sand. In this I place the flower pots, and have no trouble in 
growing any variety that can be cultivated in door. 

Each year I raise many annuals and have splendid success with 
them. I usually prepare my cold frames in the autumn, and sow my 
seeds as early in the spring as possible. I keep the glass covered until 
the seeds begin to germinate, then gradually let in the light and sun- 
shine. When the weather is fully settled, I transfer my young plants to 
the open ground, keeping them carefully shaded from the sun until they 
are firmly settled in their new home. Pansies may be transplanted very 
early as they will cheerfully bear quite severe weather. When a 
freeze is eminent, I cover them with newspapers, and I have found by 



280 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



experimenting that they grow best on the northeast side of the house. 
Last spring — merely as an experiment — I filled my geranium bed with 
sawdust, only partly decayed, slightly enriched with compost from the 
stables, and the geraniums were marvels ot grace and beauty. My 
friends would scarcely believe that they had the same varieties, mine 
were so much more prolific and brilliant. One lady delared that she had 
never seen such geraniums except in California. I suppose that every- 
one knows that the best way to keep the old stocks of Geraniums is to 
pull them up by the roots and hang them top down in the cellar. 

Floraculture has for me the same sort of fascination that painting 
seems to possess for the artist, and the magnificent effects that can be 
produced by massing colors and judiciously arranging the lights and 
shadows is in itself a fine art. 

Last summer my pansy bed was the delight of all my visitors, yet I 
only had six dozen plants, but the colors ran from dusky black to snowy 
white. A dear old lady came one day, when we were all absent, and she 
said afterwards, " I was sorry to have missed you, but I knelt down and 
worshiped beside your pansy bed, and I felt that the Creator was very 
near to me." 

My sweet peas were intensely beautilul last summer and autumn. 
As it was my first successful year with them, I will explain how they 
were treated. I planted them in sandy soil on the east side of the porch, 
and literally deluged the ground with them, for I did not think they 
would amount to anything, but they all came up quite promptly and I 
think every one of them tnrove. As soon as they began to put forth 
feelers I had a wire trellis made for them, and they grew to be six feet 
high and their butterfly blossoms were beautiful beyond description. 

This theme is really inexhaustible ; your patience, probably, is not, 
and I would not weary you. Yet, before closing, I would earnestly urge 
every lady present to grow Annuals ; it is such a fine field in which to 
develop health and genuine happiness. Your hands will get brown and 
your cheeks will be tanned, but the sparkling life- tide thrilling through 
your bodies will more than compensate such minor inconveniences. 

Engage in floriculture and the "budding spring time" will mean 
more to you than it ever did before. The birds will speak to you in a 
new and sweeter language and you will understand them. 

Like Maurice Thompson, ) ou will be unconsciously interpreting 
nature's secret, and will say in his language: " The more I have studied 
nature, the more have I become aware of God, for when we study nature 
we study Him ; not in a materialistic or pantheistic sense, but in the 
christian sense. The will of the universe is God's will, because God made 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 281 

the universe as He made man, and blew into it the life and energy that 
fills it. I see no clash between Christianity and science. Geology tells 
me the same story that Moses and the prophets tell me. The birds sing 
it, the flowers hint it, the waters murmur it, and all the aspirations of my 
soul are founded on it." 

O, what a glory doth this world put on 
For him that with a fervent heart goes forth 
Under the bright and glorious sky, and looks 
On duties well performed, and days well spent ! 
For him the wind, aye, and the yellow leaves, 
Shall have a voice and give him eloquent teachings; 
He shall so hear the solemn hymn that death 
Has lifted up for all, that he shall go, 
To his long resting place without a tear. 

Miss Maud Graves then sang a solo, "The Irish Christening," and 
received an enthusiastic encore. 



GOING WEST. 



BY J. W. CLARK, COLUMBIA, MO. 



In looking over the program of this meeting, I found my name, with 
the following subject opposite; 'Going West," and thought perhaps the 
better way of dealing with it, would be to give a short account of what 
the horticulturist leaves behind, as he bids farewell to the rugged hills 
of old New England, for a home in your great west. 

Your soil and climate differs from ours; your rich prairie sends 
forth its rank growth almost unaided, while we must strain every nerve 
and still be unable to equal you in this respect. 



282 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Vou can plant your apple orchard, and in six or seven years gather 
good crops of luscious fruit, and this without the aid of manure of any 
kind; while we must wait at least ten years, and be at the expense 
of buying fertilizers with which to feed our trees; else we must wait 
still longer before we can eat the fruit of our labors. 

The apple there, as well as here, is grown more than any other kind 
or fruit. In variety your apples differ from ours; with the exception of 
summer varieties, which are nearly the same. Our best fall apples are, 
Congress, Fall Pippin. Gravenstein and Porters. The first is an old local 
variety; at least I have failed to find it grown to any extent, except in 
a few towns in the Connecticut valley. 

As a cooking apple it stands second to none. It is a grand old ap- 
ple, and worthy of cultivation wherever it can be made to thrive. This, 
with the Gravenstein are our two most profitable fall apples. 

Of winter apples the Baldwin and Rhode Island Greening, stand 
first; of these the Baldwin is the most profitable; It is remarkably pro- 
ductive, and stands shipping better than any other variety grown in the 
east. If a good keeping sweet apple is wanted, the Talman's Sweet is 
selected. Although we have a host of other varieties or apples, the 
nearer one keeps to the varieties named, when planting a commercial 
orchard, the more profitable will it be found. Boston is our best market, 
for whenever the supply is greater than the home demand, the surplus 
is shipped to England, thus keeping the price more uniform. The price 
of apples well picked, sorted and packed, per barrel one year with an- 
other is about $1.50. 

Among pears for general cultivation the Bartlett takes the lead, pro- 
ducing the most fruit, under all conditions and circumstances of any va- 
riety grown. 

Next to the Bartlett for profit comes the Beurrc d'Anjou, Seckle 
and Beurre Bosc, this last variety wherever it makes a good growth is a 
very profitable pear. I have stood in Quincy market, Boston, and seen 
the Bosc sell for over three times the price good Bartletts sold at. 

For Dwarf pears the Duchess stands first, but even with this variety, 
few have made a success financially, and as a whole Dwarf pears are not 
popular with our orchardists. 

The cultivation of peaches in New England is looked upon with sus- 
picion and many are the predictions of failure, freely offered by sympa- 
thizing friends and neighbors, whenever one plants this fruit to any 
considerable extent;' but it is my firm conviction that any man who 
will give his trees the proper location, soil and care, can if he will not 
get discouraged and give it up, make the growing of peaches profitable. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 283 

even as far north as Massachusetts; he must not expect to get a crop 
every year, but when he does get a crop, the price at which it sells will 
fully make up for the years they do not bear. I have sold peaches as 
high as $6.00 per bushel, and a crop of 800 bushels gave me an average 
of $3.50 per bushel. 

Varieties differ greatly in their ability to resist extreme cold with- 
out injury in both their wood and fruit buds. With me the Old Mixon 
has given the best returns and is the least injured by severe cold. 
Trees of this variety, in my orchard, were well loaded with fruit the past 
season, notwithstanding the thermometer stood, on the morning of Jan- 
uary 22nd, 22° below zero, and 25" below zero, the 23rd. 

The plum is another fruit most people pass by when setting out an 
orchard, for the simple reason that they think it a hard fruit to grow, 
and do not take the trouble to thoroughly post themselves as to the care 
and cultivation necessary to make it a success. 

The chief obstacles in the way of successful plum culture are black 
rot, rotting of the fruit and the curculio. The last is very easily con- 
troled and instead of looking upon it as an enemy, I am almost inclined 
to call it a friend, for a simple mention of its name frightens many peo- 
ple out of planting this fruit, and in this way keeps our markets from 
being over-stocked, so that much better prices are obtained. 

The most profitable varieties are Lombard, Washington, Bradshaw, 
German Prune and Damsons. In price this fruit varies greatly one year 
with another ; and often a few days time will make a difference of from 
one to three dollars per bushel. The ruling price one season with an- 
other is about $3 00 per bushel, }'et I have known choice fruit sell as 
high as $8.00 per bushel. 

Cherries are grown to a very limited extent and are hardly classed 
as a market product. 

Our seasons are too short to make grape culture on an extended 
scale attractive or profitable, as we cannot expect to ripen a crop more 
than three years out of five. The Concord is our most popular grape. 
With good culture and covering the vines in winter, the Delaware does 
well. Moores Early seems to promise to become a valuable variety, and 
may, as it becomes better known, replace the Concord. The Worden is 
another popular grape with many ; but, with our short seasons, the Moores 
Early in my opinion is the most desirable. By girdling the vines we 
produce much larger berries and hasten the ripening fully two weeks, 
but care must be used else one may ruin his vines. 

Of small fruits the strawberry is grown most extensively. The 
matted row is the system generally adopted. If the ground is very 



284 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

weedy, the expense of cultivation is less if the hill system is selected. 
The varieties most generally grown are Crescent, Sharpless and Miners 
Prolific. Other kinds may be more profitable under certain conditions 
but these named seem to do best under all circumstances. 

The average price for the season is about lO cents per quart whole- 
sale. 

The secret of success with us in growing strawberries lies in heavy 
manuring and high cultivation. 

Raspberries are not grown to such an extent as strawberries, and 
the markets are not over-stocked, as is often the case with strawberries. 
The price at which the fruit sells is also more uniform. Red berries re- 
turning about i6 cents and Black Caps from I2 cents to 15 cents per 
quart. 

The most profitable varieties are Cuthbert for red and Gregg for 
black. Other varieties are grown, but their berries are either 
too small, soft or the canes too week in their growth to make them de- 
sirable. 

The blackberry is another fruit for which the demand is greater 
than the supply, good fruit never selling for less than 12 cents or 15 
cents per quart. 

The Agawam, Wachusett and Snyder being grown most. The 
Snyder, in my opinion, is the most profitable berry when all conditions 
are taken into account. 

If asked if fruit-growing is a profitable business in New England, I 
should answer that, when carried on in an intelligent manner, there is 
no branch of farming which pays as well ; but a man to succeed must 
not be afraid to work or to wait. 

Fruit culture is the poorest business for a lazy man to go into I 
know of, for one must not only understand the nature and wants of each 
and every kind of fruit he grows, and know how to fight their enemies, 
but put his knowledge into his every day work. For in no business is 
the saying more true, " That eternal vigilence is the price of success," 
than it is in horticulture. 

Miss Nellie Davis then gave a splendid recitation which excited 
much favorable comment. The Glee Club sang a lively song and the 
president declared the house adjourned till Friday morning at 9 o'clock. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 285 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER yru, 9 A.M. 



Before the mcetintr of the State Society, the call for the special 
meeting of the small fruit growers, was attended to in one of the rooms 
adjacent to the Opera House, with the following results: 

SMALL FRUIT GROWERS. 

A special meeting of small fruit growers was held this morning at 
8 o'clock, for consultation. 

Major Holsinger, of Rosedale, Kansas, was elected chairman, and 
C. I. Robards; of Butler, Missouri, secretary. 

Mr. Nelson, of Springfield, addressed the meeting on the subject of 
evaporated raspberries. 

By motion of the 'secretary, it was ordered that a committee of two 
be appointed to confer with the railroad companies with regard to refrig- 
erator cars for the .shipment of small fruits. 

It was moved by Mr. Ambrose and carried that they associate 
themselves permanently under the name of the Missouri and Kansas 
Fruit Growers' Association. 

J. C. Evans, of Harlem, was elected permanent chairman, J. H. 
Logan, of Nevada, assistant secretary, and A. Ambrose, of Nevada, 
treasurer. Association then adjourned to meet at Kan.sas City on the 

3d Saturday in January. 



286 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PRACTICAL GRAPE GROWING. 



BY J. C. KINDER, NEVADA, MO. 



It is with some hesitation I undertake to give opinions on this sub- 
ject* when aware that before me are veterans in grape growing who can 
give ojoinions backed up by a much greated experience and knowledge 
of the business. But, if by giving wrong opinions I thereby call atten- 
tion to the matter and call out a correction, my cfifoit will not be an 
injury. 

In heading my article "Practical Grape Growing," I had an object, 
because we receive so much instruction nowadays that if taken literally 
is not practical, so much so that I think much of it acts more as a dis- 
couragement to horticulture than a help. Men argue that if it requires 
so very much attention and labor to accomplish certain results, they do 
not care to attempt it. Who has not seen the stereotyped illustrations 
in catalogues and in books on fruit growing, etc., of how to train the 
vine.'' Have you not noticed how nicely the vine forked just the right dis- 
tance from the ground, one side branch extending just so far to the right, 
the other to the left, how at equal distance along these branches a lat- 
eral containing just three bunches, all just the same size, and extending 
just far enough up to be tied to the next slat of the trellis.' I ask who 
has not seen just such a picture, and yet who ever saw a vineyard trained 
that way.-* Not, but if one chose to train one that way it could be ac- 
complished in great measure, but to get paid for it grapes would have to 
sell for 25 cents per pound. I consider all such instructions as unpracti- 
cal, and what hurts even worse, is unprofitable, and it is unnecessary. 
Hence let us look for practical instruction in grape growing, which 
means how to obtain the very best possible results from the care and la- 
bor bestowed. 

The first thing to be taken into consideration by the grape grow- 
er is 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 287 



THE SELECTION OF VARIETIES. 

The time has come when the Concord cannot be made ahnost the 
exclusive variety. While I do not wish to pluck one leaf from the crown 
oflaurels so justly won by this noble grape, a grape which has responded 
alike to the care of the vineyardist, and in a measure to the neglect of 
the average planter; still facts are stubborn things. The people demand 
a better grape. I have watched the market for years, and there is no 
doubt but on an average, the Delaware grape will sell for double on the 
market what the Concord will. Now, although the Concord will yield 
much more than the Delaware, still when we take into consideration cost 
of shipping, packing, commission, etc., it is a question if the Delaware is 
not the more profitablegrape to raise for market. I mention these two 
grapes because of their ripening so near the same time. But we, here in 
Southwest Missouri need to look still father into this matter. We have 
grapes equal in quality and from ten to twenty days earlier than Con- 
cord which should receive our special attention, because we can get them 
into a market that is not over supplied as we generally find it later on. 
Then again we have varieties, many of them very much superior in 
quality to the Concord, which ripen from two to five weeks later. 

The practical grape grower will look well into this branch of the 
subject if he would grow grapes at a profit. There is one matter I wish 
to call your attention to; and it is a matter, if looked at seriously, that 
becomes. 

A HUMILIATION. 

At this time and for weeks past, a visit to any of our grocers in the 
city, would find grapes for sale grown hundreds of miles north in Ohio 
and New York, Concord grapes for which our people pay eight to ten 
cents per pound. Now I wish to assert one thing, and I do so without 
fear of successful contradiction, and yet it is contrary to the general im- 
pression held in this community, and that is that there is not one single 
grape mentioned in any catalogue in the United States that cannot be 
grown to as great perfection as regards bunch and berry, right here in 
Vernon county, Missouri, as in any county in the State of New York or 
any other State; and as regards quality of the fruit, it is well known that 
any of our southern grown fruit is richer and better than that grown 
where they have not so much warm sunshine as we are blessed with in 
this latitude. This is a carrying of coals to New Castle with a ven- 
geance, particularly when we have most excellent varieties of grapes, 



2m MISSOURI STAIE IIORIICUL TUKAl. SUClEl V 



tluit would ripen nicely to supply the market at this late season which 
our northern Ljrowers cannot raise at all because of not having a long 
enough season to ripen them. Here is one immense, unoccupied field 
that should receive the close attention of every fruit grower who desires 
to develop the resources of our State in this particular branch of hor- 
ticulture. 

TWO IMPORTANT POINTS. 

In planting vines I would particularly impress on your minds two 
poin's that I consider vital. Land is cheap, give vines plenty of room, 
twelve feet apart each way, is not far from the right distance. This 
will cfive room for a free circulation of air and will be found better after 
the vines, have attained age. Another vital point is to plant good, 
strong, two-year-old vines, and plant them deeply. This is essential to 
get the main body of the roots low enough for perpetual moisture, and 
also low enough to be out of the way of the passing cultivator. To plant 
deeply of course it is necessary to plow deeply in preparing the ground 
for the young vines. 

HOW TO CULTIVATE. 

In cultivating vines. I don't know that I could give any better in- 
struction than to insist that you should cultivate often enough to keep 
weeds in subjection. I look on weeds as a sort of dispensation oi Provi- 
dence to cure a man of laziness. Just keep the weeds down in the vine- 
yard by stirring the ground, the vines will take care of themselves if 
you take care of the weeds. 

The rule is just as essential to vines at ten years old as at one 
year old. 

HOW TO TRAIN VINES. 

It is hard to tell on paper how to train and trim a grape vine, to 
obtain the best results. Particularly hard for me as I am by no means 
certain I know how myself. But in raising grapes for market, there is one 
very important object to be held in view, and that is both the size and 
bunch of the berry. It is impossible to obtain fine, large, perfect 
bunches only from strong young canes. To do this it is necessary to re- 
new each year from the base of the vine, and this is about one of the 
hardest things a vineyardist has to accomplish. I believe that the mar- 
ket of the future will be managed on some such plan as this, instead of 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 289 

planting vines 12x12 feet apart they will be planted 6x12 feet, one-half 
the vines in each will be allowed to bear fruit, the other half only be al- 
lowed to raise young canes for next year's bearing wood, alternating each 
year. I believe by some such a system finer fruit could be obtained, 
than by the usual process now pursued. In raising grapes for wine, I 
take it that it is not so important that we should have extra perfection 
either in bunch or berry. But in raising grapes, or for that matter any- 
thing else for market, quality, not quantity, is the important considera-' 
tion. Vines should not be allowed to bear fruit the second season, at 
least not more than a bunch or so on the strongest vines. The young 
vines of the first year's growth should be cut back to two buds, vines 
should be trimmed not later than February, because of bleeding as soon 
as sap starts in the spring. 

The canes of the second year's growth should be pinched off when 
reaching a height of six feet, throwing the growth into laterals. It is 
on these laterals you may look for fruit another year, but it will be found 
advisable to cut them back two or three buds each. The third year you 
may expect a crop of fruit. Care should be taken not to let the 
young vines overbear; would advise leaving more bearing wood than 
was necessary to yield the amount of fruit desired, but would cull out all 
small and defective bunches, and leave no more than the vine was able 
to ripen perfectly. A strong, three-year-old vine will yield ten pounds 
of grapes, and thirty bunches of Concord should weigh ten pounds on 
an average. The first crop may be grown on stakes, but after that it 
will be found advisable to use trellis. Three wires will make a satisfac- 
tory trellis; the top wire should be six feet from the ground. The rows 
.should run north and south, so that the sun can get at both sides of the 
trellis. 

IN PICKING AND HANDLING 

grapes for the market too much care cannot be taken; care should be taken 
not to mar the bloom on the grape, its greatest beauty. In sorting, all 
unripe, cracked or otherwise defective berries should be removed. Mark 
your name on the package plainly, and don't put anything inside you 
are ashamed of. As a rule it don't pay to ship fruit that the grower is 
not proud to acknowledge as his own. That old adage that honesty is 
the best policy, is particularly true in the fruit business; in fact it is the 
only policy to tie to. 

II. R, — 19. 



290 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

You will understand that in the limits of an ordinary essay it is im- 
possible to treat this subject only in a general way ; there are dozens of 
details relating to this particular branch of horticulture, any one of which, 
if treated thoroughly, would wear out your patience, not to say anything 
of the time required. Planting, cultivation, training, selection of varie- 
ties, marketing, winter protection, grape rot and other diseases of the 
grape, all these subjects must be thoroughly understood before one can 
make a complete success of grape* growing. To do so, one must read 
everything that comes to hand on the subject and hold fast to that which 
is good. To the beginner would say, that in this as well as in everything 
else, where there is a will there is a way. 

CAN GRAPE GROWING BE MADE PROFITABLE ? 

The answer to this depends so very much on the man who attempts 
it, the policy he pursues, his stick-to-itiveness, etc., that it is hard to 
say. This much can be said, all over one cent per pound that can be oli- 
tained for grapes after taking out cast of package, freight and commission 
will be found to be profit. If grapes are given half a chance, a well es- 
tablished vineyard should produce about 10,000 pounds per acre, that is 
a vineyard is as certain to produce that as the same acre would be to 
produce forty bushels of corn, one year with another. The profits on the 
crop would so very much depend on the quality of the fruit, time of rip- 
ening, how it was handled, etc., etc., that, were two vineyards planted 
side Ijy side, one might pay a net profit of from three to five hundred 
dollars per acre, and the other not pay a net profit at all. And for that 
matter this is not particularly different from almost any other crop; there 
is only one right way to-do a thing, but about a thousand million wrong 
ways, some worse than others. But any man with common industry and 
common sense can surmount all the difficulties he is likely to encounter 
in growing grapes, and will, likely, make a fair success of it. 

The lamented Josh Billings very wisely said " that it was better to 
know little than to know so blamed much that wasn't so." So for fear I 
may be giviiig you a lot of facts that isn't so, I give way to those better 
qualified to speak. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 291 



THE AMERICAN GRAPE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



BY G. E. MEISSNER, BUSHBURG, MO. 



Editor Rural World: 

The devastation ot the vineyards of Southern France by the Phyl- 
loxera, and the subsequent reconstruction of these vineyards by means 
of resistant American grape roots, are facts which are probably well 
known to most of your readers, but it may interest them to know that 
France is not the only foreign country where American grapevines 
flourish, and where they are becoming of growing importance. 

While nearly all European countries, outside of France, are still 
.closed to the introduction of either rooted vines or cuttings, they do 
not bar our seeds, and in this form the American vine has been intro- 
duced and has furnished millions of phylloxera-resisting grafting stocks 
to the grape-growers of Italy, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Hungary, in 
short all the South European nations, and to their provinces on the 
Mediteranean shores of Africa. But not content with crossing the 
Atlantic, the American vine reaches across the Pacific, and is cultivated 
in Australia, New Zealand and the islands of the Pacific ocean. 'PLven 
South America is drawing upon the United States for grapes, and our 
American vines are cultivated on the foot-hills of the Andes in Chili and 
Peru, as well as in Brazil and the Argentine Confederation. In some of 
these countries they are planted quite extensively, and there are some 
large vineyards of Isabella and Catawba. Of late years there has been 
quite a demand from South America for our best American wine grapes 
especially for the varieties belonging to the ^stivalis class, such as 
Cynthiana, Norton's Virginia, Herbemont, Cunningham, etc., which 
seem to be peculiarly well adapted to those countries. As a proof of 
this, I might mention that the orders, which our house has received 
this season from South America, (from governments as well as from 
private parties), cover nearly 15,000 vines of the above named kinds, 
besides some scattering of other of our choice varieties. 

The knowledge of the fact how our American grapes are apprecia- 
ted abroad, should be an encouragement to our own grape growers, as it 



292 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

must show them that our American native grape has not only gener- 
ously come to the rescue of the old " Vitis Vinifera" in Europe, and by 
furnishing it with a vigorous phylloxera-proof root, has given it a re- 
newed lease of life in those countries, where otherwise it would have 
been doomed to annihilation, but that is also making its way into those 
foreign countries — where grape culture is as yet a comparatively new 
industry, and where it enters into successful competition with the grapes 
of the old world. 

If in Europe the purpose served by our grape is less in the direct 
production of its fruit, and more in the means of furnishing a healthy 
root to its delicate European sister, this can be easily accounted for by 
the fact the Vitis Vinifera has been cultivated there for thousands of 
years, and consequently is cherished by the people, who will not so 
readily change their inherited taste for its fruit and its w^ine. 

But for an American taste, some " connoisseur " might perhaps say 
for an ''uneducated taste," the spicy, fruity, rich flavor of a good Ameri- 
can grape will generally possess more charm than the more delicate fla- 
vor of Vitis Vinifera, which some would consider rather insipid. '' Dc 
gustibiis non est disputandnm. " 

The fact remains, however, that even in this direction great im- 
provements have and are being made, and we have now already Ameri- 
can grapes and American wines, which need not fear to enter the lists 
with those of any foreign country. The greatest drawbacks to Ameri- 
can grape culture hitherto have been the dreaded fungoid diseases of 

GRAPE MILDEW AND GRAPE ROT. 

They have prevented the successful and profitable cultivation of 
our choicest table varieties throughout a large section of our country, a 
section where the longer and warmer summers are more favorable to 
just such varieties, which do not come to their full perfection in the more 
northern grape regions, which are favored otherwise by their compara- 
tive freedom from those fungoid pests. 

But baneful and discouraging as these diseases have been, the 
question of successfully overcoming them bids fair to find its solution. 
The appearance in Europe and notably in France, where grape culture 
forms one of the vital national interests, has caused them to be studied 
and investigated in all their details, in order to discover the means to 
combat them, and with apparent success. If the government and scien- 
tists of France have been the first to obtain results in this direction, 
our own Department or Agriculture, under the direction of our present 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 293 

eminently able and efficient commissioner, Norman J. Colman, deserves 
none the less the thanks and honest appreciation of American grape- 
growers, for the dissemination of advice, knowledge and instruction on 
this subject, as well as for the untiring efforts and experiments, which it 
has made and caused to have been made in so many different sec- 
tions of the country. If the reports of these experiments do not yet 
show an entire and uniform success in all cases, they show so much 
good results that we are justified in the belief that the question of the 
successful treatment of these fungoid diseases will before long, find its 
entire and satisfactory solution. Gov. Colman deserves all the more 
credit for his efforts in this direction when we consider that gtape cul- 
ture, as yet, forms but a minor factor in our agricultural industries, un- 
like the vastly more important interests which it serves in France. 

If, however, grape culture is as yet a rninor factor in our Agricul- 
tural wealth, it is already an important one, and one which is in a healthy 
state of development, and I can see no reason to fear for its future. 
With the means of overcoming the black rot and mildew, the intelligent 
grape grower can be successful throughout an immense stretch of terri- 
tory, where heretofore his efforts resulted in failure, and as to overdoing 
the business by an overproduction of fine fruit, I think we need have no 
fear of such a result for a good many years to gome yet. An increased 
supply will create an increased demand and consumption, and finally, 
the grape, unlike all other fruit, with the exception perhaps of the apple, 
will admit of being used in so many different ways. It can be eaten 
fresh or dried, it can be canned, made into jams, jellies, marmalade, pre- 
serves, butter. It can be pressed for its juice, and this again can be con- 
verted to so many different uses, and last, but not least, it can be made 
into a pure wholesome light wine, and this use, if you will allow me 
the remark, if it were as universal here, as it is in the wine growing coun- 
tries of Southern Europe, would do more towards the true solution of the 
temperance question, than all the prohibition that can be agitated or 
enacted. 

I hope you will pardon my digression from the original subject of 
"The American Grape in Foreign Countries," from which the interest for 
our good cause, American grape culture in America, has perhaps led me 
home too soon, but I would not wish to presume on any more of your 
valuable space to-day. 



294 MISSOURI STATE IIQRTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



GRAPHS. 



A. KIBLER, CARTHAGE. 



If you have grapes of the right kind, you will be supplied with 
grapes from July 15th, (Early Victor), till October ist, (Highland), and 
if you have strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, etc., you are supplied 
with berries from May 15th until October ist, of your own, all healthy, 
and delicious fruit. 

Best locations for Southwest Missouri, are north, northeast and 
east, on level ground, but never south or southwest, neither low, wet 
land. 

PLANTING AND PREPARING OUR GROUND. 

A few years ago we used to plant grape vines by making a hole 
about three feet square and plant them in by filling a little surface soil 
down first; but experience has given us a better and easier way of plant- 
ing. 

First. Prepare your ground in the fall; spread some well-rotted 
manure on the ground, but no fresh manure. Plow that deep and turn 
it under. If you aim to plant in the fall, which, I think, is the best 
time, the ground is in better order, and you haVe more time; then go 
ahead with your work, and harrow it well. Then lay it off straight 
with a two -horse plow, as deep as you can; have your rows north and 
south, (if you plant such a strong grower as the Concord, Clinton, Ives, 
Perkins and Elvira, you must plant ten feet apart in the row, and eight 
feet between the rows; takes about 550 vines to the acre, such as lona, 
Moore's Early, Delaware, plant 8x8, takes 700 vines.) Run twice in 
the same furrow, one up and one down, when you come back you have 
a good, wide furrow; then take a sub-soil or shovel plow and run twice 
in it, too; then run crossway with the same plow; then in the cross- 
ing of each furrow plant your vines; the soil may have to be tak- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 295 

en out a little with the shovel, so you can lay out the roots 
well in every direction; then plant, pressing the soil down with 
your foot; if it is in low, bottom land, 8 to lo inches is deep enough, 
on upland, i 2 to 15 inches, ought to be planted; drive down some small 
stick, about 18 inches long, to each plant; then cut all the plants back 
to one eye or bud, even with the surface of the ground; then take your 
plow and throw a furrow on each side ol the plants and cover some. 
Next spring uncover them with your hand; be careful, don't use a hoe 
you might injure the bud. Then you can plant two rows of potatoes, 
the same time you 'are cultivating the potatoes as well as the vines. 
They should be cultivated and tended, the weeds kept down for the first 
two or three years, like a young orchard or corn.. You don't need to 
tic them up on sticks if you don't want to; by allowing them to lay on 
the ground the first season more vigorous canes will be obtained. In 
the fall after the leaves are all off, cut back to two buds; cover 
the short canes with some earth before the ground freezes. If any vines 
have died, fill out again during the fall and winter, and get your post 
and trellis ready. Put the wire up so it runs north and south — we have 
more south wind in summer. In the spring remove the earth from the 
vines-as soon as danger from frost is past-then cultivate the whole ground, 
plowing between the rows from four to six inches deep, and carefully 
hoeing around the vines; but don't work in them while wet. You can 
plant one row of potatoes every season for five or six years, by manur- 
ing it every year a little with some well rotten manure. The second sum- 
mer a shoot is produced from each of the two buds left the previous fall; 
tie them neatly to the post or trellis, and let them grow about four or five 
feet, then pinch the leaders off; then they will throw out laterals'or arms. 
In the fall cut the main stock back about three or four feet, and the 
laterals back to the buds from the main stock. If you had two canes 
from your vine, you can lay one down early in June, covering it with 
mellow soil about two inches deep, leaving the ends of the lat- 
erals out of the ground — such as Delawares, Cynthiana, Norton's 
Virginia, and many others that do not grow from cuttings. If you have 
tender varieties, take them from the trellis or wire and lay them 
on the ground, and cover with straw, corn stalks, hay or earth in the 
fall; it will pay you to keep them from freezing. The third sea- 
son uncover and tie the canes to trellis, for which use soft string, such 
as calico or golden willow ; tie them, and as young canes grow, 
keep them tied, but in all cases take care against tying too tight, 
as the free flow of sap may be obstructed. From each of the 
buds let canes be ^rown during the season and each of these 



296 MISSOURrSTATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



canes will bear two or three bunches of f^rapes, but I would 
not leave more than one or two bunches; pinch off all poor ones, be- 
cause if you leave all on, they are very apt to overbear the first season, 
and it will affect them always afterward. Sometimes, they never come 
out at all, such as Delaware, Elvira and others. 

PRUNING. 

The best time is when the young shoots are about 6 inches long , when 
you can see all the small bunches, pinch with the tluunb and finger to just 
be}'ond the last bunch, taking out the leader between thclast bunch and the 
next leaf; we now go over all the shoots coming from the arms, and also 
pinch them beyond the last bunch. Should any of the buds have pushed 
out two shoots we pinch off the weakest, also take off all suckers that 
started from the roots of the vine. We can then let our vines alone until 
after bloom, only tying up the young canes to the wire or posts. By the 
time the grapes have bloomed the shoots will have pushed from the axis 
of the leaves on the bearing shoots. Now go over these again and pinch 
each shoot back to one leaf, so that you can get a young, vigorous leaf 
opposite to each bunch of grapes ; these serve as elevators of the sap 
and also protection and shade to the fruit. Remember, our aim is not 
to rob the plant of its foliage, but to make two leaves grow where there 
was bat one before and at the place where they are of more benefit to the 
fruit. Remember, too, the knife has nothing to do with summer prun- 
ing — your thumb and finger should do all the work, if it is done early ; 
and don't you commence cutting and slashing the leaves and vines off, 
until afterward, when they commence to rot, because it won't help it ; the 
disease is already there, and you might take away the leaves that are 
good. When you look over the vines, look for bugs and insects and de- 
stroy them. You must not plant in heavy wet soil, if you do, the most 
healthy varieties will become diseased, but some of the diseases infecting 
our American grape do not result from defects in the soil or want of culti- 
vation. Their causes are, in fact, unknown, except that they are produced 
by fungi plants, producing mildew, etc., the mildew (^pernonospera viticola) 
a43pearing in frost like white spots on the under side of leaves, haiiy as 
well as glabrous ones, beginning here in Missouri the first of June, fost- 
ered by sultry, damp, wet weather, the leaves turn brown in spots and 
are partially killed, destroying the fruit, the berries, shriveling from the 
base, turning light brown without falling off, and this we call sometimes 
brown rot ; the black rot [Phoma Uvicold) makes its appearance on the 
nearly full-grown berries, exhibiting in the first stage small, discolored, 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 297 

whitish round spots, which soon expand in circumference ; the berries 
turn dark brown, then the berry shrivels and dries up, and turns black.. 
In midsummer, when the weather is sultry and oppressive, thunder and 
rain storms frequent the horizon at evenings illumined by fla^-hes of light- 
ning, and when the vines are dew-drenched in the morning, then rot ap- 
pears, and often disappears and reappears with these phenomena ; the 
black rot don't affect the vines or its leaves the least. Thirty years ago 
it was supposed that the Catawba was the only grape that was subjected 
to rot, but now nearly all varieties, except Delaware, Cynthiana, Nortons 
become affected. The theory that rot is produced by phylloxera, or root 
lice, is unfounded. We are still hoping that some practical mode to pre- 
vent rot or to render the development of the disease impossible may be 
discovered ; until that is found, we should plant only varieties which are 
less subjected to rot. I have tried and experimented with about twenty 
varieties, that I can recommend ; so far as my experience has been here 
in south-west Missouri the following varieties will show the order of ripen- 
ing: Early Victor, Moore's Early, Perkins, Delaware, Ives, Empire State, 
Concord, Pocklington, Niagara, Elvira, Cynthiana, Norton Virginia, Etta, 
Highland ; these are all good, but such as Triumph, Jefferson, August 
Giant, Lady Washington, Martha, Hartford Prt)lific, and some of Rog- 
er's Hybrids won't do here in this country or locality : they don't pay for 
the money, time nor labor on them. Even the copper mixture I used on 
them did not save them. 

PREVENTION OF ROT. 

Last spring I received from our Secretary, Mr. Russell, from the 
Agricultural Department a report on the fungus diseases of the grape, 
and the following mixture was used with good result : 

I have about 300 vines of different kinds, six years old, in bearing. 
For them I use eight pounds sulphate of copper dissolved in 15 gallons 
of water, then 20 pounds fresh lime in 20 gallons of water. When the 
lime has cooled off pour it slowly Jn the copper solution, mix it thor- 
oughly by constant stirring ; had it prepared several days before using 
it, in a 40 gallon barrel, had a stick in it and stirred it well every tirile 
before using ; commenced putting on May iith and 22d, then I did 
not keep correct account when I applied it, but I remember I have put 
it on every time after a rain — the last time July 6th. I use an old broom 
with a handle left on about i foot long, then sprinkle it on the leaves 
and grapes, and all. I believe the treatment prevents the fungus from 
destroying the fruit, because I havp 125 vines of the Concord. They 



298 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



arc in tlic orchard amongst the trees and tliey have rotted so bad every 
year that I did not save 25 per cent, and this year I know I saved 95 
per cent from them but still I would not be sure because we had a very 
fair season for grapes. I will try it every year, and would like for every- 
body that has grapes to try it, and if it is a help it would be a blessing. 
The cost is not much for the 300 vines. I use 8 pounds sulphate of 
copper at I2i cents, $1 ; 20 pounds of fresh lime, 10 cents, that makes 
$1.10, and 35 gallons of the mixture. A thousand vines would not 
cost over $3. Put it on in time — say about the roth of May — I believe 
in prevention — then every 'ten days on up to June 15th. By that time 
the leaves are all well grown and perfect, then after that about twice a 
month, unless the weather is sultry, thunder and rainstorms, frequent 
flashes of lightning, and when the vines are dew-drenched in the morn- 
ing, then I would put it on as soon as it dried off after a rain, even if it 
had to be every second or third day. 

Another thing I would recommend for the prevention: Cut your 
vines in the fall season, as you can commence about the middle of No- 
vember. Then save your best cuttings, put them away in the sand in 
the celler or bury them in the ground or plant them right off and mulch 
them heavy, the way I do. Then go and rake your vineyard, clean off the 
leaves and cuttings, remove from the vineyard and burn them up, so if 
any Spores or Fungus are left on the ground from last summer, they 
will be destroyed 

A few words about some new varieties, such as Niagara, heralded 
like Niagara herself, as one of the wonders of the world, are no better 
than the Cone rd. If the Concord does well in your locality, the Ni- 
agara will too, or, vice versa; Early Victor will take a high position as a 
popular and profitable early black grape. It ripens here July lOth to 
15th. It resembles the Hartford, but unlike the Hartford, is a grape of 
excellent quality, slight pulpiness, small seeds, free from foxiness, and 
the berry does not fall from the cluster even when overripe. Geo W. 
Campbell says : " I know of no black so well fitted to take the place 
of all the foxy abominations (Hartford, Ives, Tolman, Early Champion, 
Janesville), which have been tolerated on account of their earliness. It 
is really a very good black grape, with a vine of the earliest and hardi- 
est type of the Labrusca class" and the Empire State is one of the 
strongest growers I have on my place, and one of the finest and sweet- 
est ; bunches large, from six to ten inches long. I had grafts inserted 
in two three-year old Concords, in the spring of 1887, and this year 
one had 41 bunches, and the other had 34, and such beautiful color of 
white with very high tinge of yellow^ but it only began to ripen in this 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 299 

locality with the Concord, and for latter, such as Etta, white, a daughter 
of the Elvira, resembles it, but has larger berries, not disposed to crack 
and is superior in quality, it ripens about ten days later. I have also 
the Highland, the largest and showiest on my place. It is the latest. I 
had it at the horticultural meeting, September 29th, city hall, Carthage, 
Mo., and here is what the Cartilage Press says of the Highland Septem- 
ber 26th : " Mr. A. Kibler left with us yesterday some very fine speci- 
mens of the Highland grape, which is just now ripening. This grape is 
unusually large, sweet, and delicious, and is of especial value on account 
of maturing so late in the season. I btlieve like Bush a promising 
market grape." 



DISCUSSION ON VINEYARDS. 



Mr. Holsinger — We have had a good deal said about " Honesty be- 
ing the best policy," but the poet says that " He who acts upon that 
plan is not an honest man." 

Mr. Laiighlin — Will the gentleman tell us what poet said that } 

Mr. Evans — It is like the Dutchman said : " Honesty is the best 
policy, but it keeps a man mighty poor," 

Mr. Murray — I like the papers and I most heartily indorse the 
idea of more fertilization and more vigorous growth for fine grapes. I 
agree with Mr. Kinder that "it is humiliating to us that our people 
should use grapes from New York, and pay ten cents a pound for them, 
when we might grow them at home of better quality, and in greater 
abundance. 

Mr. King —Our home grapes sell higher in Kansas City than those 
we get from the east. 

Mr. Menifee -\ want the best early grape and the best late. 
What are they .'' 

Mr. Evans — Mr. Geiger recommends the Catawba. Can the peo- 
ple grow Catawba on all kinds of land ? 



300 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Gcigcr — Ves, except on wet low lands. They can <^row it on 
the Missouri river hills. It is not hardy enough to stand extreme cold 
without protection. It stands ten degrees below zero. 

Mr. Faith — What are the best varieties to grow for family wine .'' 

Mr. Gci^er — The Concord will make a good family wine. 

Mr. Bell — I will ask Mr. Geiger what is the Ben Davi^ among 
grapes. 

Mr. Geiger recommended the Catawba and Norton's Virginia. 

Dr. Ensign — I recommend the Concord, Catawba and Moore's Early. 
I have had a good paying crop for seven years. Moore's is the most 
profitable with me. It is early, has a large bunch and berry, black, of fine 
appearance and fair quality. I plow deep, fertilize well and plant ten 
feet wide. 



SECRETARY'S REPORT. 



What shall be my report .'' Where shall I begin .'' What shall I 
say .'' Again and again, dear friends, have we greeted one another in 
our work. Again and again have we compared our experiences, our 
successes and failures. Again and again have we met, striving to make 
each one of our meetings better and better and now we meet with so 
much unity of feeling, with such a common interest, with such an in- 
creased membership apd with such an unbounded enthusiasm that it is 
no wonder that we have good meetings. It is no wonder that our meet- 
ings are enthusiastic. Do you wonder then why it is that every mem- 
ber of our society looks forward to these a'nnual gatherings of our society 
with so much pleasure and profit } 

The fact is simply that we are stepping upon a higher plane of hor- 
ticulture year by year; we are learning new facts day by day; we are 
grasping some of the wonderful opportunities which are opening to our 
view; we are realizing the wonderful possibilities of our loved profes- 
sion; we are beginning to see the magnitude of this fruit business; we 
see before us a field as broad as our land — avenues opening in all di- 
rections for the young men and women, and positions ready and waiting 
with no one to fill them. . 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA, 301 

No wonder then that we are enthusiastic in our profession, when 
we hear calls on every hand for our young people to become horticul- 
turists, not in the narrowest sense ot the word, but in the broadest — 
good, intelligent, honest fruit growers, enthusiastic, educated florists, sys- 
tematic judicious vegetable gardeners, skillful, well posted, live, wide- 
awake landscape gardeners. These, all of these, come under the domain 
of horticulture, and dare you to say that there is no opportunity for a 
young man in the line of horticulture. 

But listen. I tell you there is no more noble occupation in all the 
realms of business and professions in all this broad land of ours than 
that offered by horticulture. There is no better opening in any line of 
business than horticulture offers. There is no more lucrative positions 
offered anywhere than those offered to the entomologist, botanist and 
horticulturist. Will you tell me there is no chance for growth in knowl- 
edge — that the way for study is blocked up for the horticulturist ? I say 
that it presents greater inducements and opportunities than can be found 
in any other profession. 

Our agricultural colleges are calling to-day all over the land for 
good botanists, entomologists, landscape gardners, florists, and fruit and 
vegetable growers, in fact horticulturists, which embraces all of these. 

And ao it is with the fruit interests; we want good intelligent, en- 
thusiastic, systematic, judicious fruit growers, on the cheap, rich, fertile 
lands of Missouri; men and women two, who will plant good large com- 
mercial orchards all over our state, who will use as much judgment, as 
much brains, as much money, as do our other businessmen, as do our 
cattlemen, horsemen, sheepmen, or merchants even, and then we will see 
this wonderful state of ours produce more fruit than is now grown by any 
state of the union. 

And this country, where we now meet, I should like to see our fruit 
growers plant every tree of profitable winter apples, which could be found 
in our nurseries, and plant them in large lots of 40, 80, or 160 acres, and 
it will be worth more to them than any of our mines of South Missouri, 

But we are here to learn. What have you learned the past year.? 
What has been your success.' What of your failures.'' How could you 
have improved on your plans.-* How of the marketing.-* Did any of your 
varieties succeed beyond your expectations.' Have some of them dis- 
appointed you.' Would you now plant the same varieties you would one 
year ago.' Has the transportation problem been a bugbear.' Did the 
express companies cat up all the profits.' These and a hundred other 
questions will have to be answered right, before you can take many ad- 
vance steps in fruit growing. 



302 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The fruit interests of our state — what a wonderful crop we have had 
surely. The strawberry crop, the raspberry, the blackberry, the cherry 
and peach in some portions, the apple, a crop beyond anything the state 
has ever had before, and such perfect fruit, so beautifully colored and of 
such immense size. The fruits of our state have paid to any one, splen ■ 
did returns, if they have but judiciously handled them. Many a small 
fruit orchard has paid our farmers more than all the rest of the farm, in 
fact as one of our members say "it takes the fruit farm to keep up the 
other." Our fruit interests run up into the millions of dollars this year, 
and if any one has failed to make money, it is because they have failed 
to properly dispose of their fruits. 

Our society and its interests has been growing and improving as our 
work has become known, and as more and more of our fruit men become 
interested; all that is necessary in our work is to have the united effort 
of all our fruitgrowers, to advance our cause in the state. As our Hor- 
ticultural societies increase in members we find new persons interested 
in the work and men are becoming known as particularly interested in 

fruit. 

Wc have now eighteen Horticulturul societies in the state, most of 

them doing good service, and in active work; and wherever this is done 
we cannot fail to find the fruit interests increasing in importance and in 

influence. 

Phelps county, headquarters at Rolla, has organized with thirty 

members, and with the wonderful advantages ot fruit culture in that 

county, I look for a live, wide-awake society. Not only in apples, but 

also in peaches, Phelps county should take a front rank. I believe that 

the fruit interests are the most important matters of that county, and 

every effort should be made to develop them. 

Since coming to this meeting, I am glad to learn that Laclede 

county has been organized, and we will now have a county society at 

Lebanon, due to the efforts of our friend, A. Nelson. 

You have heard what this Ozark region will do for our fruits, and 

the society has a "big job" on its hands to properly develop and direct 

this interest. 

It does me good, and you good also, to thus see the influence of our 

society spreading and developing, until the prophecy of our president 

will be fullfiUed, and we will see a society in all of our best counties. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 30^ 



OUR TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM 

is one of the most important things we should attend to. If our rail- 
roads and express companies will only use the liberal policy that the 
matter justifies, then we can cover hundreds of thousands oi" our acres 
with orchards, but if they will take every dollar of profit there is in the 
business, then it is only a question of a short time when they will kill 
not only what enthusiasm there is in our state, but will prevent also very 
much new planting. 

If our railroads and express companies will treat us only as well as 
does the Illinois Central, the southern part of that state, they will see in 
a few years, an interest developed, many times greater than that of 
Southern Illinois. 

The committee on transportation have a "huge job" on their hands, 
but it will never be regulated unless we as a body, take hold of it. 
United effort, continual work, earnest talk, and yet^some time may elapse 
before we get what we want and what we deserve. 

Officially it must be presented to the managers of our railroads, not 
only by our state society but by every local society, by every farmer's 
club, by every grange, and by every wheel organization of our state. 

I find our railroad men willing to do what we want when we can 
show them that it is to their interest to do so, and it does seem to me 
that I could satisfy any one of them in five minutes that such is the case. 
The only hard thing to do about it is to get them to look at the matter 
in the right light. It will take persistent effort, time and time again to 
succeed however. Like everything else, it is worth the time and trouble 
if we only succeed in the end. 

OUR FRUIT SHOW 

I have reported upon in a special paper. I believe that there never was 
a better show of apples brought together ; I believe there never was a 
more successful display; I believe that a collection of fruits never did as 
much good as did this one for the State of Missouri. Thousands upon 
thousands saw but to admire, saw but to commend, saw but to be in- 
structed and enlightened as to the capabilities of our state. Our .society 
had been saving some money and found this a good way of using it. 

About eight hundred dollars have been used for this purpose and it 
ever money was well spent, it was this. The financial report will be given 
by our treasurer and the bills for the same. The expenses of the secre- 



3()4 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



tary's office lor the pcist six months have been not quite as much as usual. 
Some of our railroads begin to see that we arc helping them in our efforts 
to promote horticulture, and they are getting more liberal with us. I 
hope to see the day when they will treat us as do the Georgia railroads 
their horticultural society. At their annual meeting every member of 
their committees, officers and helpers get a "pass" to the place of meet- 
ing, and the officers at any time have free transportation over the roads 
of the state. Our roads can afford to do much for us also; the fruit show 
was a better advertisement than they often get for hundreds of dollars. 

I cannot refrain from mentioning the very free and <jpen assistance 
we received from the St. Louis Exposition after they once fully under- 
stood what we were doing and how we were doing it. They gave timely 
aid in many ways, and very especial aid in work of keeping up the dis 
play, bringing our fruits up to the room and taking away the waste, as- 
sisting us in every way when we called upon them. The letters of com- 
mendation from the board of directors and the secretary given in my 
report on the display, gives the estimation they put upon it. Many 
and many a one told us that it was the best thing in the building for the 
state. I have written them to give us their resolutions engrossed on 
parchment, as one of our trophies, and have received the following from 

one of the directors: 

St. Louis, Nov. 15TH, 1888. 
L. A. Goodman, Esq., West port, Mo. 

Dear Sir : — I have received your favor of the 12th inst. In response 
would say, that I will give the matter referred to special attention. Mr. 
Kennard, the President of the Exposition Association, is now east, and it 
may be three weeks before the matter can be fixed up. I will investigate 
the matter, however, at once, and in any event it will be attended to in 
ample time and as you desire. 

Hoping that we shall have the pleasure of having you with us at the 
next Exposition, I remain, with best regards, 

Youry truly, 

C. H. SAMPSON. 



ANNUAL AIEETING AT NEVADA. 305 



FOLLOWING LS A LIST OF EXPENSES 



1888. 


June 


2. 


July 


5. 


(( 




a 


20. 


( i 


25. 


Aug, 


. 2. 


i i 


10. 




13. 


* h 


25. 


(( 




Oct. 


25. 



Fruit Report, bill 1 $ 20.00 

Murray's expenses, Columbia, bill 2 19.10 

Goodman's " " " 3 12.20 

St. Louis, " 4 23.25 

Nevada, " 5 10.50 

Post-office Bill, bill 6 40.07 

Printing, bill 7 15-00 

Expenses to Carthage, Ijill 8 10.50 

Express, $2.15, $1.00, $1.00, bill 9.. 4.25 

Expenses to St. Louis, bill 10 21.55 

Printing, bill 11 9.50 

Express on return matter 10.2-5 

" Delivering ♦ 2.00 

Express, $ .95, $1.00, bills 15, 16 1.95 

July 31. Printing, bill 17 , 6.00 

Aug. 16. Expenses to Clinton, bill 18 8.75 

Oct. 31. Post-Office Bill, bill 19 ." 12.50 

Nov. 9. Express, $L20, telegram, $ .60 .' 1.80 

" 10. Printing, bill 20 16.00 

" 28. Ribbon, $2.75, express, $2.15, expense, $1.45 6.35 

Dec. 10 Express, bill 21 5.50 

Expenses of Delegates, bill 22 20.10 

J. C. Evans, bill 23 12.25 

" Southwest mail, bill 24 7.50 

R. E. Baily, bill 25 28.25 

Tacks, $ .15, paper, $1.50, help, $2.00. nails, $ .25 5.90 

" Baskets, pencils, tablets.. 3.25 

Plates for fruit 7.80 

Post-Office Bill, bill 26 31.10 

'• Express and storage, bill 27 5.00 

Bill Jasper County, bill 28 7.40 

" Self, traveling expenses , 18.20 



$402.65 



Received cash of Express Company $ 7.65 

" D. M. Dunlap, Life Member 8.00 

" " Memberships recorded 27.00 



$42.65 



$360.00 



Received Warrant, No. 128 360.00 



11. K. — 20. 



H06 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The series of Farmer's Institutes to be held all over the state should 
receive notice of our society, and some one should be appointed to attend 
to them in different parts of the state. 

Following is the list, and some one of our good fruit-growers in the 
locality should attend to them 

In all i)robability their expenses will be paid b)' the state board. 

Paris, Monroe County, Monday and Tuesday, Dec. lo-i i ; 4 Sessions. 

Bowling Green, Pike County, Wednesday, 

Troy, Lincoln County, Thursday, 

Ironton, Iron County, Friday, 

Poplar Bluff, Butler County, Saturday 

West Plains, Howell County, Monday, 

Ash Grove, Greene County, Tuesday, 

Billings, Christian County, Wednesday, 

Marshfield, Webster County, Thursday, 

Lebanon, Laclede County, Friday, 

Huntsville, Randolph County, Monday & Tuesday, 

Pattonsburg, Daviess County, Wednesday, 

Stanberry, Gentry County, Thursday, 

Maryville, Nodaway County, Friday, 

Savannah, Andrew County, Saturday, 

Amity, DeKalb County, Monday, 

Hamilton, Caldwell County, Tuesday, January 



12, 


3 


13, 


3 


14, 


2 


15. 


3 


17 


3 


18, 


3 


19, 


3 


20, 


3 


21, 


3 


24-25, 


4 


26, 


3 


27, 


3 


28. 


3 


29. 


5 


31, 


3 


I, 


2 



Printing our report I hope may be done at once, and the following 
letter from the state printer gives us the promise : 

Jefferson City, Mo.. Nov. 12, 1888. 
L. A. Goodman, Esq.: 

Replying to yours of recent date, have to say that so far as we 
know now we can commence on your report and finish it up within the 
required time. We are particularly anxious to get everything possible 
out of the way before the legislature meets. 

Yours, etc.. 



TRIBUNE PRTG CO. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 307 



INFORMATION FOR SETTLERS. 



I have thoug-ht of a plan for giving some information to those wish- 
ing to settle in our state; and that is, to take the lines of our principal 
railroads and have some of our members write up the advantages of their 
county for fruit growing and an estimate of the amount of fruit produc- 
ed in that county. With this publish a small cut showing the line of 
the road through the state and counties, and with this description of 
each county through which the road passes, we could give a very fair 
idea of that county for fruit growing and marketing. Let this be done 
with all our important lines and I think it would be just the information 
needed by the person seeking a home for growing fruits. 

(Following is a note from one of our callers): 
Mr. L. A. Goodman : 

Dear Sir— Thanks for your marked courtesy. 

I am pleased to remark that it is surpassed only by your brilliant 
display of your honored society so ably represented by you and your 
associates. Yours truly, 

S. TWITCHELL. 

Landed at St. Louis A. D. about iSi8 ; was 5 days enroute to Al- 
ton, 111., (25 miles), rather slow; landed at Westport about 1828, I 

consider this the very center of the agricultural world, and predict that 
there are men who will see the seat of our young giant nation will be 
very near your time-honored city. S. T. 

St. Louis, Oct 14, 1888. 

Also the following frbm one of the largest peach growers of Illinois, 
whom I asked to give a list of 10,000 peach trees for planting for profit. 
Two thousand E. Barnard, 2,000 Thurber O'Mixon, Family Favorite, 
2,000 Elberta, 2,000 Piquetts, Late, 2.000 Reeves' Favorite Christiana 
Henrietta. G. W. ENDICOTT, 

Villa Ridge. III. 



303 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The meetings of our sister states are occurring now each week. At 
the same date of our meeting, the Kansas State Society and the Indi- 
ana State Society meet, the one at Hutchinson, Kas., and the other at 
Indianapolis, Ind. A telegram of greeting has been sent to each. 

The Illinois and Iowa societies meet next week, one at Alton and 
the other at Council Bluffs. Some one should attend if possible. 

The knowledge we have gained in horticulture the last few years we 
owe to our societies and the agitation of the question; and questions of 
great importance which our scientists are now taking up gives us the 
belief that we are advancing year by year in this knowledge and that 
this knowledge is doing us good. 

Now then, dear friends and members. I can but congratulate you 
on the success of our society. We have worked together with an earn- 
est will, hearts full of love for our cause, an unbounded enthusiasm, and 
with a perfect unity. As long as we follow in this plan of working just 
so long will we be successful and no longer. It takes but little discord 
and friction to create a disturbance and a little bad seed sown causes trou- 
ble. The wonderful opportunities of our state for development will give us 
all the we can do for years to come. Our state is not a state in which 
only a small portion of it is adapted to horticulture, but from the very 
northernmost point to the very southern limit, from the east to the west, 
all over our grand old state we have the land and climate which will 
give beautiful returns if but properly developed. 

The last and best made state (geographically) of the union offers 
to you and to every earnest worker of all the other states, the best op- 
portunity of their lives. No state of nearly 300 miles north and south 
and east and west can begin to offer the horticulturist such a rich field 
for labor. 

'• Let us go up and possess the land for we be able to occupy it." 

L. A. GOODMAN, Secretary. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 



300 



REPORT OF TREASURER 



Springfield, Mo., Dec. lo, 1888, 

D. S. HOLMAN, TR., IN ACCOUNT WITH MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 

1888. 

June 10. To balance in treasury on settlement at June meeting $ 371.18 

" 80. " Warrant on State Treasury 1,000.00 

Oct. 20. " Cash receipts on sale of fruits at Missouri Fruit Show 24.55 

Nov. 1. " Warrant on State Treasury 500.00 

# 

$1,895.73 

June 22. By cash paid warrant 124 $ 20.30 

Oct. 29. " " 126 687.78 

Dec. 10. " " 128 360.00 

129 400.00 

131 184.50 

' ' By balance in treasury 243.15 

$1,895.73 



EXPENSES OF FRUIT SHOW. 



1888 
Aug 



Ausi 



5. Exiienses to St. Louis $ 3.70 

Board of Evans and Goodman 15.80 

Return 2.00 

Paid Murray 10.00 

28. Express on Reports 1.25 

Expenses to St. Louis, L. A. Goodman 2.00 

Express, Vernon County 5.35 

" Bates Countv 5.O0 



310 



MISSOURI STATE I1URTICULTUR^\L SOCIETY. 



Sept. 1. Simmons, hardware 

" Clippies, woodenware 

Will. liarr, muslin 

St. Louis Paper Company 

.Mail and express 

" 3. Express from Holt Clounty 

rotting earth 

Cupples, woodenware 

Express (Olden) 

(Weston) 

Cloth, 50 yards 

" 4. Express, Nevada 

" " Mercer County 

" Dra.yage on Evergreens 

A. J. Blake, (work) 

" 8. Express, Nevada 

St. Joe 

Postage 

Water Cooler 

" 10. Expenses to Creve Creur 

" Frames for Diplomas 

Express 

" Table, chairs and carpet 

" Painting pagoda and signs 

" 340 yards festooning 

150 " " 

" Blake, for work 

Hotel bill of Goodman and Murray 

" Ink, pen, stamps 

" 14. Framing Certificates 

" Express charges, 2 barrels and 4 baskets, St. Joe. 

" " " 1 box, from Weston 

" Freight and drayage, 7 barrels, from Boonville. . 

1 dozen pencils, 35 cents, and stamps, $1 

" Express charges, from Thayer 

" Register, blotter and pens 

" Star-Sayings 

" Express charges, 1 lianel, from Butler 

" 24. Map of Missouri 

" Paper to shade map 

" 25. 1,000 envelopes, $3, stamp.s, $2 

" Express charges on box from St. Joe 

" Cash sent to Murray 

" Express charges on fruit 

' ' 26. For 500 circulars 

" " tablets, mucilage, etc 

" Express charges on 1 barrel, from Weston 

For postage stamps 

" 27. Hotel bill for Goodman and Holman 

' ' To Murray 

" Express charges. 9 boxes and 1 barrel 

" For Post-Dispatch 

Drayage from Fair Grounds 



10. 

11. 

2. 

5. 

o 

•^, 

5. 
3. 
1. 
2. 

2. 

12. 

1. 
o 

3. 

2. 

5. 

1. 

9. 
75. 
34. 
18. 

3. 
25. 

3. 

9. 

2. 

1. 

3. 

1. 

4. 

1. 

1. 
12. 

5. 

25. 

1. 



2. 
3. 
39. 
4. 
3. 

1. 



75 

80 
50 
75 
50 
35 
50 
40 
00 
60 
50 
50 
05 
75 
00 
35 
80 
00 
25 
00 
00 
50 
00 
00 
00 
75 
00 
90 
65 
40 
05 
25 
13 
35 
00 
75 
12 
20 
00 
20 
00 
55 
00 
75 
50 
80 
55 
30 
75 
00 
30 
15 
00 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 



311 



" 17. 
" 30. 

" 30. 



Oct. 1. 



3 

4. 



Sept. 14. L. A. Goodman, return to Kansas City.. 

Fare to St. Louis 

Paid Mallinckrodt 

Express, 65c., 75c., 75c 

200 (jlobe-Democrat 

Express, Bates 

Weston 

" cold storage 

New Florence 

Holt County 

" Springfield 

Rockville 

Nevada . 

" Fulton 

Olden 

" Bates 25c., cold storage, 50c. . . 

Telegram to Sarcoxie 

Paid Mallinckrodt 

" postage 

" express, Wr'ght City 

A. C. Hammond 

W. M. Samniuels 

F. Holsinger 

E. A. Reihl 

Express, Lebanon 

" ' Frisco route 

" Kansas City 

" Russell 

Board, &c 

Expenses to Kansas City 

Express, Kansas City 

Expenses of Mallinckrodt 

■' Springfield 

" Mercer County 

Carpenters paid 

Paid help 

Signs and postage 

Photograph of show 

Saw 

Bradley, for drayage 

Help 

Evans' expense bill 

Evans' hotel l)ill 

Goodman's hotel bill 

To Evans, which amount he had paid out. 

For telegram 

Holman's expense bill. 



" 10. 

< t 
(I 

" 11. 

i t 

" 13. 
" 32. 
" 23. 



S2. 
3 
1, 
3 
6 



1 
4 

1. 

1. 
1, 

1. 
1. 
1. 

10. 
7. 
9. 
3. 
1. 
1. 
1. 
2. 

25. 

3. 

2. 

1. 

3. 

3. 

8. 

5. 

5. 
18. 

1. 

5. 

5. 
39. 
30. 
18. 
10. 

24. 



35 
.75 
00 
15 
.00 
.25 
.30 
.50 
.40 
.65 
.90 
.50 
,70 
70 
.00 
75 
,05 
50 
50 
.50 
,80 
50 
50 
00 
90 
70 
50 
50 
75 
00 
35 
40 
35 
95 
35 
00 
00 
35 
00 
35 
GO 
70 
40 
90 
50 
00 
40 
70 



$687.78 



312 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIET\, 



EXPENSES FOR WHICH THERE WAS NO WARRANT DRAWN 



1888. 
Dec. 10. 



E.\prcss charges paid at late meeting $ 21.70 

For stationery 1.06 

Paid Murray for Laughlin 10.00 

Laughlin's hotel liill 4,10 

Gano's hotel hill 4.60 

St. Louis Refrigerating Company, storage 5.00 

Hoke Engraving Company ' 6.75 

American Engraving Comi)any 30.00 

Premiums 74.60 

My expenses 13.70 

Murray's expenses 13.25 



$184.50 



To the President and Members of the State HorticJiltiiral Society : 

Having examined the account.s and vouchers of the secretary and 
treasurer, we find them correct, and so far as we are able to judge, the 
financial affairs of the society have been judiciously and economically 
administered. 

HENRY SPEER, 
N. F. MURRAY, 
Z. T. RUSSELL, 
Finance Committee. 



DISCUSSION. 



Mr. Evans — We made a great effort to have every part of the 
state represented in the St. Louis Fruit show. Our success can be seen 
by looking at the map. All the counties colored red had exhibits in the 
show. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 313 

Mr, Holman, after reading his report spoke of the many items of 
expenses that had to be incurred by the officers of the society at St. 
Louis, and said that they had made all the bills as small as possible. 

Mr. Evans — It required a great deal of work, much writing, and 
printer's ink to work up that great fruit show. We worked and talked 
for over three years. Colman's Rural World did more than all the rest 
of us together. We tried for a whole week to get the managers of the 
exposition to give us the room and fit it up for us, and were ready to go 
home in disgust ; but we went to the Rural World , and its editor said 
that it would not do to give it up, we will go and see those managers 
separately at their homes or places of business. And the result you all 
know. I recommend the Rural World to the farmers and fruit-growers 
as one of the best and most reliable papers published. 

jWr. Holman — I move that a vote of thanks be given to the Rural 
World for its part in this work. 

Mr. Holsinger — I second that motion, and move that we send 
along a barrel of the finest apples on these tables with the vote of 
thanks. 

Carried unanimously. 

Mr. Hollozvay — I move that a vote of thanks be extended to every 
county court in the state that made an appropriation for the benefit of 
the Missouri Fruit show. 

Carried. 

Secretary Goodman stated that the law found in Section 4057, re- 
vised statutes, gives them the right to appropriate $150 in premiums or 
for displays annually for any purpose that will benefit the county. 

Mr. Murray — I know something of the work performed to make 
that Fruit Show, and I am agreeably surprised to find that the cost was 
less than $700. I supposed it would be $1,500. Thanks are due to our 
worthy secretary, L. A. Goodman. He worked hard to get everything 
done as cheap as possible, doing much of the work himself, I have posi- 
tive evidence that men have come to seek homes in our state from the 
effects of that show. 

ANYTHING FOR THE GOOD OF THE SOCIETY. 

Mr. Goodman — I have received from John B. Gill, of Springdale, 
Ark., one hundred i -yean old Coffelt apple trees, tied in bunches of five 
each, which he wishes to be distributed to the members of the society 
I'esiding in different parts of the state, for trial. You may propagate 
from these for your own use, but not to sell. Mr. Murray will please 
distribute the trees. 



:{14 MISSOURI STATE IIURTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Mr. Ilohnaii — Another man from Springfield offers and sends one 
hundred trees to be distributed, provided the fruit committee like the ap- 
pie. 

I move that the secretary quote the statute referred to, in his ne.xt 
published report, so that any member of the society can use it when he 
wishes an appropriation from his eounty court for the good of horticul- 
ture. 

Invitations for the ne.xt meeting of the society were received from 
Brookfield; Springfield, Lebannon and Poplar Bluff, all of which were 
referred to the executive committee. 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER /th, 2 P. M. 



Report of the committeee on transportation was read by secretary, 
received and adopted. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION. 



Your committee on transportation find themselves hampered by 
many untoward circumstances. The subject is' a broad one, and its suc- 
cessful solution depends upon the mutually beneficial relations of the 
producer and the transportation companies. 

The producer needs and demands cheap and rapid transit for his 
fruits; the transportation companies on the other hand very resonably 
demand that the producer shall furnish them sufficient business to in- 
demnify them against financial loss, in the preparation of, and the sup- 
plying of these facilities. The question then is, are the fruit producers 
of Missouri in a position to perform their necessary part in effecting this 
mutually beneficial arrangement.-* On the other hand, the fact is generally 
recognized that if rapid and cheap rates were guaranteed, the fruit Indus- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 315 

try would be greatly enhanced in its every branch, by the accession of 
many new and enthusiastic recruits to the ranks of producers. The fact 
is further recognized that each locality can best solve this question to its 
own satisfaction, and that the State Society can only deal with it in the 
most general way. 

In view^ of the fact that the work of the State Horticultural Society 
has, apparently, not received the recognition at the hands of the repre- 
sentative business interests of the state that its importance demands, 
we would urge the importance of thoroughly ventilating through the 
press the workings of this society, and in that way indirectly impress 
upon transportation companies the imperative importance of meeting the 
members of this society half-way in the furtherance of this most import- 
ant industry. In addition to this, we would recommend that the state 
society would memorialize the various railroad and express companies, 
in the following or similar language, relative to this important matter. 

Whereas, The Missouri State Horticultural Society has throughout 
its existence of thirty-one years, been greatly hampered for lack of cheap 
and rapid transit to the markets of the country for the products of its 
members; and 

Whereas, Many individuals who would have gladly embarked in 
the fruit industry, with their capital and energies, but have been deterred 
from doing so, for lack of these necessary conditions of success; and 

Whereas, We recognize the fact that only amicable and generous 
CO operation between the producer and the carrier can pave the w ay for 
the development of this industry, whose possibilities it were hard to ex- 
aggerate; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the Missouri State Horticultural Society, that, we 
are willing and anxious to enter into an arrangem.ent with the transpor- 
tation companies of this country, that will most speedily and most satis- 
factorily compass the desired ends; and further, that we the members of 
this society, pledge our individual endeavors, in our several localities, to 
secure such amicable and mutually beneficial arrangments with the vari- 
ous transportation companies. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. AMES, 
C. C. BELL, 
J. K. GWYNN. 

Committee. 



310 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

]\fr. Robanis read a special report on transportation, whicli was re- 
ferred to the committee on the subject. 

I\fr. Goodman — I suggest that every local society pass the same or 
a similar resolution, and send it to the general managers of the roads oyer 
which you send your fruit to market. If you can convince them that it 
is for their good to make better rates they will meet you half way. Let 
such resolutions go up from every fruit section that they will see that 
these people want something. So let the matter come up all around and 
it will help us. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

il/r. Evans requested that he be relieved from the duties of the 
office, and that some one more capable be selected to fill his place. 

J. C. Evans was re-elected and the result was made unanimous by 
acclamation. 

The election of Vice-President being in order, Mr. Nelson moved 
that the rules be suspended, and that the secretary cast the ballot for 
N. F. Murray. Carried. Mr. Murray was declared the choice of the 
society for Vice-President. 

Mr. Nelson moved that the rules be suspended and that the Tres- 
urer cast the ballot of the Society for L, A. Goodman, for Secretary. 
Carried, and Mr. Goodman was declared duly elected Secretary of the 
Society. 

Mr. Murray moved that the Secretary be instructed to cast the 
ballot of the Society for D. S. Holman, for Treasurer. Carried. Mr. 
Holman was declared duly elected Treasurer. 

Mr. Gano — I move that the selection of the place for the next semi- 
annual and the next annual meeting be referrred to the executive com- 
mittee. Carried, 

The Secretary said that the Society had invitations to hold the 
summer meeting at Kirkwood, and also at Poplar Bluff and Brookfield. 

REPORT ON STONE FRUITS. 

Mr. Holman — I called on Mr. Hopkins, of the Committee on Stone 
Fruits, some time ago. At that time he expected to come to this 
meeting, but something occurred to keep him at home. He said that all 
the stone fruits would enter the winter in good condition, and gave 
promise of a good crop next year, after a very satisfactory crop this 
year. The trees were not overloaded and we never saw them in better 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. ^17 



shape than now. If the winter is favorable we hope to have a half crop 
to report next year. There are more demands for peach trees in that 
region than can be supplied. 



PEACH CULTURE 



DR. E. R. MOREROD, SCHELL CITY 



Peach culture for the last six years has been a failure in Vernon 
County from the severity of our winters, and everybody seems impressed 
with the idea that it will remain so for all future time. The writer would 
state that he has been a resident of Vernon County for twenty-one 
years; that from his first residence in the county previous to sfx years 
ago, there never was an entire failure of that delicious fruit, and has been 
informed by old residents, that for many years, previous to his advent to 
the county, there seldom was a failure of the peach crop; and would fur- 
ther add that one season the thermometer fell to twenty-three degrees 
below zero to his own knowledge, and it was reported at twenty-seven 
degrees below in the neighborhood of Moundville, in this county, on the 
same occasion, yet we had fine peaches that season. Now, the writer 
does not wish to convey the idea that«this is always the case, but ad- 
mits, that when the thermometer falls to sixteen degrees below zero, 
one may reasonably anticipate a failure or great injury to the crop. But 
the writer protests against the idea that peach culture must remain for- 
ever a failure in this section, for experience in the past demonstrates that 
seasons, like history repeat themselves. It is a well-known fact that 
certain classes of epidemics repeat themselves at very regular cycles or 
periods of time. The writer feels confident, that indulgent nature will 
turn the card board of the weather round .sooner or later, that we may 
indulge in ripe, juicy peaches, as of yore. The object of this communi- 
cation, however, is to bring to the notice of this society the writer's ex- 
perience that may not be new to old veterans of horticulture, but may 
be of great benefit to those who are novices in that line, and who desire 



318 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

or intend to set out a peach orchard. Never attempt to form a head for 
the tree when setting it out, but cut it straight as a broom stick and let 
it form a head at its own leisure ; do not leave any side branches, even 
if the)- be but two or three inches long, for when they become heavily 
ladened with fruit or exposed to severe storms, the branches break and 
split the stem of the tree oftener than pressing clear to the ground, The 
writer has had an annual loss of seven to eight percent of trees, owing to 
this cause alone. 'Tis said, one can learn something from failures as well 
as from successful efforts, and, in order to arrive at the truth, it is as well 
to confess our mistakes as to trumpet our success, and if this communication 
should save one or two from committing the same blunder and meeting 
w^ith similar experience, the writer will be amply repaid for the trouble 
of writing the same. 



THE HOME OF THE PEACH AND ITS TREATMENT. 



W. G. GANG, OF THE OLDEN FRUIT FARM, HOWELL COUNTY, MO. 



What a wonderful country we have for fruit culture ; no nation 
possesses such marvelous privileges, no other has made such progress in 
pomology. 

Being situated on the southern slope of the Ozark mountains, we 
are protected from the severity of the north and northwestern wintry 
blasts, and by a succession of mountain ranges in Arkansas on the south- 
west from the hot blighting winds of July and August. Here, we have 
a district, as large as the German Empire, where both soil and climate 
are congenial to the growth of the peach, where no yellows, that formid- 
able and dreaded disease, that baffles and blasts the prospects of the 
grower of this luscious fruit, ever invades. Where the much-dreaded 
enemies of the fruit tree, the borer or gouger and curculio are seldom 
found ; where nothing hinders the growing of millions of bushels of this 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 319 

blessed God-given fragrant fruit of Paradise ; I say where nothing hind- 
ers except the supreme laziness of man. 

It is a painful fact that peach-growing, by the settlers of this most fa- 
vored region, is but a sad mockery, for they know of nothing and plant 
nothing but seeds of the most inferior kind, and such a thing as a large, 
melting, delicious, wealth-bringing, beautiful peach these growers never 
beheld; hence the newspaper report of thousands of bushels of peaches 
rotting in Howell county this year, were not peaches but seeds ; and 
they are there yet, and will measure as much and bring as much in the 
market to-day as in their season. 

It is clearly evident, from years of experience and observation, 
that orchard land requires close and prompt attention in Missouri as well 
as in California or elsewhere, and that in small or extensive operations 
thorough cultivation as well as manures, such as barn-yard, wood-ashes, 
green manures, and to a certain extent some of the commercial class, 
are required to maintain the vigor of tree and quality of fruit. The 
true system of culture is old, but the mode of doing the work is con- 
stantly changing with the introduction of new and improved implements, 
and with the ease and rapidity with which the work can be performed, 
leaves no excuse for neglect. This subject naturally suggests location, 
preparation of soil, distance between trees, varieties to plant and treat- 
ment. 

Location should be such as not to disappoint the hopes of the 
planter ; he wants peaches not every third, fourth or fifth year, but every 
year. Viewed in this light, location is of the first importance. Not 
every spot, even in this favored location, is desirable for a peach or- 
chard. Low lands are especially to be avoided. Frosty places are of 
very doubtful propriety, for while the trees may grow well, the fruit 
buds are more liable to be injured in spring after the bloom opens. Ele- 
vated lands are therefore most valuable and desirable for peach growing. 

PREPARATION OF THE SOIL. 

We clear our land in the summer after the terminal bud of the 
timber growth has been formed, and the hot weather sours the sap which 
prevents the stumps from sprouting, and causes them to decay much 
sooner. I like the plan adopted by some, of staking off the rows while 
clearing, and piling the brush where each tree is to stand. When the 
brush gets well dried, we burn. There is no better fertilizer for the 
growth of trees than wood-ashes, and the burning destroys all vegetable 



320 MISSOURI STATE IIOR^TCULTURAL SOCIETY. 

growth, and puts the hind in the best possible condition for the growth 
of young trees. 

We endeavor to break this new hind as soon after burning as we can 
during the fall, using heavy plows made for that purpose, and drawn by 
four heavy mules. This land is left laying to the action of the frost 
through the winter. In the spring we cross-plow and harrow thoroughly, 
then it is ready for tree planting If you would lay a foundation for a 
noble orchard, pulverize the soil thoroughly before planting. 

DISTANCE BETWEEN TREES. 

This is still an unsettled question in the minds of many planters; 
while the trees are small, sixteen feet seems to be quite far enough, but 
I think in this locality, where the tree is of long life, and grows to be 
very large, twenty feet would be much better. 

In planting, we use one-year-old trees, and always set in the spring, 
taking trees fresh dug from the nursery, or if dug in the fall, kept in root 
houses over winter. 

Before planting, they should be entirely stripped of branches, 
leaving only a straight stalk about three feet long. To make it conven- 
ient, each variety should be set in blocks to themselves, with driveways 
through, to enable easy reach with wagons. 

For mulching we would depend on cultivation. If the soil is fre- 
quently stirred about the tree, sufiPcient moisture will be obtained. 
Plant the ground to corn, for by leaving the stalks on the land, corn will 
take less strength from the soil than any other cereal. On some varieties 
you w ill begin to have fruit at two years from planting, at which time 
stop cropping but continue the cultivation 

For the work, we use while cultivating the corn the common double 
shovel plow, after that we use several kinds of implements. The main 
idea is an implement that will do the work, both thoroughly and speed- 
ily, in the least time and at the least cost. An excellent implement is 
a frame made like the common A harrow with sixteen or eighteen cul- 
tivator hoes, with bow attached to enable easy handling; the frame be- 
ing five or five and a half feet wide, one man and team can cultivate a 
large acreage per day. We expect the trees to make from one to three 
feet growth each year In prunning we have practiced the method of 
cutting all branches off the next year after planting, and with some we 
have just headed in shortly. If the tree has made a good growth and 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 321 

formed a nice head I prefer the latter plan. The after pruning is to 
shorten in each year's growth, as a rule, one third; some varieties more, 
some less; this system causes a stalky growth, prevents the slabbing off 
of limbs, the fruit is more evenly distributed and nearer the trunk, the 
limbs do not bend down causing the fruit to get scorcht d by the sun, makes 
a protection to the tree from the hot sun and makes easier access to 
the fruit in gathering. Never trim up a tree or thin out the inside 
branches, nature will do that soon enough, 

VARIETIES. 

-t 

This is another very important point; peaches must be used in their 
season and to have them the entire season, varieties must be planted that 
will ripen from the earliest to the latest. 

Most commercial planters are beginning to discard the early varie- 
ties; but our experience, so far has proven the early peach to be as prof- 
itable as any we have fruited. They have been good size, highly colored, 
ripened beautifully, made as many boxes to the tree, no rot has prevail- 
en and have sold as high priced as any; yet I would not advise the plant- 
ing of these early kinds, for there is almost an endless number of varieties 
that are so near identical the differnce can scarcely be descerned, and the 
chances are you will get all you want in a bill of trees when you do not 
intend to order any. 

DESCRIPTION OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES. 

Eldred Cling, earliest true cling, creamy skin, bright cheek, large and 
good, a splendid tree, ripens about July loth. Mountain Ro.se, first 
best free-stone,, large, white, bright red cheek, and good in every partic- 
ular, ripens about July 20th. Family Favorite, free-stone seedling from 
Chinese Cling, but better colored, very prolific, large and handsome, ex- 
tra in quality flesh pearly white, ripens about August 5th. Elberta, 
crossbetween Crawford and Chinese Cling free-stone exceedingly large . 
high yellow color and taking both tree and fruit I know of no better 
yellow free-stone existing at this season, ripens about August 15th. 
Gen. Lee, similar to Chinese Cling, perhaps a little better colored. Mrs. 
Brett, improved Old Mixom, free, little shy in bearing, while young, rip- 
ens about August 20th. Early Crawfords, have one strain that has 
proven to be very prolific. Keyport White, one of the best peaches, very 
prolific; creamy white, quality splendid, ripens last of August, free stone. 

II. K. — 21. 



:{22 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

We have many varieties that ripen about this time, such as Stumj) 
the World, Druid Hill, Mixons, Newington Clint^, and Prince of Wales; 
of the later kinds we have Picquet Late, Smock, Salvvay, Bonanza, Hen- 
rietta, and Leopard ripening at intervals from September ist to Octo- 
per 20th. 

Mr. Gilbert — I bought five hundred bushels of small seedling 
peaches that were but little more than skins and seeds, and now the 
seeds are worth 35 cents a bushel. 

Mr. Evans — In the peach season it was reported in the papers 
that thousands of bushels of peaches rotted on the ground in Howell 
County. They were not peaches, they were only seeds, and are worth 
more now than in the peach season. 

Mr. Francis — What is the best time to cut back the peach .-* 

Mr. Evans — I would not recommend cutting back now, but some 
do. We think it better to begin cutting back at the warm spell in 
February. 

Jacob Faith — A plum orchard made me about $1 per tree, when five 
years old. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ENTOMOLOGY. 

Mr. Chiibbnck — At the last June meeting, I was appointed one of 
a committee to advise with Miss Murtfeldt in regard to having her 
prepare an elementary work on entomology for this society. Recently 
two new works on the subject have appeared, one by Dr. Comstock and 
the other a revision of Dr. Packard's work. She thought that one of 
these works might answer the purpose. Dr. Comstock's work was sent 
to the office of the Rural World. It is not such a work as we want. It 
is published in two parts, and the first part is sold for $2. 

Miss Murtfeldt proposes to continue her work during the winter if 
the State Society will give her $250, to pay her and pay for the copy- 
right, and about $100 for the illustrations. She did not say what sized 
work she proposed to write, but I think about 100 pages would do. The 
work should be very simple, not going into detail. Dr. Comstock's 
work would be an excellent work to follow an elementary work. It 
would not do for a beginner to study by himself. It is also too costly, 
more so than the society had in contemplation. 

I would suggest here that the State Board of Agriculture be invit- 
ed to join with us in preparing the work. 

Mr. Goodman — To publish such a work would cost the society 
$500. I believe we can get it published in our reports, and then have 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 323 

extra copies by paying for the binding. If the State Board of Agricul- 
ture would unite with us, I know of nothing that would be more de- 
sirable for our report. We must know more of our insect foes, to fight 
them successfully. 

Mr. Murray- — I think the State Board oi Agriculture is as much 
interested in the work as are the horticulturists. I move that the whole 
matter be left with the executive committee that they may confer with 
the State Board of Agriculture. 

Carried. 

SPRAYING. 

Mr. Evans — There is no paper on the subject of spraying that I 
know of ; but anyone can have an opportunity to make a few remarks 
upon the subject. 

Mr. Francis — I would like to know if Dr. Goslin's arsenic solution 
could not be applied to the extermination of chinch bugs if we had a 
suitable spraying machine. 

Mr. Kinder — I sprayed a row of broom corn with Paris Green. It 
almost killed the corn, but did not hurt the chinch bugs. 

Mr. Nelson — A friend of mine sprayed some corn with kerosene to 
kill the chinch bugs. It killed both the corn and the bugs. 

Mr. Murray — I am well pleased with my experience in fighting the 
Codling moth with arsenic. The cost is small, the labor light, and 
quickly done. The per centage of wormy apples is very small. Those 
that were affected were by a late brood that did not hurt the apples 
very much. No man with an orchard can afford to neglect it. Two 
ounces of arsenic to lOO gallons ot water is strong enough. I did not 
lose any fruit by the spraying. Some of the foliage was burned by 2 1-2 
ounces to 100 gallons of water. I had no trouble in making a complete 
solution by using a half pound of concentrated lye to 100 gallons of 
water. It requires about two gallons of water to a 15-year-old tree. I 
use a common force pump with the "boss " nozzle. 

Mr. Francis — Would the spray be good for the leaf roller .-* 

Mr. Murray — The only satisfactory way to find out would be to try 
it ; I don't think it would do any good. 

Mr. Gilkeson — I sprayed my orchard with fourteen ounces of Lon- 
don purple to fifty gallons of water, and then again about two weeks later. 
I also used it on my plum orchard, and I had a very nice crop of plums. 
Where I did not spray, the apples were full of moths ; I think the spray- 
ing did a good deal of good. 



S24 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



NEVV FRUITS. 

Mr. Evans — We have a committee on new fruits, but I believe there 
is not a member of that committee present. We may have a few re- 
marks from members who have examined the new fruits on the tables. 

Mr. Robards — I believe I am one of that committee. I will report 
upon only one that has been upon the table, grown by a farmer, Mr. 
Staley. It has a cocoanut flavor and makes no small apples, grows to 
good size, sweet. 

Mr. Murray — I am interested in some new fruits, among them the 
Babitt apple. The tree is hard)', a good grower, makes fine nursery 
trees and bears well. Some agents have been selling trees for a high 
price under this name which were rough and crooked, while the true va 
riety is nice and straight. No other nurseryman has been propagating 
it long enough to have large trees to sell in any considerable quantity. 

Mr. Goodman — I have here some winter pears from Mr. Mallinckrodt, 
of St. Charles, which he desires you to test, and report whether you think 
the variety worthy of dissemination. 

Mr. Holsingcr — I think the pear is worthy of cultiva-tion. The flavor 
is very pleasant, and the fact of its being a winter pear makes it desir- 
able. 

Mr. Robards — Most winter pears lose their flavor. These seem to 
be of very good flavor. 

Mr. Evans spoke of the new fruits coming to light in the Ozark 
region of south Missouri and north Arkansas, such as the Minkler, the 
Horwell. He had see fifty varieti'es from this region. 

Mr. Holnian — I have here a pear which weighs nineteen ounces ; it 
has not made a history yet . It comes from the country of the Bald 
Knobbers ; there is only one tree of it and it will never bear again in 
consequence of an accident, but we can get suckers from its roots ; it is 
a good cooking and a long keeping pear. It came from Taney County. 

Mr. Goodman — I believe the pear is worthy of cultivation ; it resem- 
bles the new Idaho pear which has sprung into note recently ; if it is a 
good keeper, we can make some money out of it. I believe we will find 
some apple in southwest Missouri that will be THE apple for this western 
country. The Howell and the Minkler, all belong to the same family- 
I am satisfied that the Minkler and its seedlings are the best we can 
grow in south Missouri. The Ben Davis is producing a family ; here is 
one of them, the Paris, first shown by Mr. Ambrose, sent from Paris, 
Missouri. Keep watch of every good seedling you find in south or north 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 325 



Missouri. We arc going to get some of the best apples known. The 
Babi't is destined to be a great Western apple, and hope it will only be 
equal to the Baldwin in the East. Here is an apple from Franklin Coun- 
ty, Missouri; it seems to have some Stark blood in it ; it is a very firm, 
long-keeping apple. 

Mr. Baglcy — We are quite sure that it is a seedling ; it was found 
in the central part of Franklin Count/; I suppose the tree is about forty 
years old; it is a good bearer and keeps equal to the Gilpin. 

Prof. Clark — I will state that those apples from the Agricultural 
College farm at Columbia have been kept in a chamber over a kitchen 
where it was very warm ; the fact, that they have kept at all, will show 
them to be good keepers. 

Question — Can the ripening of the Concord grape be delayed by 
removing the leaves from the vines .' 

Mr. Espenlaub — When you remove the leaves frorn the vine,you 
might as well remove the fruit, as it will do no more good. 

Question. — Would not a lofty trellis prevent rot .'' 

Mr. Goodman — It is somewhat of a preventive. 

Mr. Gilbert — I have a neighbor with a few grape vines. He re- 
moves the leaves which stops the rot. 

Mr, Holsinger — I would like to ask if there is any benefit in de- 
laying the ripening of the Concord grape .-' 

Mr. Kinder — It would be a benefit if you could delay the ripening 
of half the crop; but how can you do it '^ 

Mr. Espenlanb — We want earlier grapes instead of later. We get 
twice the price of the large consignments from New York. 

Mr. Holsinger — Has any one had experience with the Jewell .'' 

Mr. Espenlaub — It has a small bunch and berry, but is very good 
and sweet. Is any member making a success of quinces, and what is the 
value of the Missouri Mammoth } 

Mr. Evans — The Missouri Mammoth is the quince, and the only 
good quince we have ever grown in Missouri. It is hardy in the latitude 
of Kansas City. 

Mr. Logan — We have trees that have not winter killed. 

Mr. Gilkeson — It has winter killed with me. 

Mr. Menifee — It winter kills with me. 

Mr. Holsinger — What do we want with ([uinces .■* I saw them 
selling for $1.25 a barrel in Kansas City last week. They were shipped 
from New York and would hardly pay the freight. 

Mr. Goodman— V^Q sold all the Missouri Mammoth we could erow 
for ten cents each. 



326 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Mr. Holman — The quince blights with mc. The Champion blights 
like a Bartlett pear. The Orange docs not blight, nor the Mammoth. 

Mr- Evans — Some few persons have made a success of quince 
growing in Missouri. Lately quinces have been run into the market and 
broke it down, and when it is down you might just as well try to sell 
rocks. 

Mr. Bell — I would like to hear from Mr. Nelson in regard to 
packing fruit. 

Mr. Nelson — Mr. President, if any person wishes to move or leave 
the room, I hope he will do so now, before I start, as I am very easily 
embarrassed. I am stage struck now. The subject of fruit packing is 
too big for a brief talk, but I will try to get over it in seven or eight or 
ten minutes. First, as to the matter of expense: The farmer should, 
during the summer season, when the cooper shops are not so busy, make 
an estimate of the number of barrels he will need to hold his apples, and 
give his order for them and have them ready. In York State they won't 
even move potatoes«in sacks. The farmer buys his barrrels and has them 
ready. » 

The fruit buyer goes around the country and buys his apples, and 
has them classed into two grades. The idea of moving apples in boxes 
would be preposterous nonsense in an eastern state. In York State I 
never saw number one apples moved in boxes. I may be called a crank. 
Benjamin Franklin was a crank. Edison was a crank. You may call 
me a crank upon the subject of barreling apples in the orchard, if you 
want to. I will take it. Let the education of the people up to the high 
standard I advocate begin now. Let the grower understand that his in- 
terest is identical with that of the seller. 

I went to the trouble to collect some fruit in my county for the St. 
Louis fruit show. One farmer brought me four fine samples. One of 
his samples of Jonathans was the finest in the exhibition. 

Mr. Bell or any other gentleman must have pretty good help in 
packing his fruit I pay ten cents an hour the year around for all the 
help I have. Nearly every farmer has more or less help at home which 
he can train to do the work of packing, so that he can do it cheapei than 
the buyer and shipper, like Mr. Bell. 

Mr. Murray — I would like to ask Mr. Nelson about what is the dif- 
ference of time for gathering apples in the east and in Missouri. 

Mr. Nelson — We sometimes begin to gather such varieties as the 
Lowell and Twenty Ounce as early as September 8th. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 327 

We begin to gather our winter apples about the tenth or the fifteenth 
of October, and aim to have them all on the way to market by the first 
or fifth of November. 



REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE FRUITS. 



The committee to examine the fruit on exhibition by the agricul- 
tural department of the State University, at Columbia, reported as fol- 
lows : 

We find upon the table, seventeen varieties of very beautiful, large 
size and perfect specimens of apples, showing the greatest care in se- 
lection. Among the number of new sorts to the state, we recommend 
as worthy of cultivation, " Kennard's Choice," a very highly colored red 
apple of medium size and first quality, and doubtless a good keeper. 
We cannot say much of this variety. Should the tree prove to be a 
good grower, hardy and prolific bearer, it will take a first place among 
the apples of Missouri. 

'* Pyles' Red " — winter ; very large, of good quality and valuable. 

" Saylor," below medium ; red ; good quality, and, for a sweet ap- 
ple, hard to beat. 

" Herman, another sweet apple ; red; large size and good quality 
and to lovers of sweet apples, a very desirable variety. 

'* Boyd " is undoubtedly the " Clayton ; " is of good size, a long keep- 
er, and on certain locations, a most valuable sort. 

" York Imperial "' is pretty well known in various portions of Mis- 
souri ; large red, of fair quality ; good keepers ; tree bears young, and 
worthy of cultivation. 

" Russian " is the " McAfee None-such ; " no value. 

Same may be said of the '* Lawson." The specimens, however, are 
fine, and will catch the eye of the amateur. 

" Yeats " is identical with the " Stark ; " very fine. 

"Mamma." medium in size, but only fair in quality. 

• Cedar-Falls." small and of little value. 



SiS MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIET\. 



" Henwood," large, yellow, resembling " Yellow Jielle " family ; good 
in quality. 

■' Huntsman " are worthy of special mention ; very fine. 
'• Red Janett," large, red, but of poor quality. 
"Willow Twig" and " Wincsap" deserve favorable mention. 
The Agricultural College deserves great credit for thus fostering and 
experimenting with new sorts, and we trust they may be supported in 
their efforts to disseminate well tested varieties to each section of the 
state. Possibly such varieties as the Lawver and McAfee may yet find a 
home where they may become valuable. 

FRANK HOLSINGER, 
HENRY SPEKR, 
D. S. HOEMAN, 
W. G. GANO. 



THE MISSOURI AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE COLLECTION OF 

APPLES. 



In the R7iral World, of January 17th, there is the report of the 
committee who examined the collection of apples exhibited by the Mis- 
souri Agricultural College, at the annual meeting of the Missouri State 
Horticultural Society, at Nevada, Mo. It is of special interest in this 
section, from the fact that several of the varieties mentioned were ob- 
tained here, along with forty or fifty other rare and choice kinds in the 
spring of 1882. 

" Kennard's device" is evidently Kinnard's Choice, a valuable Ten- 
nessee apple. 

Pyle's Red Winter is from Pennsylvania, and worthy of all that has 
been said in its favor, and more. 

Saylor has probably got mixed with some others in the planting or 
registering, as the description given by the committee suits Kentucky 
Sweet. The former is a very good, sub-acid, Pennsylvania apple, rather 
above medium in size. The original tree seems to have been growing in 
the orchard of Edward Saylor and Mr. Downing ("Selected Fruits " p. 
195) calls it Ned, which is less euphonious. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA, 829 

Herman is from some other source, as it has never been in the col- 
lection here. The description in Downing's large work states that it is 
" sub-acid " instead of sweet. 

Boyd can hardly be identical with Clayton, though I am unable to 
decide from personal experience, as the tree containing the grafts of the 
latter met with an accident after bearing but once and before the former 
came into bearing ; and grafts of Clayton on another tree have not yet 
fruited. Mr. Downing (First Appendix, p. 3) states that Boyd originat- 
ed in Monroe county, Kenrucky ; here it was received from the late J. S, 
Downer, an intelligent and enthusiastic pomologist of Todd county, in the 
same state, fifty miles or more west of Monroe and near the Tennessee 
line. 

York Imperial should be better known. It is a Pennsylvania ap- 
ple, but it was received here from Georgia as Johnson's Fine Winter. 
It is very smooth and very highly colored on our uplands, much more 
so than specimens received a few weeks ago from Virginia, and which 
were also distinctly striped — something that rarely happens with this 
variety here. The moderate growth of the tree is about its only draw- 
back. 

Cedar Falls is from North Carolina and, with us, seems to be a 
promising apple, medium and above in size. 

Henwood is from Eastern Indiana, said to be a seeding of Ortley or 
" White Belle Flower," as it was formerly called, but it resembles the Yel- 
low Belle Flower more. A pretty good apple, but the tree is only a 
moderate grower. 

No " Russians" were ordered in the collection above mentioned. 
They are of comparatively no value in this latitude, nearly the same as 
that of Columbia. But as a good deal has been written about them in 
recent years, many think they are something extra; and occasionally 
some nurseryman uses the name " Russian " as a kind of boom. It is a 
new addition to the long list of synonyms which McAfee's None-such has 
gathered up. As another new application of '' Russian" it may be added 
that a splendid apple received here from near Salt Lake City a couple of 
months ago, and which the gentleman sending it stated he had obtained 
(the cions) from a nurseryman there a few years ago as " Early Russian," 
turned out to be King of Tompkins. 

Stuart's Golden (this is the correct spelling — not Stewart's), resem- 
b'es Fulton slightly, but is of better quality and a better keeper, and the 
habit of the tree is different. It originated in this country in the seed- 
ling orchard of the late William Stuart, one of the oldest citizens, over a 
half a century ago, and was called the Stump apple by the young people. 



3.:0 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



from the fact that the tree grew near a big white oak stump. Having 
no one to push it out. it remained for many years but little known, except 
as lovers of choice, long keeping apples in this and the adjoining coun- 
ties carried cions from the original tree to graft in their own orchards. It 
is figured and described in Downing's ("Third Appendix," p. 36-7); also 
in the Ruj-al Neiv Yorker, for July 5, 1879. 

Press Ewing is entirely different from Rome Beauty ; not so large, 
nor so highly colored, nor so salable in market, but a good family apple; 
it is from Kentucky. 

Huntsman is a good apple, and the tree is a nice grower but not a 
very good bearer here. Willow Twig is an immense bearer, but of very 
straggling growth. Lawver makes a most beautiful tree, but the fruit is 
apt to be scabby. Winesap is generally too small, but, no doubt, it does 
better on rich, new Missouri soil. A friend from this state found Rawles' 
Janett so enlarged and beautified on the Kansas border some years ago, 
that he could not believe it to be correct until he examined the trees. 

The Missouri Agricultural College is doing a most valuable work in 
testing so many different kinds and varieties of fruit from all parts of the 
country. Few individuals have either the time or the means for such 
extensive experiments, 

R, J. BLACK. 
Fairfield County, Ohio. 



St. Charles, Mo., Dec. 3, 1888, 
The following letters were received and read : 

L. A. Goodman, President Eva)is and Members Horticultural Society: 

Gentlemen — My health being not of the best, the weather so pro- 
pitious to do a little work here or there, and like most nurserymen and 
fruit-growers, I have so many little things to attend to which require my 
direction, I am prevented from meeting with you, however, much to my 
regret. 

I send to address of our secretary for exhibition and final distribu- 
tion, specimens of Krull's Winter Pears, a variety growing on the premises 
of a Mr. Krull. of this place. Test the pear and pass judgment upon its 
merits. The tree is about 20 years old, fruits regular since of fruiting 
age and has shown no trace of blight or other disease so far. Have 
seen the fruit sound and plump in April, when kept in an ordinary cel- 
lar, and without any special care or attention. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 331 

I will graft the pear this winter, and hope to have some young trees 
for distribution in fall '89. 

In same box I send two specimens of an apple which I would be 
glad if some one knowing would name. I have tried to identify the 
same with the aid of Warder and Downing, but failed to do so satisfac- 
torily to myself The apple seems to possess fine keeping qualities, 
and the tree appears healthy, vigorous and fruitful, while the fruit with- 
stands bugs and scabs better than any other variety growing near it. 

The present season brought us a fair crop of all fruits in this vi- 
cinity, and on the whole prices have been satisfactory, where fruits were 
properly handled, and our home markets were utilized. The least en- 
couraging to our farmers were the prices for winter apples, yet I think 
the final result will prove quite satisfactory when the apples were stored 
properly to await the subsidence of the glut in the markets, which oc- 
curs almost every fall when we have a good crop of that fruit. 

Our orchards had suffered somewhat by the recent severe winter 
season, and by the protracted drouth of summer '87, but wherever prop- 
erly cared for have recuperated largely this season, and are generally in 
good condition at this time, with fruit buds well set and devoloped, thus 
promising a good crop in 1889. 

Pear blight as far as could observe, has been less violent hereabouts 
this season than common, and the consequence has been the best and 
most abundant crop of pears that it ever has been my good fortune to 
witness or enjoy. 

It is with great pleasure that I may report a rapidly growing taste 
and delight in ornamenting door yards and public grounds, as also lin- 
ing streets and roadways with trees. Arbor day was observed by quite 
a number of the public schools of this county, and trees, etc., planted on 
the grounds. 

Let the good work proceed. 

Convinced that you will have a successful and numerous meeting, 
and again expressing my regret that I cannot be with you to enjoy and 
profit through it as only one can by being present, I am 

Yours truly; 

C. T. MALLINCKRODT. 



332 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Neosho, Mo., Dec. 3d, 1888. 
L. A. Coodtiian, Esq., West port. Mo.: 

Dear Sir: — I send you to-day, by express to Nevada, two baskets 
of apples, for exhibition at your meeting. Please allow me to draw your 
attention to the variety named 'Ferguson." The few trees I have of it 
were, ( if I remember correctly) propagated from a seedling tree, which 
originated in Barry county, perhaps 25 miles Southeast of here. They 
are very vigorous and upright growers, though planted on a very poor 
prairie land, and standing in a meadow, without ever having been culti- 
vated or manured. They brought me four crops and have always kept 
better than Limbertwig with me, while the tree is growing and bearing 
better than Lawver, and has proven hardier than that variety, to which 
it probably most resembles. The apple is not yet mellow enough to eat. 
(It ripens and colors on the tree at least six weeks later than Ben Davis.) 
In its seasons, say from February to May, it is a fine-grained, sub-acid 
to acid, juicy and what I would call best quality. Can probably be best 
compared to a good Janeton, yet finer and higher flavored and decidedly 
better, as well as better and of most beautiful red color. 

It strikes me this apple is just what we need here near the southern 
limit of the American apple belt. 

Southwest Missouri and Northwest Arkansas are perhaps as good 
apple regions as can be found; and orchards are being planted every- 
where. But the bulk of our large crops has to be sold at from fifteen to 
fifty cents per bushel, or made inte cider or dried, for no matter how fine 
and large our Ben Davis our Janetons, Winesaps, Missouri Pippins Rome 
Beauties or White Winter Pearmains may be we can rarely keep them 
long enough to bring the high price they always command in the spring. 

An apple like the Ferguson, kept here till there is nothing but Lim- 
bertwigs left to compete with it, will be sure to bring one to two dollars 
per bushel, right here in our home market. 

The gentlemen of your society interested in vineyards will do well 
to get reports on experiments made this season with sulphate of coj^per 
remedies, against Mildew {Peranospara), and Black Rot. Write to de- 
partment of Agriculture for it. It will be ready in Januar)^ 

We have Mildew most assuredly under our control; while Black Rot 
has atleast been diminished considerably, and itis quite possible we may 
yet succeed to prevent it, as surely as we now can Mildew. 

Very respectfully yours, 

HERMAN JAEGER. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. {]3\i 



Your committee on apples respectfully submits the following report: 

W. H. Hollaway, ot Butler, Bates County, has on exhibition, a jar 
of p'ums, a seedling of the Wild Goose, ripening from two to three 
weeks later than its parent, which he has named the Butler. In size it 
is a little smaller than Wild Goose ; in quality, all who have tasted it, 
pronounce it first-class. Those who saw the original tree, this summer, 
report it as distinct from any other in bark and foliage, and that it bears 
an immense crop of fruit, ripening through a long season, and adhering 
to the tree after fully ripe. Color, red, and almost a freestone. 

J. H. Monsees & Son, Beaman, Pettis County, Mo., exhibit two 
plates of a new apple,, which they name, the Hopewell. They also show a 
yearling tree of this variety. The apple is showy and promises to be a 
good shipper and a long keeper. The tree resembles, at one .year old, 
the Clayton. The leaf is large, and the growth, vigorous. The speci- 
mens shown were picked in September, too early to judge now of its 
quality. 

Joseph Kirchgraber, Springfield, Mo. —Plate of Henderson's Early 
Puritan potatoes. He speaks in high praise of their yield and quality. 
The specimens exhibited are large and fine. 

Perry Swainson, Nevada, Mo., has an exhibit of tuberose bulbs, rad- 
ishes, celery and parsnips. This exhibit is meritorius. 

H. B. Francis, Mulberry, Bates County, Mo. — A sample of evapor- 
ated fruit, very nice in every way. 

J. N. Menifee exhibits specimen potatoes of an average length of 
over six inches. ' 



CEDAR COUNTY 



Exhibit, by E, Liston. — A large and showy di^^play of apples, num- 
bering 60 plates. Among these, a plate of new apples, named Thorp. 
It is a seedling of and resembles the Winesap, and it is claimed that it 
hangs to the tree better. 

Mr. Liston is entitled to the thanks of the Society for this fine dis- 
play. 

VERNON COUNTY. 

Makes an exhibit of twenty-six varieties of well-grown, smooth and 
fine colored apples. 



334 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

J. H. Logan & Sons, of City Fruit Farm, Nevada : 

Display consists of quite a number of very fine plates of highly col- 
ored winter apples. Also three jars of plums and three varieties large, 
fine-looking, sweet potatoes. 

Herman Yaeger, Neosho, Newton County. 

Had on exhibition a number of varieties of choice apples. 

Wm Broadbeck, Oregon, Holt County. 

Exhibits thirty varieties of choice apples. 

Jacob Faith, Montevallo. 

Had quite an interesting collection of apples, turnips, fermented and 
unfermented grape wine ; also medicinal Blackberry wine. 

J. G. Kinder, Nevada. 

Showed a remarkably fine plant of White Plume celery, and also one 
of White Solid Celery. 

The Missouri State Horticultural Society's collections consisted of 
about 500 plates of fruit — of apples, pears and quinces — that had been 
at the exposition held at St. Louis last September, which had been kept 
in the Automatic Cold Storage Co. of St. Louis. 

The fruit was in a remarkably fine state of preservation, and proves, 
without question, that perishable fruits can be kept a long time when 
placed in cold storage. 

THE AWARD OF PREMIUMS WAS AS FOLLOW? : 

Handsomest Apple — ist. To N. F. Murray, for Jonathan. 

2nd, To Jasper Horticultural Society, for Missouri 
Pippin. 

Best Eating- Apple — ist, To D. S. Holman, for Holman. 

•2nd, To N. F. Murray, for Grimes. 

Best Market Apple — ist, To Jasper County Horticultural Society, for 

Ben Davis. 
2nd, To A. J. Blood, for Willow Twig. 

BEST NEW APPLE. 

The committee, not knowing anything respecting the growth and 
habits of the different trees, made no award, but recommend them to 
further notice. 



ANNUAL iMEETING AT NEVADA. 335 



In this class there were four hntries. Judi^ing these varieties sim- 
ply by the fruit, the committee recommends them in the following order 

No. 1 60. Shown by W. E. Flanders. 

Fruit very large, quality and color similar to Ben Davis. 

No. 7. Shown by J. H. Monsees, 

Fruit medium in size, color red, fine grained, quality good. 

No. 220. Shown by H. Yeager, for Ferguson. 

Fruit size above medium, color red, quality medium. 

FOR BEST SEEDLIG APPLES. 

1st, No. 81. To M. J. Roundtree. 

2nd. " 152. To D. M. Dunlap. 

1st. For Bailey Sweet to A. H. Gilkeson. 

1st. For Yellow Belle Flower to J. II. Logan. 

2nd. For " " " to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st, For Babbitt to W. R. Laughlin. 

1st. For Ben Davis to Olden Fruit Co. 

2nd For " " to J. S. Hatten. 

1st. For Baldwin to A. H. Gilkeson. 

2nd. For " to Sam'l Chick. 

1st. For Broadwell to N. F. Murray. 

2nd. For " to Jasper Co. 

1st. For Clayton to J, H. Monsees. 

2nd. For " to J. Kirchgraber. 

1st. For Cumberland Spice to W. R. Laughlin. 

1st. For Dominie to J. H. Logan. 

1st. For Grimes Golden to E. Liston. 

2nd. For " " to Jacob Faith. 

1st. For Gilpin to Olden Fruit Co. 

2nd. For " to A. C. Carson. 

1st. For Fallawater to A. H. Gilkeson. 

2nd. For " to H. Speer. 

1st. For Fall Winesap to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st. For Fink to " " 

2nd. For " to Jasper Co. 

1st. For Famuse to Olden Fruit Co. 

1st. For H. Nonesuch to Jasper Co. 

2nd. l-or " to E. Liston. 



386 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

1st. For Huntsman to H. Speer. 

2nd. For " to A. H. Gilke.son. 

I St. For Hopewell to J. H. Mensees. 

I St, For Ingram to Jasper Co. 

1st. For Jonathan to N. F. Murray. 

2nd. For " to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st. For Janet to " 

2nd. For " Jasper Co. 

1st. For King to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st. For Lansingburg to A. H. Gilkeson. 

I St. For Lawver to J. H. Monsecs. 

2nd. For " to Jacob Faith. 

1st. For Lady to A. H. Gilkeson. 

1st. For Missouri Pippin to Jacob Faith. 

2nd. For " to J. H. Monsees. 

1st. For Milam to Olden Fruit Co. 

2nd. For " to J. N. Menifee, 

1st. For Northern Spy to Henry Shepley. 

2nd. For " to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st. For Minkler to H. B. Francis. 

1st. For Ortley to Olden Fruit Co. 

2nd. For " to N. F. Murray. 

1st. For Nick-a-jack to Olden Fruit Co. 

1st. Pennsylvania Red Streak to E. Liston. 

2nd. For " " to N. F. Murray. 

1st. For Rambo to J. N. Menifee. 

2nd. For *• . to E. Liston. 

1st. For Pryor's Red to J. N. Menifee. 

2nd. For " " to W, R. Laughlin. 

1st. For Rome Beauty to Olden Fruit Co. 

2nd. For " " to B. F. Bush. 

1st. For Roman Stem to Jasper Co. 

2nd. For " "' to J. H. Monsees. 

1st. For Smith's Cider to J. Kirchgraber. 

2nd. For " " to H. Speer. 

1st. For Stark to J. Kirchgraber, 

2nd. For " to Wm. Broadbeck. 

1st. For Talman Sweet to N. F. Murray. 

1st. For Seek-no-further to Wm. Broidbeck. 

isr. For W. W. Pearmain to Jacob F'aith. 

1st. For Vandevere to Wm. Broadbeck, 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 



337 



1st. For Winesap to J. H. Logan. 

2nd. For *' to J. H. Monsees. 

1st. For Willow Twig to A. H. Gilkeson. 

2nd. For •' " to B. F. Bush. 

1st. For Woodmansee to W. R. Laughlin. 

1st. For White Pippin to J. Kirchgraber. 

2nd. For " " to H. B. Francis. 

I St. For Wagner to B. F. Bush. 

2nd. For " to H. B. Francis. 

1st. For Henderson's Early Puritan Potato to J. Kirchgraber. 

G. F. ESPENLAUB. 
W. G. GANG. 
J. W. CLARK. 

LIST OF VARIETIES OF APPLES ON EXHIBITION. 



Winesap. 

Wagoner, 

Rome Beauty, 

Grimes Golden, 

Lawyer, 

Willow Twig, 

Jonathan, 

Ben Davis, 

Baldwin, 

Seek-no-Further, 

Northern Spy, 

Janet, 

Black Twig, 

Huntsman, 

Smith's Cider, 

Tulpahocken, 

Missouri Pippin, 

Hopewell, 

Romanstem, 

Perry Russet, 

Clayton, 

Minkler, 

Jenneting, 

II. R. — 22. 



Snow, 

Lady's Finger, 

Twenty-Ounce, 

^sopus Spitzenberg, 

Lady, 

Babbitt, 

Woodmansee, 

Ortly, 

Limber Twig, 
Dominie, 

Yellow Belle Flower, 

York Imperial, 

Paris, 

Talman Sweet, 

Ladies' Sweet, 

Canada Red, 

Pennsylvania Vandevere, 

Red Romanite, 

Broadwell Sweet, 

Newton Pippin, 

Ingram, 

Stark, 

P^ng. G. Russet, 



338 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Winter Pippin, 

McAfee, 

Little Romanite, 

Fink. 

Tewksbury, 

Milam, 

Rambo, 

R. I. Greening, 

Gilpin, 

White Pippin, 

McAfee's Red, 

Nick-a-Jack, 

Red Streak, 

Fulton, 

Sweet Jenneting, 

Ramsdcll Sweet, 

White Rambo, 

Pyles' Red Winter, 

Rawles' Janett, 

Cedar Falls, 

Mamma, 

Kentucky Longstem, 

Press Ewing, 

Sparks, 

Herman, 

Russian, 

Shilling, 

Cannon Pearmain, 

Stuart's Golden, 

Sailor, 

Red Janet, 

Henwood, 

Kinnard's device, 

Boyd, 

Yeates, 

Ladies' Sweeting, 

Fall Winesap, 

Green Cheese, 

Autumn Strawberry, 

Putnam Russet, 



Robert Pippin, 

W. W. Pearmain, 

Thorp, 

Pennock, 

Hubbardson N., 

Pryor Red, 

Red W. Sweet, 

Green Pippin, 

Pennsylvania Redstreak, 

Poughkcepsie Russett, 

Guthrie, 

Hughes Crab, 

Bailey Sweet, 

Fallawater, 

Paradise Winter Sweet, 

Golden Sweet, 

Vandevere, 

Barb, 

King Tompkins Co., 

Seek-no-further, 

Ferguson, 

Fall Pippin, 

Pewaukee, 

Ewalt. 

Peck's Pleasant, 

M. Henry Pippin, 

Monstrous Pippin, 

Western Beauty, 

Newton Spitzenberg, 

St. Lawrence, 

White Rambo, 

Maiden Blush, 

Poplar Pear, 

Gano, 

King, 

Winter May, 

Autumn Sweet, 

Smith, 

Grindstone, 

Black. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 339 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER JTU, 7 P. M. 



Meeting called to order by the President. 

The opera house was packed from pit to gallery, Friday night, to 
witness the closing exercises of the State Horticultural Society. 

The regular order of business was agreeably interspersed with musi- 
cal and literary exercises of a highly creditable character. After prayer 
by Rev. Mr. Hines, of lola, Kansas, the committee on obituaries, through 
its chairman, Mr. Holman, reported the death of Z. F. Ragan, of Inde- 
pendence, at the age of 71; of W. M. Hopkins, of Springfield, at the age 
of 72. The report was biographical, and paid a glowing tribute to 
to the life, character and public services of the deceased. 

The following letter and report was received : 

St. Louis, Mo., December 5, 1888. 
Mr. L. A. Goodman, Secretary Mo. State Horticultural Society, Nevada, 
Missouri : 

Dear Sir — I regret the necessity of informing you that I cannot at- 
tend your present meeting. I have been very ill during the past three 
weeks, and my physician advises me not to risk undertaking a trip to 
Nevada at the present time. 

Prof. Niphcr has sent you some copies of a paper in the Missouri 
Weather Services. Will you kindly distribute them among the mem- 
bers of your society ? The paper includes about all that can be said in 
favor of the system of state weather services. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. A. WEBER, 
Ass't. Sug't. Sig. Corps, and Dir. Mo. W. S. 



340 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

THE MISSOURI WEATHER SERVICE— SHALL IT BE SUS- 
TAINED AS A STATE SERVICE. 



I;Y FRANCIS E. Nll'ilER. 



HISTORY OF THE ORGANIZATION. 

In November, 1877, the writer entered into correspondence 
with gentlemen in various parts of the state, which resulted in the or- 
ganization of a volunteer weather service in Missouri. The number of 
observers at the outset was about forty, and the observations were be- 
gun December i, 1877. 

The observers were nearly all furnished with tested rain gauges, for 
which they paid the cost price ; many of them also secured thermome- 
ters, which, however, have never been compared with any standard, nor 
were any instructions issued regarding the proper exposure of these 
thermometers. 

The scope of the service was, primarily, to investigate the rainfall 
of the state, and the work has been largely confined to that subject, 

The scope of the subject was thus limited by reison of the fact 
that the director could not afford to give the time and means required 
to carry on a more extensive work. 

Nevertheless, most of the observers have made observations upon 
temperature, some using ordinary thermometers, and others providing 
themselves with Green's or other good instruments. 

At the time of organizing the service, a state weather service had 
already been organized in Iowa, in October, 1875. by Dr. Gustavus Hin- 
richs to vvhom belongs the honor of being the pioneer in state weather 
service work. 

In those days the Signal Service was unfriendly to the State Ser- 
vice work. Many observers in Iowa and Missouri remember the circular 
letter of the Chief Signal Officer, Gen. Meyer, dated November i, 1877, 
warning them that '■ no circulars or circular letters relating to the taking 
of observations, the concentration of reports, or in other ways connect- 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 341 



ed, orseemingly connected with the duties of this office, are authorized by 
it, unless such circulars are dated from the office of the Chief Signal Officer 
at Washington, D. C, and are authenticated by the signature of the 
Chief Signal Officer or by that of an officer acting under his special 
order in each case, and so shown upon the circular." 

The Weather Services of Iowa and Missouri continued to grow not- 
withstanding, and that of Iowa was made a State Seivice by the Seven- 
teenth General Assembly, in 1877. 

When Gen. Hazen became Chief Signal Officer in November, 1880, 
a more liberal, not to say more enlightened policy was soon manifest, 
and the great value of State Weather Services was fully recognized. 
The Signal Service now co-operates most heartily with them. Since 
that time many states have followed the example of Iowa and Missouri, 
namely : Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New England, New 
York, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South 
Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. Several of these states have made 
adequate appropriations for carrying on this work ; among these, Iowa 
and Ohio have done most. 

The present Chief Signal Officer, Gen, Greeley, has done much to 
encourage the establishing of these State Services, although he states in 
a personal letter that he does not feel that the National Service has any 
function to perform in connection with them save to give such slight aid 
as may be possible, and to give the benefit of its advice when so de- 
sired. 

He adds that in his opinion the cost of making known the climate 
of a state should fall upon the people of that state, and when, as in the 
case of Missouri, it has a climate suited to the production of all the 
great staples of the country, there is no reason why the state should 
hesitate to make this known. 

VALUE OF STATE WEATHER SERVICES. 

To show how valuable the information collected by a State Service 
may be, the following is cited : 

In Iowa, horticulturists have found much trouble to grow apple 
trees by reason of the severe winters. A prominent horticulturist im- 
ported varieties of Russian apples, introducing them with the statement 
that the climate from which they came was similiar to that of Iowa. 
They were widely planted, and there was a very general neglect of 
native varieties which had in part succeeded. Dr. Hinrichs made an ex- 



342 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

tensive study of Russian climate, and showed conclusively that that 
country had no climate which in any way resembled that of Iowa. It is 
generally agreed by those interested, that this one paper of Dr. II in- 
richs, comparing the climate of Russia and Iowa, was worth in cash to 
the state more than the service has cost in ten years. It showed the 
danger of depending on Russian apple trees. 

At the present time, some eastern capitalists are investigating the 
climate of Missouri, with a view of investing a million of dollars in a 
new industry. If the Missouri Weather Service could not give the re- 
quired information, there is no reason to think that these men would 
even contemplate the investment of their capital in our state. 

RELATION OF THE STATE SERVICE TO THE NATIONAL SERVICE. 

The State Weather Service bears the same relation to the National 
Service, that the State Goverment bears to the National Government. 

There are many large storms, of great severity, which damage ship- 
ping and endanger life. The signal service has done a great work in 
giving warning of these storms. Shippers and dealers in provisions and 
fruits find the cold wave warnings of the greatest value. In all large 
cities the approach of a "warm spell" is known through the Signal 
Service predictions, and thousands of tons of meats are hurried to cold 
storage warehouses, and the opportunity to ship other provisions which 
must be kept from freezing is anticipated and made available. It is not 
saying too much to say that it would be impossible to carry on the ship- 
ping business of the country, as it is now carried on, without the aid of 
the national weather service. 

But each state has its own peculiar industries, advantages and in- 
terests. It should provide for a thorough study of its own climate, and 
should distribute published reports for the benefit of those who may de- 
sire such knowledge. 

There is another field which peculiarly belongs to the state weather 
service. The weather, which is of greatest importance to the farmer, is 
the weather of harvest. During that time storms aie usually very local. 
They may cover a few counties only, and inflict immense damage. 
People living in the city can learn from the Signal Service that there will 
be "local rains in Missouri." but nobody knows where in Missouri they 
are going to locate, and even this information reaches the farmer only 
after the rain is over, if at all. 

The local peculiarities of these storms requires study in each state. 
V^ery much has been done in this direction in Iowa and by the New 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 343 



England Meteorological Society. Such work should be at once begun in 
our state. In three or four years we should be familiar with the behavior 
of these storms, and this knowledge could be given to all. 

In 1893 the telephone will become public property, and it will then 
be possible for county telephone services to be established, putting each 
farm in communication with a county seat. Telephone service can be 
rendered for a sum which will be utterly insignificant when compared 
with the advantages which it will bring. Farmers can then be kept in- 
formed of the markets, can sell their produce before leaving their homes, 
and will be able to save much time which they now waste during the 
busy season of harvest. This is all so apparent that it is needless to 
discuss it further. In addition, there will grow up a system of harvest 
storm warnings. It will be very easy for any county telephone system 
to give its subscribers a general warning of an approaching thunder 
storm, and to transmit that information to such other counties as may be 
in danger. The exact details of this scheme may be kft to the director 
of a state weather service to work out. It seems certain that this can 
and will be done and there is no more reason that this should be done by 
the National weather service, than that the Congress of the United 
States should concern itself with the building of a wagon bridge across 
the Gasconade river. 

PAST WORK OF THE MISSOURI WEATHER SERVICE. 

The rain charts which accompany this paper show the average dis- 
tribution of rain for each month and season, and for the year. They em- 
body our labors in this direction from Dec. 1877 to Dec. 1887. In ad- 
dition, the Director has made a magnetic survey of the state, which for 
five years, required all of his time during the summer, and a large part 
of the leisure time of the remaining portion of the year. The time and 
money expended in this and in general weather service work, if paid for 
as they are valued by others who employ those services, would be not 
less than fifteen thousand dollars. Personal friends have also rendered 
additional aid in carrying the financial burdens, and the cheerful support 
which the observers have rendered, has been a source of pleasure from 
the beginning. 

But the time has now come when it would seem that the state 
should be invited to assume the, to it, slight burden of maintaining the 
weather service. A sum of two thousand dollars per annum with ad- 
ditional provision for printing the reports, will suffice, until the time 
comes to develop the system of harvest warnings herein mention d. 



344 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

This sum will provide a small compensation to the Director, pay current 
petty expenses, and furnish each year standard instruments to a few tried 
observers, as the quality of their work may show that they are ready to 
render suitable service. 



ECONOMIC AND ORNAMENTAL TREE PLANTING. 



A PAPER BY PROF. M. G. KERN, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



President Missouri State Horticultural Society : 

It has often been my privilege to converse with officers and mem- 
bers of your society, on the horticultural issues of the future, presentin^^ 
themselves as important factors in the rapid development of our great 
state. We are all agreed upon one point, at least, that the time of pop- 
ular apprenticeship is past, and that the scope of vision, by which to 
judge correctly the requirements of coming generations, must be quite 
liberally enlarged in order to keep abreast with the progress made by 
states surrounding us on all sides. 

THE ORNAMENTATION OF SCHOOL GROUNDS. 

An important step in progressive horticulture has already been 
taken by the Society in advocating and encouraging a higher grade of 
culture in the school grounds of our state, by which the rural taste of 
the rising generation will materially be improved and elevated to a high- 
er appreciation of the truly beautiful, with which artistic horticulture 
can surround the homesteads of a refined people. May this agitation be 
kept up at a lively rate, to prove anew the assertion that just revolutions 
never ero backwards nor fail in the end. Remind the learned educators 
of our state, respectfully, of course, but earnestly, nevertheless, of a 
duty they owe to a people determined to be progressive forever. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 345 



THE NEED OF FOREST CULTURE. 

Another topic well worthy the serious consideration of horticultural 
societies and the country at large, is the imperative necessity in our day 
of preparing the way for a rational system of forest culture by which a 
portion, at least, of the forests of valuable timber can be preserved from 
the ruthless ways of former years, and new plantations of the most val- 
uable economic timbers started. It would be useless on my part to at- 
tempt to present any argument in favor of a subject on which all intelli- 
gent, but unprejudiced, Americans agree, but I will say, in this connec- 
tion, that whatever practical results have thus far been obtained, are 
principally due to the leadership of the horticultural men and nursery 
men of the country. Let me allude to the efforts of the later years of 
the late Dr. John Warder, and to those of the indefatigable pioneer, 
Rob't Douglas. Some of you have seen a wagon at the late Kansas City 
Exposition, made of timber grown from his own planting, by Mr. Whit- 
ney, one of the earliest nurserymen of Illinois. Like causes producing 
like results, we may be sure that whatever is to be done in this direction 
in our state must be started by the horticultural workers ; professors or 
politicians will never produce practical results, however much their work 
may help to encourage indirectly practical workers. 

WHAT MIGHT BE DONE ON THE NEVADA ASYLUM GROUNDS. 

Some of us have cast for some time a wishful eye on the beautiful 
section of land on which the new Nevada asylum is erected. We have 
thought of a fair division in the interest of the crazy people and the 
other portion of the population and are of the opinion that a portion of 
this section might be set aside for the present needs of the institution, 
for whose benefit it was acquired and that the other part might be de- 
voted with a view to future benefits, not only of this institution, but of 
the whole state to the purpose of forest culture, as an initial station on 
which representative plantations of the timbers in which our state is 
most principally interested might be made, and from which multitudes of 
seedling trees might be distributed over the state to encourage the cul- 
ture of future forests, both on the prairie and in districts from which the 
valuable woods are being rapidly sold off. Let us imagine for a moment 
the results of such an arrangement. 



:M6 MISSOURI STATE IIUKTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



MORE LAND THAN IS NEEDED. 

We all know that 6oo acres i.s more land than the institution, doc- 
tors, stewards and all their patients can conveniently and profitably cul- 
tivate. Supposing 50 acres devoted to the front and ornamental grounds 
of tiie institution, and 150 acres to pasture and farming lands managed 
by the officers of the asylum ; this would leave a surplus of 400 acres of 
the finest land. What should be done with it ? Rent it out or put it 
down in grass or have it mismanaged in some other way ? Suppose, 
on the other hand, the society's plan adopted, and groves and blocks of 
trees arising, and the timber lands already there judiciously preserved 
and harmonized with the whole design ; would not the people and the in- 
stitution be benefited alike .' One decade hence the grounds would he a 
landmark of progress of which old Missouri might well be proud. 

Imagination has carried the writer far enough in this direction. To 
return to the realities of the question, let it be said that this scheme is 
well worth the consideration of the State Horticultural Society, and like- 
wise of the enterprising people of Nevada. Let a combined effort be 
made at least to prevent a reckless mismanagement of this valuable tract 
of land owned by the commonwealth. The legislature of our state 
should listen, as in duty bound, to advice offered by a society fostered 
for many years by the government of the state, the members of which 
should surely be considered competent to suggest a feasible and pro- 
gressive plan. 

One more point in this connection may briefly be alluded to. What 
will 

THE U. S. EXPERIMENTAL STATION OF MISSOURI 

do for horticulture, forestry, or arboriculture in general .'' Let us hope> 
at least, that it many be more than the Agriculture College has been do- 
ing in the past. Fortunately there is a "silver lining" to the dimness 
surrounding still the future usefulness of the Experimental Station re- 
cently created. The liberal appropriation of congress to each state will 
probably have to be expanded under certain conditions and restrictions. 
Congress has wisely created a new division of the Department of Agri- 
culture, a 

BUREAU OF CORRESPONDENCE 

with the Experimental Stations of the Union, by which a harmony of 
action and a strict accountability of results will soon be brought about, 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 347 

and further legislation of congress will tend to produce the harmo- 
nies of an orchestra and stop the continuous blowing of one horn alone. 

The appointment made by Commissioner Colman placing Prof. At- 
water at the head of the Bureau is regarded everywhere with great favor. 

The Bureau has in its present status no power to prescribe or to 
dictate a general plan by which the stations of all the states are to be 
conducted, and is merely a timely medium of correspondence and con- 
sultation between the different sections of the country. 

WHAT THE BUREAU CAN DO. 

Through this bureau it will soon be apparent with what material 
the several stations are manned, and it acts as a regulator in bringing 
the various interests, equally deserving to the development of our coun- 
try, but not now so recognized, into proper recognition. Through it the 
claims of forestry and arboriculture in general, now largely overlooked, 
will receive proper attention. Let us but realize for a moment what 
benefits might be secured to the mighty interests concentrated in a an - 
tional system of replacing in time a small part of the valuable forests of 
former times, by the inauguration of a national system of replanting. 

Let us suppose that one-fifteenth, say a $i,ooo of the annual appro- 
priation to the stations of each state, devoted to experiments and tests 
in tree culture throughout the United States; and realize what might be 
accomplished with even this modest sum. Progress in this direction 
must of necessity be slow on general American principles, on which we 
make all calculation on the basis of big crops and quick returns, but 
time and intelligence will solve this problem in the tullncs of time, 
which may be nearer at hand than we anticipate to-day. 

Music for the evening was furnished by the Nevada Glee Club, and 
was highly appreciated. 

Recitation by Miss Gatcwood was well rendered and highly ap- 
preciated. 



348 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



PLEASURES OF RURAL LIFE. 



MISS KATE TAFT, NEVADA. 



There is a serene and settled majesty in forest scenery, that enters 
into the soul and dilates, elevates.and fills it with noble inclinations. The 
ancient and hereditary "groves, too, which everywhere abound, are most 
of them full of story. They are haunted by the recollections of great 
spirits of past ages, who have sought relaxation among them from 
the tumult of arms or the toils of state, or have wooed the muse be- 
neath their shade. What sweet thoughts arise, how calm the reflections, 
how the heart wells up in thanks-giving and praise to the " Giver of all 
good and perfect gifts," as we stroll through the forests or gardens in the 
evening, delighted with the sweet perfume of thousands of different vari- 
eties of fruits and flowers ! How grateful when the dew-washed straw- 
berry and the sparkling raspberry send up their delicious flavor, which 
tempts and also satisfies us with their sweetest odor. Our hearts swell 
with thanksgiving as we see how the vine has yielded its spicy fruit and 
the fruits overhead drop their ambrosial riches to our eager grasp. Our 
praises rise upward to the beneficent Creator, who has so beautified and 
adorned the world, filling it with every kind of fruit and flavor that is 
pleasing, refreshing and agreeable to our several senses. The flowers, 
which lift their sweet and delicate heads to the Omnipotent who has per- 
mitted them to live in this world, to cheer the sick and sorrowful, and 
brighten our hopes for the future. 

What a beautiful place must have been the garden of Eden on the 
morning of creation, with everything to be seen just as it came from the 
Master's hand, with every variety of bird, beast and flower. 

What a desolate place would be the earth were there no flowers in 
it ! It would be a face without a smile — a feast without a welcome ! 

Are not flowers the " Stars of Earth ? " And are not the " Stars of 
Earth " the " Flowers of Heaven .'' " 

One of the pleasantest scenes is to be found in a greenhouse in 
mid-winter. It seems as if one was taken away from the cold snow 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 349 

drifts, the frozen ground and the leafless trees and placed into the mid- 
dle of summer. All that is wanting is running brooks and the warbling 
of birds to make everything complete. 

How many rare and choice plants and trees arc gathered here. 

Here are flowers in full bloom, filling the air with their rich fra- 
grance, looking as fresh and beautiful as if it were in the month of June 
instead of cold, bleak January. 

The grape vines seem to forget it is winter and clusters of lucious 
fruit hang upon the vines. The orange and lemon trees are in bloom, 
and at the same time the rich golden fruit may be seen on their boughs, 
while other plants and trees that can live only in warm climates bear 
their fruit here without, apparently, knowing that they are thousands of 
miles away from home. 

Another beautiful scene is to be in the woods in the spring time. 
The white snow, which lay as a carpet over the earth, all the cold, dreary 
winter, is gone, the grass is green and the sun shines warm, the flowers 
have come out from their mossy beds and are blooming in all of their 
beauty and sweetness. The trees, dressed in their beautiful foliage, 
spreading their towering tops over the beautifully carpeted earth be- 
neath. The clear, sparkling water in the stream, rippling along in play- 
ful glee, where the little fish are sporting in the bright sunlight. He 
who would create his own pleasure grounds, these more delicate shades 
of expression, must become a profound student, both of nature and of 
art ; he must be able, by his own original powers, to seize the subtle es- 
sence, the half disclosed idea involved in the finest parts of nature. 

To those who possess a lively and cultivated sense of the high 
beauty of which landscape scenery presents to the eye, but who can also 
see creation's God in every feature of the prospect. 

The painter can imitate, the poet, describe, and the tourist talk with 
ecstacy of the sublime and beautiful objects which constitute the scene 
before^ him ; but he can only be said to enjoy them aright whose 
talents, tastes, and affections are consecrated to the glory of Him by 
whom " all things were made, and without whom was not anything made 
that was made." 



350 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



After another song, the following essay was read: 



AMONG THE FLOWERS." 



BY MISS MARY KEELING, NEVADA. 



"Flowers, as the changing seasons roll along, 

Still wait on earth and added beauties lend; 

Around the smiling Spring a lovely throng. 

With eager rivalry her steps attend; 

Others with Summer's brighter glories blend; 

Some grace, mild Autumn's more majestic mien; 

While some few lingering blooms the brow befriend. 

Of hoary winter, and with grace serene, 

Enwreath the King of storms with mercies' gentle sheen." 
What a lovely, glorious throng they are, and how welcome, "more 
welcome than a friend whose zeal outruns his promise." How like a 
happy band of fairies they seem, winning back the sweet breath of sum- 
mer with their sunny gladness. Of all the myriad host, the first in my 
thoughts to-night is the poor despised little dandelion, because I feel so 
much like one of those humble flowers among a great garden of beau- 
tiful roses and lilies and geraniums, and other beautirul flowers, who 
nod their heads triumphantly toward it, as if to say: Poor little dan- 
delion ! What can you do ! How we pity you ! But I donbt not that 
even the dandelion has its mission. It flourishes by the dusty roadside. 
But it seems to me that they all clasp hands and come on one 
beautiful mission, to woo our hearts from earth to that sweet land that is 
ever blooming with flowers more fragrant and more beautiful. They are 
bright glimpses of heaven. How they smile away the gloom. 

I have read that when poor Queen Marie Antoinette, of France, 
(she who was once like a beautiful rose herself and Queen over a proud 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 351 

realm as the rose over its fair domain) was imprisoned, she was com- 
forted by the boquets of White Juliennes brought to her by the jailor's 
wife. They had power to soothe even such bitter woe as hers. Perhaps 
they whispered to her that all suffering and sorrow would be forgotten 
among the roses and sweet perfumes of our Father's garden. We bring 
flowers for every occasion; for the happiest and the saddest. When 
some loved one has passed through the "valley of the shadows," when 
only the cold form remains, we can do nothing but bring flowers with 
which to shroud it, and when we have buried it low, we bring the rose 
and tenderly plant it there. It must be sweet with the white rose 
waving and blooming and dropping its petals softly, silently, in the long 
cool grass above. 

The poets have immortalized many of these fair things, but I think 
the little violet, with her blue eye and modest grace, has received more 
homage than her more stately sisters. It was, perhaps, Shakespeare's 
favorite flower for he often alludes to it. Somewhere in the "Winter's 
Tale" he speaks of "violets dim but sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes 
or Cynthea's breath," and in another place he says he knows a "bank 
whereon the oxslip and the nodding violet blow." The pansy is a variety 
of the violet, of greater beauty but without perfume. Its whole ex- 
pression seems that of quiet thoughtfulness. You remember poor 
Ophelia says, "There are pansies; that's for thoughts." We all admire 
Moore's LallaRookh, but I think without its "Vale of Cashmere," it would 
lose much of its grandeur. For "Who has not heard of the Vale of 
Cashmere, with its roses the fairest that earth ever gave." What a grand 
description he has given of it. Surely some enraptured fairy must have 
lent its power and guided his pen. Remember the valley holds its 
"Feast of Roses." 

" And what a wilderness of flowers ; 

It seemed as though from all the bowers, 

And fairest fields of all the year. 

The mingled spoils were scattered here. 

The lake, too, a garden breathes, 

With the rich beds that o'er it lie, 

As if a shower of fairy wreathes 

Has fallen upon it from the sky." 

And what wreath ever woven more beautiful than the sweet " wreath 
of dreams " that the enchantress wore for poor Nourmahal when she 
would recall her Seline's smile. Were I poet, I should sing of the sweet 
wild rose that grows " uncultured, wild and free." There is a mournful 



353 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

legend attached to all the old-time flowers. It was poetic Greece that 
gave a human interest to them, and attached a legend of man's weal or 
woe, or triumph to every blossom. 

They seem so much like the human race, each one with its little 
biography. I wonder il the modern Narcissi know the fate of their 
ancestor, "who gazed on his eyes in the stream's recess, till he died of his 
own dear, loveliness," and lived again in the form of a bright blooming 
daffodilly. He was like the dude of to-day, ^nly, I suppose, he was 
really beautiful. We all wonder and are sad that beneath the rose such 
cruel briars are hidden. 

Now I will tell how it fell that the rose was set with thorns, 

" She was briarless at first. 

So the quaint old legend telleth ; 

Little children came, and men, 

And the happy maiden loved it. 

So the rose tree angered when some feet trod and some hands tore, 

Buds and blossoms that she wore; ^ 

Then she put forth thorns around her, 

One by one, 'till she had thrown prickly armour 'round her beauty. 

But she grew faint making moan for the feet that used to trod, 

She was "lonely," so I read, 

" There's no rose without a thorn," 

But it seems to me a heart might be kept without them. 

Sweet as rose without a thorn. 

Is the heart that ne'er hath torn 

Hand of love that came to prove it ; 

Oh may we be in the world's great thronging garden, 

Like the blossom-laden tree, 

Ere she set sharp thorns, so ; 

Growing faint from self-made woe." 

Then we have beautiful flower language. This comes to us from 
the east, though the Turkish and Arabic does not much resemble ours. 
,It is formed not by an idea or sentiment originating in itself, but by its 
capacity to rhyme with another word — i. e., the word with which the 
flower rhymes becomes its signification We give to each blossom that 
meaning which it seems to express in itself. Some are very beautiful. 
There is the Jasmine flower, its emblem is " Love in adversity." They 
keep their odour to themselves all day, but when night comes 

Let the delicous secret out 

To every breeze that flits about ; 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 353 

and is a perfect emblem of that love that soothes and comforts in ad- 
versity. It is said that the people of the east have sent messages of im- 
portance by means of boquets. But I think the language lives almost 
entirely for sentiment and for happy lovers who send tender love mes- 
sages in this sweet way ; perhaps they know their power of pleading. 
I will close with Leigh Hunt's playful lines on the "Language of flowers:" 

"An exquisite invention this, 

Worthy of love's most honeyed kiss. 

This art of writing billet doux 

In buds, and odors and bright hues. 

In saying all one feels and thinks 

In clever daffodils and pinks, 

Uttering, (as well as silence may,) 

The sweetest things, the sweetest way ; 

How fit, too, for a lady's bosom , 

The place where billet doux repose 'em ! 

How charming in some rural spot, 

Combining love with garden plot, 

At once to cultivate one's flowers, and one's epistolary powers, 

Growing one's own choice words and fancies, 

In orange tubs and beds of pansies ; 

One's sighs and passionate declarations. 

In odorous rhet'ric of carnations ; 

Seeing how far one's stocks will reach ; 

Taking due care one's flowers of speech 

To guard from blight as well as bathos, 

And watering every day one's pathos. 

A letter comes just gathered, we 

Dote on its tender brilliancy ; 

Inhale its delicate expression 

Of balm and pea ; and its confession 

Made with as sweet a maiden blush 

As ever morn bedewed on bush ; 

And then when we have kissed its wit and heart, in water putting it. 

To keep its remarks fresh, go round 

Our little eloquent plot of ground. 

And with delightful hands compose 

Our answer of lily and rose. 

Of tube rose and of violet, 

11. K. — 23. 



354 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



And little darling, 
Mignonette and gratitude and 
Polianthus and flowers that say, 
Felt never man thus, 

A recitation by Miss Mary Birdseye was well received and ap- 
plauded. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON OBITUARY. 



Your committee on obituary have to report the loss of two promi- 
nent valued members, who, during a long, continuous membership, rarely, 
if ever, failed to respond to their society's annual roll call. Their accus- 
tomed places are vacant in our meeting to-day. Maj. Z. S. Ragan, late 
of Independence, and W. M. Hopkins, of Springfield, have died since our 
last meeting. As the ready ripe grain falls before the inevitable reaper, 
so these, our long-tried friends and brothers, after a long, successful life, 
went down at the good, ripe age of seventy-one and seventy-two. 

Such were their virtues, so well done their life work, and so long 
and so endearing their associations with us, that it is in our hearts to say 
more than is admissible now. 

Maj. Ragan, the first called from us, was a model man in all his re- 
lations and life-work with his fellow-men. A mere reference to the 
noble deeds so beautifully done in all this good man's eventful life, would 
fill a volume of faultless matter, echoing the fact that though he be dead 
he still lives, and his works follow him. On the best page of every clean 
heart in this society the name of Maj. Ragan will be cherished till its last 
member goes out to meet him, when oui work, too, is done 

Maj. Ragan possessed the finer sensibilities in such large measure 
as to develop in him the highest type of manhood, which evinces only 
love for the good and the beautiful, eminently fitting him for the finer 
and more delicate duties so often assigned him, and which no others 
could do so well. 

Such men are a benediction to the world, making all men better 
and happier with whom they come in association. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 355 

He was a leading spirit in any good cause espoused. His life-long 
devotion was mainly given to horticulture, in whose wide circles from 
one side of the country to the other he was well known and justly es- 
teemed. He and Henry Ward Beecher helped to organize the first 
Horticultural Society west of the Allegheny mountains. He was seven- 
teen years an honored member of the Missouri State Horticultural Soci- 
ety, and several years its president; was at the organization of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Horticultural Association, and a prominent member; was 
a member — and for some time the president — of Missouri Valley Horti- 
cultural Society. In all these relations he was ever prompt, ready and 
willing to discharge any and all of his duties. 

In his country's peril he was also a brave soldier and distinguished 
ofificer, who baptised the battle-field with his own blood, from wounds 
which helped to hurry him to his eternal home. Best of all, he was a 
true soldier in the ranks of Christian men, and obedient to his Captain's 
every command. 

.As his poor health grew worse, he sought relief in the milder climate 
of California, but the end drew near and he only found that beautiful land 
all fragrant with flowers, a good place to die. 

It was very fitting, that his friends, the American Horticultural So- 
ciety, should kindly go to him there and hold their session almost at his 
bed-side — the last of their meetings for him on earth. He was visited 
just before his death by our President Evans and Secretary Goodman, 
Holsinger and other members of the society, who found it a benediction 
to themselves to behold the grand old man's readiness and patient wait- 
ing for the peaceful end, slowly but so surely coming. He lived and 
waited till June, and just when we had all gone to our homes from the 
summer meeting in Holt County, Maj. Ragan went to his "better hom.e" 
on the lOth of June. He died at the age of seventy-one. 

California wept when the good man died, and honored his remains 
with distinguished obsequies. His body sleeps with the flowers which 
know no winter Sweet be thy rest, our cherished, much loved friend. 

Profoundest feelings fill one thousand hearts in military and horti- 
cultural circles, and fitting words fall like the sacred dew from the earn- 
est lips of this nation's most honored son of the present, in commenda- 
tion of the virtues of his life. 

Like Maj. Ragan's life, that of W. M. Hopkins was long and full of 
good works. Much we might say of one, might well be said of both. 
He was a native of Kentucky and to agriculture born. While in full vig- 
or of manhood he came farther west and made Missouri the home and 
the field of the best labors of his life, devoted to honest, successful till- 



y56 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



age of the soil. After a few years he became florist and seedsman in 
Kansas City, and later, took the more active field of horticulture, and 
achieved success with gardening — making small fruits a specialty. When 
the growing city extended her arms around his property, he sold out 
and removed to Springfield, in Greene County, where the last years of 
life have passed in real content and comparative ease. 

He was a man well known and never forgotten wherever he lived, 
and highly appreciated by all who recognize merit. Among the strong- 
est characteristics of his life, was an uncompromising honesty, which 
made him the noblest workmanship of God. He, too, was an active, 
valuable and esteemed member of the horticultural societies — our Mis- 
souri State Horticultural Society, the Missouri Valley and Greene Coun- 
ty Horticultural Society, at the time of his death. He was proverbial 
for promptness, conciseness, and the absence of superfluity in all work 
for these societies. He was a man who lived for the future as well as 
the present, and full of large, sure hope of eternal life. He left us in 
September last, and while we trust he has a rest and rich reward," we 
shall long miss him, but never forget him, in the business and social re- 
lations of this Society. 

Resolved, That in the history of our Society it has been rare that 
two of its best workers have gone out from us nearly together, and when 
we could so poorly spare them, and that it is with the most profound re- 
gret and sorrow of our hearts we part with such friends and brothers we 
loved so well, and yet, with gratitude equally sincere, we thank the Great 
Giver of such men, that we had them so long. 

Resolved, 2nd, That this Society will ever cherish in dearest mem- 
ories, the names, life work and sweet friendships of Maj. Z. S. Ragan and 
W. M. Hopkins among us, and that their example as rare meh shall in- 
fluence our lives of work and association toward the highest possible 
imitation of all that was good, noble and pure in their example. 

Resolved, jd. That in token of perpetual memory in this Society, a 
page of its record shall be dedicated to each of our departed friends. 

D. S. HOLMAN, 

Chairman of Committee. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 357 



REPORT FROM GREENE COUNTY HORTICULTURAL 

SOCIETY. 



BY D. S. HOLMAN, SECRETARY. 



Springfield, Mo., Dec. i, 1888. 
Missouri State Horticiiltural Society, Officers and Members : 

Persuant to custom and law, we come now with our County Socie- 
ty's report to your body in annual session, at Nevada, and bespeak for 
your society a meeting every way among your best, if not the very best. 

The Green County Society has little to report, outside our usual 
order of short reports. There have however, been some new departures 
with us this year. About the usual number of old workers, with a few 
new ones added, have worked right on through this another year, most har- 
moniously and we think rather successfully. Have done more work than 
experementing and testing the comparative merits of small fruits, and 
especially new varieties, and the value of best methods of combatting 
our enemies in the orchards, etc., and think we have reached some con- 
clusions that may be valuable to us in future practice. We have as a 
society, given more time, labor and money to exhibitions of our county's 
home grown fruits on several occasions, than in any former year, and we 
hope not without some good results. While we have invested or expend- 
ed more money than formerly, we have a little better balance than be- 
fore. The seasons of '88 have been favorable to our fruit business, and 
encouraging and helpful to our society's work. The horticultural field is 
widening and brightening around us, and we have resolved to still go 
forward; do some. new helpful work every year, if possible. 

We have lost one of our best workers and safest counsellors during 
the year, whose place will be hard to fill, in his line of work. We refer to 
Mr W. M. Hopkins, who came to us from the Missouri Valley Horticul- 
tural Society, did us good friendly service, and made of us all his abiding 
friends, who mourn his decease. 



353 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

The society held its annual meeting last Saturday; closed the ac- 
counts for 1888 and elected officers for 1889. Also elected the President 
Sheffield, R. G. Parker and J. Kirchgraber, delegates to your meeting. 
Mr. Parker will attend, also our secretary, 

Hoping for you again a good meeting, and that it may suit you at 
an early day to give us a meeting in Springfield, we are 

Yours, 

W. H. HOLMAN. 



REPORT OF THE JASPER COUNTY SOCIETY. 



BY Z. T. RUSSELL, SECRET \RY, CARTHAGE, Mo. 



The Jasper County Horticultural Society still lives and continues to 
hold meetings once a month. Not a meeting has been missed, and 
nearly all have been interesting, profitable and well attended. The June 
July, August and September meetings were held in the county, at the 
homes of the members, and were attended by the wives and families of 
members, in a kind of horticultural family re-union so familiar to the 
members of other societies, but new to us. A good pic-nic dinner, 
prepared by the ladies and spead* upon long tables, was a prominent 
feature of each of these meetings, at which the attendance was large 
and enthusiastic They were considered quite successful, and will 
doubtless be renewed again next year. 

During the year our membership has been greatly increased. The 
roll of membership now contains 54 names, and includes one of the rep- 
resentatives elect to the legislature from this county and the names of 
two members from other counties' — one from Barton and one from Law- 
rence. We also have members from portions of the county not here- 
tofore represented with us. 

Our financial condition too has improved. We are out of debt and 
have money in the treasury. There tave been more persons by 50 per 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 359 

cent, paid their membership fee of $i this year, than ever before during 
any one year in the history of the society. We hope to continue 
the rate of increase in our membership, and to become if possible, the 
largest county society in the state. 

Again, last spring, for the second time, this society, through its 
executive committee, ordered berry-box and crate material for the use 
of its members Two car loads were thus ordered and distributed, at a 
cost of $741. We have derived no little benefit from buying this way, 
direct from the manufacturers, and saving to ourselves, as we do, the 
profits of middlemen aad in fact of transportation companies. 

Our berry crop was good. Strawberries and blackberries more 
than commonly so, and prices realized were good, strawberries averag- 
ing about 10 cents per quart all through the season. There were ex- 
pressed from Carthage this year nearly 30,000 quarts of berries and 
smaller amounts from Joplin, Webb City, and Sarcoxie. Comparing 
this with six years ago, when not enough was raised to supply the home 
demand, it will be seen that no inconsiderable increase in the berry 
business has been made in Jasper County. Berry patches are generally 
in good order, and promise a correspondingly large yield for next year. 
The acreage of raspberries and blackberries to fruit in this county next 
year, will be slightly larger than it was this ; of strawberries, it will be 
at least 25 per cent greater. 

Apples have been a large crop, but they have not been up to what 
they should be, on account of damage by drought and the fast increas- 
ing army of insects, which prey upon them. The price, so far, has 
been low, only about 25 cents per bushel being paid, in Carthage, for 
good shipping fruit. 

In addition to large quantities of apples which have been canned, 
evaporated, held over, made into cider, etc., there has been shipped out 
of Jasper County this season, according to the estimate of a careful man 
who is in a position to know, close to 500 car loads. Nearly all of our 
orchards are young ; many are too young to bear. Thousands of trees 
were set last spring, as predicted in my report one year ago ; many are 
being set this fall, and more will be set in the spring. Orcharding, then, 
is here but in its infancy, and notwithstanding the low prices of this 
year, and the many obstacles to final success, the work of setting still 
goes bravely on. We look for a great future in apples for Jasper 
County. 



360 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REPORT OF MOUND CITY HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The Mound City Horticultural Society wa.s organized February, 1887, 
with eight members. The enrollment was increased during the year to 
forty-sever. During the year 1888, the society has had sixteen 
meetings. From one to three papers have been read at each meeting, 
questions of a general nature discussed, and much good accomplished. 

The society made a very creditable display of fruit at our Harvest 
Home, and the greater quantity was sent to the State Society's display 
at St. Louis. Besides, the society made two other shipments, in all 
about eighteen bushels. Those contributing to the display were Judge 
Skeels, Dr. Long, C. Schults, John Bucher, Mr. Houston, Ed Richards, 
and many others whose names we did not learn. The society elects its 
officers yearly, in March. The officers for 1888 were: J. Dunkelberger, 
President; D. B. Browning, Vice-President; M. Houston, Treasurer, 
and J, M. Hasness, Secretary. 

The following are the members for 1888: John Bucher, Sherman 
Smith, Jeff Drake. Isaac Algier, Wash McNulty, A. S. Smith, Isaac 
Dunkelberger, J. B, Andes, J. S. Hart, J. S. Kyle, H. C. Smith, Jerry 
Dunkelberger, Dr. Long, M. Houston, C. Schultz, J. M. Hasness, D. B. 
Browning, W. H. Paxton, W. H. Litenberger, Robert Gillis, C. S. Furh- 
man, C. M. Mosher, F. Donan, M. Herron, W. H. Holderman, Ed Rich- 
ards, W. P. Meyer, H. Walker, W. M. Hamshler, F. M, Parrot, S. V. 
Richardson, D. W. Weaver, L. C. Smith, Alonzo Hill, D. W. Porter, 
Jacob Mumm, F. T. Nichols, J. Bickel, J. W. Davis. 

A recitation by Miss Inez Scott was an appropriate ending of the 
meeting. 



State commissioner of forestry, M. G. Kern, of St. Louis, chairman 
of the committee on forestry, was not present, but his report was read 
by the secretary. The report dwelt upon the necessity of forest culture 
and suggested that a portion of the asylum farm could be used to great 
advantage in this way. Mr. Kern thought fully fifty acres for ornament- 
al grounds and 150 for farm purposes would be ample for all needs, and 
that the remaining 400 acres ought to be devoted to arbor culture. 



ANNUAL MEETING AT NEVADA. 361 



Mr. Bell, of Boonville, chairman of the committee on packing and 
marketing fruit, made some valuable suggestions. He thought the im- 
portance of planting orchards exclusively for market fruit and the pro- 
per packing of the fruit were two things which our fruit-growers do not 
properly appreciate. That there is a vast difference between a barrel of 
apples and a packed barrel of apples. If the producer would retain fifty 
per cent, of his crop and ship only the best and put them up properly, 
he would find it greatly to his pecuniary advantage. He thought Mis- 
souri the banner apple-growing state of the union, but to make fruit- 
growing profitable here transportation must be made more rapid and 
cheaper. 

W. R. Laughlin, chairman of the committee on final resolutions, re- 
ported the following : 

« 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Missouri State Horticultural So- 
ciety are due, and are hereby tendered, to the Ruler of the Universe for 
excellent weather during the time of our 31st annual meeting. 

To the good people of Nevada, and the members of the Vernon 
County Horticultural Society for their open-hearted hospitality and for 
their hearty co-operation in preparing for and carrying on the meeting. 

To the ministers of the gospel for opening our meeting by prayer. 

To the Nevada Glee Club, collectively, and their members individ- 
ually, for the excellent music so appropriate among the fruits and 
flowers. 

To the different persons who favored us with essays and recita- 
tions. 

To the railroads for reduced rates. 

To the hotels of Nevada, for the best accommodations at fair prices. 

To the gentleman of the press for their full and able reports of our 
proceedings. 

And further resolved, that having made such a proud success of the 
great fruit show at St. Louis and in this room, and having done what we 
could for the good of the cause at this meeting, we now return to our 
homes to work with renewed devotion to horticulture, strengthened 
friendships and confidences among ourselves and increased pride in the 
presence and faith in the future of grand young Missouri. 

W. R. LAUGHLIN, 
J. H. LOGAN, 
LEVI CHUBBUCK. 



.-{62 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



President Evans, before dismissing the audience, thanked the so- 
ciety for the uniform courtesy accorded him as its presiding officer, and 
also the people of Nevada and vicinity for their attention and good or- 
der. He then declared the thirty first annual meeting of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society adjourned sine die. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 863 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



NOTES FROM SOUTHERN MISSOURI— FRUIT GROWING 

AND ITS PROFITS. 



During the fruit-shipping season of '88 there was no section of coun- 
try east of the Rocky Mountains that attracted as much attention as did 
the fruit product of this Southern Missouri country, especially that along 
the Kansas City, Fort Scoott and Memphis railroad. Being desirous ot 
knowing more of it and learning something of the profits, I visited the 
farm, here at Olden, Howell county, of the Olden Fruit Company. This 
company consisting of J. K. Cravens, Kansas City, L. A. Goodman, West- 
port; J.C.Evans, Harlem; W. G. Gano,. Olden, and Frank Holsinger 
and G. F. Espenlaub, of Rosedale, Kansas, was organized in 1884, and 
incorporated in 1885 with a capital stock of $40,000. The farm contains 
about 3,000 acres, of which 800 are in cultivation. There are now over 
60,000 trees, 40,000 peach and 20,000 apple, and nearly thirty acres of 
small fruits. The peach crop of '88 was 8,000 one-third bushel boxes, 
which brought on an average 85 cents per box, aggregating $6,800. Of 
small fruits there was sold 658 cases of raspberries, 410 of blackberries 
and forty-one of strawberries. For raspberries and blackberries they re- 
ceived $3.00 per case, making an aggregate of over $10000. Taking 
into consideration the value of the corn and potatoes grown in addition 
to that of the fruit, and that this was really the first bearing year of the 
peach trees, it certainly makes a good showing both as to profits and 
success of fruit growing in Southern Missouri. The company will put 
out fifteen acres more of small fruits in the spring and will add another 



3fi4 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

hundred acres of peach and apple trees. Judging from the finely-flavored 
and handsomly colored fruit grown here one can not but conclude that the 
soil and climate are more fittingly adapted to growing and cultivation of 
all the varieties grown in a temperate climate. 

The ten acres of pear trees promi.se well, and most of the thirty va- 
rieties of grapes do well. The climate has no superior for peach culture. 
There are now on the farm, peach trees that were put out eighteen years 
ago and are to-day sound and as prolific bearers as ten years ago. Another 
thing that strikes the visitor is the price of lands, which ranges from 
$2.50 to $4.00 per acre. Of course first-class valley land commands a 
higher price, but the upland seems to be better adapted to fruit culture. 
As a confirmation of that fact I visited Mr. E. F. Hynes, whose fruit 
farm lies on the high land near the town of West Plains, eight miles 
south of this. Mr. Hynes came to this country twenty years ago and he 
began experimenting with fruit twelve years ago. Has originated sev- 
eral varieties of apples and peaches; of apples the Loy and the Levi, and 
of peaches, the Surprise and the Nectar. Both these peaches are among 
the earliest varieties known and are being very successfully propagated 
in New York and California. He has about 150 varieties, and when he 
hears of any new thing he procures it and experiments with it. He 
may properly be called the "daddy" of fruit-men in Southern Missouri. 
He also exhibited thirty four varieties in glass at the late Kansas City 
exposition, and took the lion's share of blue ribbons. In conclusion, 
for this time I, will say that I am more than ever convinced that this sec- 
tion of country possesses greater and better advantages for fruitgrowing 
than an}' other I have visited, and for these reasons: The price of land 
is very low, especially so when one makes a comparison with the prices 
of lands in, say California, ranging from $300 to $1,000 per acre. Take 
the same amount of money that w'ould be required to pay for high-priced 
land and the amount necessary to be paid out before any returns would 
come from the sale of the crop, and right here in Southern Missouri in 
ten years time the same money will bring a higher rate of interest than 
in either Florida or California. It only needs to be carefully investi- 
gated and the mo.st skeptical, I think, will agree with me. 

" PROVISO," In Kansas Farmer. 

Olden, Howell Co., Mo. Dec. 6, 1888. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 365 



A PEN SKETCH OF PROF. C. V. RILEY, FORMERLY STATE 

ENTOMOLOGIST OF MISSOURI. 



♦ 

BY DR. F. W. CODING, RUTLAND, ILL. 



History points to but few instances where men have started out in 
a strange land, without friends or funds, and in exceptional fields, who 
afterward attained distinction ; and when such was the case, it was al- 
ways due to persistent perseverence, unconquerable energy and unflagg- 
ing enthusiasm. A few such instances might be mentioned, pre-emi- 
nently that of the subject of this .sketch, Charles Valentine Riley. 

Born in London, England, September i8, 1843, his boyhood was 
spent in Walton, subsequently attending private schools at Chelsea and 
Bayswater until eleven years of age, when he entered the College of St. 
Paul, Dieppe, France. Here he remained three years, and then spent 
nearly three years more in a private school at Bonn, Prussia. His pas- 
sion for drawing and painting, and collecting insects early brought him in 
contact with the late H. W. Ilewitson, and later, with many eminent 
naturalists at Bonn and Poppelsdorf, his sketches easily carrying off the 
best prizes, at Dieppe and Bonn. 

The early loss of his father, and the care at school of a younger 
brother, developed in young Riley a self-reliance and sense of responsi- 
bility, which gave a practical turn to his views, and convinced him that 
the classical education he was getting, lacked many elements of utility, 
and was not the best preparation for active life-work. Acting on this 
idea, at the age of seventeen, he sailed for New York, where he arrived 
seven weeks later, with little means, and " a stranger in a strange land." 
Proceeding westward, he settled on a farm, in Kankakee County, Illinois, 
with Mr. G. H. Edwards, remaining there four years, and mastering all 
the details of modern farm work, greatly improving, in many instances, 
the method then in vogue. His health failing, he went to Chicago, 
where he was employed for a while as reporter on the Evening Journal^ 
soon after becoming connected with the Prairie Farmer. Besides a 



300 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

close application to the duties of his position as reporter, delineator and 
editor of the entomological department of this paper, he devoted his 
tirrie and energies to the study of botany and entomology. His industry 
and versatility soon made him, not only popular with his associates on 
the paper, but gave him a wide-spread and favored reputation as a writer 
upon natural history, especially on his specialty of economic entomolo- 
gy, the importance of which he soon made apparent. His connection 
with the paper continued until the spring of 1868, (interrupted from 
May, 1864, to November of the same year, when he was with his com- 
pany, 134th Illinois,) when he accepted the office of state entomologist of 
your own state, then recently created, chiefly through the efforts of our 
present distinguished Commmissioner of Agriculture, the Hon. N. J. 
Colman. 

In his new position in Missouri, Prof. Riley found full scope for his 
peculiar abilities, and soon earned a world-wide reputation as an original 
investigator, and a keen, versatile writer, not only on his favorite spec- 
ialty, but on various practical subjects connected with education and ag- 
riculture. 'Putting heart and soul into the work, he labored for nine 
years with no assistance other than his salary, paying his own expenses, 
even to illustrating his reports, at the same time contending with much 
ignorant opposition and ridicule from the legislature. During this peri- 
od of time, his investigations upon the insects then injurious, especially 
those made from 1873 to 1877, on the Rocky Mountain Locust and 
Grape Phylloxera, attracted the attention of scientists and agricultural- 
ists all over the world, and he was the recipient of many valuable tes- 
timonials, one a grand, gold medal, designed and cast for the occasion, 
being presented by the French Republic, in 1873, to show its apprecia- 
tion of his discoveries. His nine reports, familiar to you all, owe their 
value in no small degree to the fact that they are replete with the re- 
sults of original research, and of newly discovered facts in the life his- 
tories of most of our common insects, together with practical informa- 
tion for controlling them. Accuracy and popularity are combined in 
these works, which have come to be looked upon as indispensible to the 
working entomologist and the successful agriculturalist. Encomiums 
from the highest authorities might be quoted with reference to these re- 
ports; but they are too well known to require such in this place. 

Upon the passage of the bill authorizing the creation of the United 
States Entomological Commission in connection with Dr. F. B. Hayden's 
geological survey in the west, Prof. Riley was chosen as chief, and 
upon his recommendation. Secretary Schurz appointed Dr. A. S. Packard 
and Prof. Cyrus Thomas, both eminent entomologists, as his associates. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 367 



Accepting charge of the commission thus con"^tituted, in March, 1877, 
he traveled over most of the western country, from the Gulf to the 
South Sascatchewan, in British America in company with the various 
governors, or other state officials, everywhere exhorting the farmers to 
action, and making careful observations and experiments which were af- 
terwards incorporated in the reports of the commission. In the spring 
of the next year. Prof. Riley was tendered the position of United States 
Entomologist, which he accepted, and immediately reorganized the 
Bureau, obtaining an appropriation of $11,000 for special entomological 
investigations, the greater part of which he expended in making obser- 
vations on the insects injurious to cotton and other southern staples. 
Resigning that position at the end of the first year, he again assumed 
active charge of the commission. Congress having complimented him 
by transferring the cotton worm investigations to the commission. 

During the years 1879 ^^^ 1880, he continued in the work in which 
he was so deeply interested, until its final transfer to the Entomological 
division of the Department of Agriculture, July i, 188 1, when its labors 
were merged into those of the Division, and closed a year afterward, he, 
in the meantime, having again accepted the position of United States 
Entomologist, which he still holds. 

Prof Riley has been a voluminous writer, and the number of articles 
is so great that it appals mc to think of writing even the titles of them. 
They cover the entire field of economic, and to a large extent that of 
pure entomology, besides valuable essays on other branches of science, 
education and agriculture. His labors as editor of the American Ento- 
mologist, of which three volumes were published; his essays and ad- 
dresses published in the transactions of the various horticultural so- 
cieties; his ©facial reports as state entomologist of Missouri, member of 
the U. S. Entomological commission, and as U. S. Entomologist; his 
papers in the transactions of the different scientific societies, domestic 
and foreign; his popular scientific contributions to Johnson's, Appleton's, 
Brittanica, and the Farmers' and Planters' Encyclopedias; his technical 
papers in the bulletins of the Hayden Survey, and more recently his 
Bulletin of the Entomological Division, and editorial work in ''Insect 
Life" were all done between the the years 1864 and 1889, and represent 
a life of tireless activity. It is a quality of his writings that, whether 
appealing to the plain farmer, or intended for the technical eye of the 
specialist, they are marked with force, common sense and originality. 
He seldom writes upon a subject without presenting some new idea or 
some new fact previously unrecorded; and this originality, both of his 



36S MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTUKAl. SoCIETV. 

writings and of his illustrations, has caused them to be much quoted and 
used by all subsequent writers on economic entomology, both here and 
in all parts of the world. 

But Prof. Riley is essentially an investigator. He delights in 
original research, and will spend years in ascertaining some fact or es- 
tablishing some truth in his chosen specialty. He accumulated and 
arranged his private collection of insects, consisting of over 1 50,000 
specimens representing some 30,000 species, during these years of labor, 
and has arranged for its permanent location in the National Museum at 
Washington. "Though .several special collections surpass it in a single 
order, few, if any, general collections of North American insects equal 
it, and perhaps none from a biological point of view." He also, while 
State Entomologist, prepared a cabinet of sixty drawers for your own 
state, which now^ is in the State Agricultural College, at Columbia, and 
easily accessible to the citizens of Missouri interested in entomology. 

Prof. Riley is member of all the prominent scientific societies, do- 
mestic and foreign, and also of most of the state and local horticultural 
societies. He was lecturer on entomology at Cornell University, Kansas 
State Agricultural College, Missouri State University, and Washington 
University, at St. Louis. In 1872 the Kansas State Agricultural College 
conferred upon him honorary degree of A. M., and the following year he 
received the degree of Ph. D. from the Mis.souri State University. He has 
made four trips to Europe since his first arrival here, partly for recre- 
ation and partly for the purpose of making special investigations. 

Of the practical fruits of his labors it would be difficult to form an 
estimate; but in reference to all the more important enemies of Amer- 
ican agriculture, he has been among the first to anticipate the farmers' 
wants and the most successful in supplying them. 

The qualities that are especially developed in Prof Riley are an un- 
tiring energy and power of application; an intense love of system and 
order; remarkable powers of observation, great versatility, and a strong 
hatred of all kinds of imposture and charlatanism. With exceptional ad- 
ministrative capacity, he yet looks into the minutest details. Abhorring 
loose or careless work, he permits none in those under him. Ambitious, 
critical and industrious himself, he works with and in.spires his assistants. 
He has, by careful selection, gathered around him a corps of assistants 
remarkable for their special fitness for the work they have in hand. 

Prof, Riley married, in 1878, Miss Emelie G. Conzelman, daughter 
of G. Conzelman, Esq., a most respected citizen of St. Louis. 

In personal appearance, Prof. Riley is above the average in height, 
of a bilious, nervous temperament, dark complexion, rather spare and 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 369 

bony, the face is striking and strong, remarkably mobile, with the ordi- 
nary expression rather pensive, serious and concentrated, but beaming 
with pleasure and humor whenever the Professor is off his work. So- 
cially, he is bright, warm-hearted, and sympathetic. Of late years, he 
has shown the effects of overwork, against which his friends and family 
find it necessary to constantly warn him. With so much accomplished; 
with so honorable a past, it is difificult to predict his future, or the good 
he may yet accomplish. 

[I am under deep obligations to Prof. Riley and the National 
Farmer for data used in the above sketch,] 



Courtney, Mo., Dec. 25th, 1888. 

Mr. L. A. Goodman: 

Dear Sir — Merry Christmas to you, and may you live to see many 
more in the enjoyment of your position as secretary of the Missouri 
State Horticultural Society. I had a splendid time at Nevada, and 
I now see what I missed by not attending the other meetings, 
Hope to meet some of the " bird " people in June, and will try to pre- 
pare a paper on some common phase of bird life for the society's meeting 
next June. Will also correspond with the other members of committee 
on Botany to devise some contribution on that subject. 

I enclose you a short article on the status of the Botany of Jackson 
County. My report on the Flora of the state, I have sent to Mr. 
Tracy, who will submit it to your inspection very soon. 

I also send you a few notes on some interesting birds that have 
come under my notice during the past eight years, and can cite you to 
Mr. Cameron Mann as the reliability of the report. A greater part of 
the birds may be seen in my collection, and were you not too busy, you 
could run down here and examine them. 

I should like to hear from you soon. 

Very truly yours, 

B. FRANK BUSH. 



II R. — 24. 



370 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 



REPORT ON THE BOTANY OF JACKSON COUNTY. 



BY B. FRANK BUSH. 



In December, 1882, the writer published a list of the plants he had 
found growing in Jackson County, which included 609 species and mark- 
ed varieties. 

During the season of 1883 and '84, with the assistance of Mr. 
Cameron Mann, of Kansas City, he was enabled to increase the number 
of species native to that county to 906, and the result of their united 
labor was published in February, 1885. 

It was the opinion of the authors of the supplement to the Flora of 
Jackson County that the number of species inhabiting our district would 
not fall short of 1,000, and the appended list shows how well that opin- 
ion was founded. 

Particular attention has been given to the Sedges, Grasses and Com- 
posites, and the reader will not wonder if their number is out of pro- 
portion. 

The largest family in our district is the compositae being represen- 
ted by 140 species. Graminacae follows next with 117 species, and then 
come the Sedges with 91 species. 

The largest genera of our Flora are Carex, Panicum and Cypems, 
having respectively 54. 22 and 19 species. 

It is thought best that the numbering should be continuous, and 
when the work is re-written references may be given to plants by num- 
bers. 

The writer is under many obligations to Prof. Sereno Watson, Prof. 
N. L. Britton and Dr. Geo, Vasey, for assistance rendered in kindly de- 
termining obscure species, and by notes and suggestions given. 

The following list brings the Flora of Jackson county up to date, 
and should the reader notice any omission he will confer a favor by in- 
forming the writer of it: 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



371 



907 Clematis Virginiana, L. 

908 Ranunculus lemosus. Nutt. 

909 R. Cymbalaria, Pursh. 

910 R. hispidus. 

911 Dicentra Canadensis, D. C. 

912 Cardamire rhomboidea, D.C. 

913 Draba brachycarpa, Nutt. 

914 Erysimum Cheiranthoides, L. 

915 Saponaria Vaccaria L. 

916 Cerastium vulgatum, L. 

917 Arenaria Pitcheri, Nutt. 

918 Claytonia Caroliniana, Mx 

919 Hyphericum maculatum,Walt 

920 Ceanothusovalis, Bigel 

92 1 Dismodium viridiflorum.Beck. 
522 Amphicarpssa Pitcheri, T& G- 

923 Rubus hispidus, L. 

924 Geum vcrnum, T. & G. 

925 Potentilla canadensis, L. var. 
simplex, T. & G. 

926 Didiplis linearis, Rof. 

927 CEnothcra biennis, L. var. 
grandiflora, Lindl. 

928 Discopleura Nuttallii, D. C. 

929 Galium trifidum, L. var. lati- 
folium, Tarr. 

930 Vernonia Jamesii, T. &G. 

931 V. Baldwinii, Tarr. 

632 Eupatorium semiserratum, 
D. C. 

933 Liatris elegans, Willd. 

934 Grindelia squarrosa Dunal. 

935 Solidago Canadensis, L. var. 

scabra, T. & G. 

936 S. speciosa, Nutt. var. angus- 
tata, T. & G. 

937 Aster reticulatus, Punsh. 

938 A. oblongifolius, Nutt. var. 
rigidulus. Gray. 

939 Lactuca Ludoviciana, D. C. 



940 Lobelia spicata, Lam. 

941 Specularia biflora, Gray. 

942 Dodecatheon Meadia, L. 

943 Sabbatia campestris, Nutt. 

944 Convovullus arvensis, L. 

945 Cuscuta decora, Chois. 

946 C. decora, Chois. var. pulch- 
urima, Engelm. 

947 C. Gronovii, Willd, 

948 Physalis aequata, Jacq. 

949 Ruellia strepens, Nees. var. 
cleistantha, Gray. 

950 Lippia nodiflora, Mx. 
95rPlantago Rugelii, Dec. 

952 Chenopodium glaucum, L. 

953 Amarantus hybridus, L. 

954 Rumex Patienta, L. 

955 Euphorbia Cyparissias, L. 

956 Corylus rostrata. Ait. 

957 Salix abba, L. 

958 S. cordata, Muhl. var. ves- 
tita, And. 

959 Lemma trisulca, L. 

960 Typha latifolia, L. 

961 Potamageton Spireillus, Tuck. 

962 Cyperipedium pubescens, 
Willd. 

963 Juncus scirpoidcs. Lam. 

964 J. bufonius, L. 

965 J. alpinus, Vill. var. insignis, 
Fries. 

966 Hetcranthera graminea, Vahl. 

967 Tradesdantia Virginica, L. 
var* villosa, Watson. 

968 Cyperus speciosus, Vah.l 

969 C. speciosus, Vahl. var. par- 
vus, Britton. 

970 C. diandrus, Tarr. var. casta- 
ncus, Tarr. 



372 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL S(JCIETY. 



971 C. crythrorhizos, Muhl. var. 
pumilus, Engelm. 

972 C. strigosus, L. var. robustior 
Kunth. 

973 C. strigosus, L. var. capitatus, 
Bocckl. 

974 C. strigosus, L. var. elongatus 
Britton. 

975 C. ferax, Richard. 

976 C. flavescens, L. 

977 C. Fuirenasquarrosa, Mx. var. 
pumila, Tarr. 

978 C. Carex Gragii, Carey. 

979 C. arida, Schw. & Tarr. 

980 C. disticha, Huds. 

981 C. acquatilis, Wahl. 

982 C. umbellata, Schk. 

983 C. cristata, Schw. 

984 C. filiformis, L. 

985 C. filiformis, L. var. latifolia, 
Boeck. 

986 C. hystricina, Willd. 

987 C. laxiflora, Lam. var. planta- 
ginea, Boott. 

988 C. laxiflora, Lam. var. stylo- 
flexa, Boott. 



989 C. rctroflexa, Muhl. 

990 C. sparganoids, Muhl, var. 
minor, Boott. 

991 C. stricta, Michx. 

992 C. trichocarpa, Muhl. var. im- 
bcrbis, Carey. 

993 C. tentaculata, Muhl. 

994 C. Crus-corvi, Shutt. 

995 Panicum, scoparium. Lam. 

996 P. proliferum, lam. var. geni- 
culatum, Vasey. 

997 P. capillare L. var. flexile, 
Gatt. 

998 P. capillare, L. var. genicula- 
tum, Scrib. 

999 P. crusgalli, L. var. muticum, 
Vasey, 

1.000 Beckmannia erucoeformis, 
Host. var. uniflorus, Scrib. 

1.001 Aristida gra cilis, Ell. 

1.002 Sparobolus asperifolius, 
N. V M. 

1.003 Trplosis purpurea, Chapm. 

1.004 Poa alsodes. Gray. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 373 



THE SOCIAL FEATURES OF HORTICULTURAL SOCIETIES 



BY GEORGE W. HOPKINS, SPRINGFIELD. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of Missouri Valley Horticultural 
Society : 

I suppose the above subject has been assigned to me because of my 
proclivities for lingering long at the dinner table, which event I consider 
one of the chief social features of horticultural meetings. I want to as- 
sure my old friends Holsinger, Goodman, Fisher and Espenlaub, with 
whom I have had some hard contests on many occasions in the past, that 
my appetite, if any different, has increased since emigrating to South 
Missouri. If there be any doubts about the matter, please communicate 
with the ladies of the Greene County Horticultural Society. 

The first horticultural society of which we have any knowledge was 
found in the garden of Eden. It was originally composed of only two 
members — Adam and Eve. Everything which heart could wish was 
placed before them. They had only to reach out and pluck the most lus- 
cious of fruit and gaze upon the most beautiful flowers. The social feat- 
ures of this society, up to a certain period, have never been equaled But 
by and by a third member was taken into the society in the person of 
his Satanic majesty, and then commenced dissension which ended in final 
dissolution. 

Had it not been for the introduction of this new member, the human 
race to-day, without any exertion of their own, might be feasting on 
ambrosia and nectar sweet. What a happy time the members of that 
society must have had. Fruit in all its perfection ; no borers, codling 
moth, curculio or gouger was ever known to infest that garden. They 
had no conception of the warfare which thousands of years afterwards 
would be waged by the race against the myriads of insect enemies. After 
the breaking up of this society, thousands of years intervened before the 
formation of another. Indeed, we might say it is only within the pres- 
ent century that horticulture has made any material advancement, Man 
was content to take whatever nature provided for him in the fields and 
forest. 



374 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

After the formation of horticultural societies, all kinds of fruit began 
to show a steady improvement in size and quality. The strawberry, 
from an insignificent wildling, has been brought up to what we see it to- 
day ; the peach, in its original state, was bitter and insipid, unfit to eat, 
to-day it is worthy to grace the table of kings. The apple, from the wild 
crab, has been brought up to its present state of perfection, and is one of 
our staple commodities and a prominent factor in the commerce of the 
world . 

God bless, we say, the noble band'of horticulturists, who have done 
so much to ameliorate the condition of the human race. 

The improvements in fruits is not all that horticultural societies are 
doing tor the good of the communities in which they exist. There are 
times in the history of every individual, when the weight of care and sor- 
row seems more than we can bear, when every earthly friend seems to 
have forsaken us, and even the God of Heaven refuses to smile upon us, 
and we are led to exclaim, " It would have been better had we never 
lived." 

But when we go to these meetings and see tables loaded with lus- 
cious fruits and beautiful flowers, receive kindly greetings and cheer- 
ful smiles from those assembled, we return to our home better prepared 
to continue the struggle in the great battle of life. 

Horticultural meetings are calculated to break down that spirit of 
selfishness, which pervades society to an alarming extent. Horticultur- 
ists have no secrets. Whatever they find out by experience and ob- 
servation, is brought out at these meetings and all are mutually benefitted. 

One of the greatest of the social features of these meetings is the 
presence of the ladies. How cheering it is to man to see the dear crea- 
tures for a while, put away the cares and toils of domestic life, prepare a 
well filled ba.sket, cut some of their most beautiful flowers, and repair to 
the place of meeting to gladden the hearts of all present. But man's 
cup is full to overflowing when the tables are covered with linen drap- 
ery, and the contents of baskets are spread out in tempting array, and 
the president announces the welcome fact that " dinner is ready." 

How quickly vanishes the frown from the brow of the -lords of crea- 
tion as they fill up on the good things the ladies have set before them. 

I do not believe in the old adage that a man's heart is more easily 
touched through his pocket. I believe that part of the human anatomy 
is more susceptible of impression through the stomach. Ladies, take 
notes be the wayside. 

Horticultural pursuits have a tendency to elevate and enable man 
to bring out all the finer feelings of humanity. I have no statistics at 



MISCELLANEOUS I'APERS. 375 



hand, but will venture the assertion, that but few horticulturists are ever 
found behind prison bars. Idleness is generally the author of crime. 
No horticulturist will ever be successful except through the free exer- 
cise of brain and muscle. Success to all horticultural societies ! may 
they continue to grow and increase until their social influence is felt 
throughout the length and breadth of our country. 

I believe I can truthfully say that some of the happiest hours of my 
life have been spent in meetings of horticultural societies. When the 
angel reaper — death — shall come to summons me across the dark river, 
let no ceremonial rites be performed over my grave. But beneath the 
spreading branches of some grand old subject in Pomona's realm, sur- 
rounded by veteran horticulturists with whom I have labored long, let 
my last resting place be covered with the sweet symbols of love from 
Flora's hands. 



HORTICULTURE AS AN EDUCATOR. 



BY J. A. KENNEDY. 



Horticulture embraces in its common usage, Pomology, or fruit cul- 
ture and Flora culture. Its territory is included in the vegetable king- 
dom. Its book of science Botany ; its paternity, nature and nature's 
great author. Its lessons, purely elevating. 

Nature has her teachers as well as her books, and to the careful, 
attentive student who can find books in brooks, teachers in rocks, lessons 
in leaves and music in everything, there is practical and useful informa- 
tion in the pursuit and investigation of the vegetable kingdom, in all its 
wide range and numerous divisions, and especially in the cultivation of, 
and familiarity with fruits and flowers, as well as the products of the gar- 
den and the field. 



376 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



We arc entitled to the useful and the beautiful ; they are scattered 
along our rugged and toil-worn pathway through life to counteract the 
gloom of a sin-cursed earth and enliven and cheer our haltless march 
through time. Whatever is useful, whatever is beautiful, is worthy of 
our care and labor, whatever advances in science, in morals, in virtue 
should be encouraged. 

Horticulture educates — all things educate, but in different channels. 
Some educate upward, some downward ; some are elevating, some de- 
g'rading. Says an authoress of an excellent work on Botany : " The 
study of nature, in any of her forms, is highly interesting and useful. 
But the heavenly bodies are far distant from us ; and were they 
within our reach, are too mighty for us to grasp. Our feeble minds 
seem overwhelmed in the contemplation of their immensity. Animals, 
though affording the most striking marks of designing wisdom, cannot 
be dissected and examined without painful emotions. But the vegeta- 
ble world offers a boundless field of inquiry, which may be explored with 
the most pure and delightful emotions. Here the Almighty seems to 
manifest Himself to us, with less of that dazzling sublimity whicli it is 
almost painful to behold, in His m.orc magnificent creations ; and it 
would seem, that accommodating the vegetable world to our capacities 
of observations. He had'especially designed it for our investigation and 
amusement, as well as our sustenance and comfort. 

The study of botany naturally leads to greater love and reverence 
for the Deity. We would not affirm that it does, in reality, always pro- 
duce this effect, for, unhappily, there are some minds, which, though 
quick to perceive the beauties of nature, seem blindly to over-look Him 
who spreads them forth. They can admire the gifts, while they forget 
the giver. But those who feel in their hearts, a love to God, and who 
see in the natural world, the workings of this power, can look abroad, 
and adopting the language of a christian poet, exclaim, " My Father 
made them all." 

Agricultural societies should be educators of good, and were in- 
tended as such, but like nearly all things else, if not properly guarded, 
may be taken possession of by the evil one, and run in the interests of 
vice. It is no longer an uncertainty that our county agricultural socie- 
ties arc degenerating into grounds where more evil, than good seeds, are 
sown. It is no longer a doubt that our Fairs, of the present day, are ed- 
ucating downward. While there is an assumed control, by regulated boards 
of directory, chosen officers and established rules and systems of order, yet 
there is an undercurrent control of the speed ring, by secret plans and 
combinations of trained and experienced tricksters that the honest 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 377 



farmer knows but little about. If horse racing is demoralizing, if bet- 
ting and gambling are evil practices, then must our Fairs be evil teach- 
ers. If you would know where our children and youth spend their time, 
and what lessons they learn at Fairs, just listen at their conversation 
when returned home. They know all about the racing, and are familiar 
with the betting, and every word and phrase connected with this, the 
most prominent department of the grounds. And here nearly all the 
attracions of the Fair ground are thrown, here is where the money is ex- 
pended, here is where the music is stationed, here is where the band 
plays, and here are the greatest attractions, and instead of the useful 
and beautiful getting the chief encouragement, and the large premiums 
and the greatest attractions, they go to the worthless and the useless, 
and hence a class of professional jockeys take in the circuit of the Fairs, 
make large money by trickery and private arrangements, on som thing 
absolutely worthless for all practical purposes, scooping up the heavy 
purse, while the unsuspecting farmer, with an honest horse, is left be- 
hind. And to carry the evil influences still further, the grounds are usu- 
ally well supplied with all manner of games and gambling devices with all 
the modern improvements. Now pause and ask ourselves the question, 
who gets the greater part of all the money spent at, and in connection 
with, the Fair ? It is no longer a question with the teachers of morals 
and religion, that the Fairs are educating downward, and must be either 
brought under different regulations or abandoned by christian people. 

Horticulture in all of its branches, witnessed as well from the grow- 
ing, blooming and fruit-bearing trees, shrubs or vines, as in the displays 
at the public gathering of the society and discussion among its mem- 
bers, in the dissemination and exchange of seeds, as well as seed thoughts 
and in its cultivation and strengthening of the social relations, is all ele- 
vating. It would be difficult to cultivate, or even harbor avarice, or hate 
or any of the baser passions 'mid a display of fruits and flowers. 

The gain is not a pecuniary one, its chief good is in its moral train- 
ing and no one can help but be the better for having engaged in the 
work of the society. All can take a part. Man can honor it, woman 
can adorn it, and children can enliven it. It will return a smile to each. 
It is a civilizer and the wild savage is drawn nearer the enlightened as 
he is taught agriculture, and his love for gardens, orchards and flowers 
expanded. Says Bacon: "Fine gardening marks the progress of civili- 
zation'.' Home is made more attractive, and a love for home increases, 
when adorned and surrounded with well cultivated gardens, rich with 
esculents, beautified with flowers, 'mid the smilings and the greetings of 
fruiting orchards and waiving evergreens. Such a home tends to the 



378 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



expansion of mind and soul and leaves good and lasting impressions. A 
more forlorn, lonesome and ghastly sight can scarce present itself to 
my imagination than a lone dwelling standing like gloom upon the 
broad prairie, destitute of the surroundings of a tree or shrub. No flow- 
er smilng on earth ; no bird to sing in air ; no music among the leaves, 
treeless, shrubless — a picture of despair. Even the well-adorned ceme- 
tery, " where the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep," has more at- 
tractions than such a home. 

Horticulture teaches love. Love for the useful and beautiful — love 
for labor — love for home — love for country — love to God. From it we 
are taught to respect and to give honor due to honest toil. The pro- 
ducer is the true source of wealth of both community and country. 
The sturdy laborer is the real benefactor of society — the strong bul- 
work of the government, and the nation's strength and support. The 
hard hand of honest toil is the hand most worthy the warmest grasp. 
The weather-beaten and sun-tanned face is the one to receive our most 
generous greeting. 

Our teacher encourages and instructs us to practice as well as to in- 
culcate the honor and dignity of labor, and to cheer and reward the gen- 
uine son of toil, by defending the true worth of his profession, encourag- 
ing his life and exalting him to the highest rank of position and profit. 

** Yes, to labor is divine, 

Pass the watch-word down the line ; 
Pass the countersign — endure, 

Not to him who boldly dares, 
But to him who nobly bears, 

Is the victor's garland sure." 

Whatever adorns and exalts should be encouraged for its influence 
upon the mind and the heart. Arbor day should be strictly observed. 
Although one of the last, though by no means the least of the fixed days, 
whose annual return should be sacredly observed and honored in the 
grand work of tree planting ; teaching the children to look forward to its 
coming with bright anticipations and the faithful fulfillment of its require- 
ments, by setting at least one tree or shrub, that will tell in the future, 
and stand as a living monument, bearing the inscription that life was not 
in vain, that we lived for others. 

" The works of the person that builds begin immediately to decay ; 
while those of him who plants begin directly to improve." 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 379 



All honor to the man whose head and heart conceived the idea of 
Arbor Day. Reward him with due honor while he lives, for every grove 
and tree, planted in. pursuance of that day, will stand in the future to 
record ascribed praise to his memory. What a grand and potent teacher 
is Arbor Day, and what a wonderful improvement it will enhance to our 
western prairie states. The destruction of our fosests was the work of 
the past, their improvement will be the work of the future. 

" Plant trees, my friends, plant trees to-day 

Beside your cottage doors, 
And let their leafy shadows play 

With sunshine on your floors. 

Plant trees, that birds may build their nests 

In bowers that you have made, 
And children play and tire and rest 

Beneath their grateful shade. 

Let oaks and lindens round your field 

Like stately monarchs grow ; 
With iron arms your home they'll shield 

'Gainst wintry winds and snow. 



Let hemlock, spruce and fragrant fir 

And hardy graceful larch 
Stand guard against the gales and stir 

The boisterous days of March. 

Let locust scent the breathe of May, 
Cool April clothe the Prune, 

And Chestnut blossoms, blithe and gay. 
Wave in the air of June. 

Plant trees along each thoroughfare, 

And let the branches meet 
Above the country roads and o'er 

The city's dusty street. 

Let willows fringe the sparkling stream 

And poplars line the lane, 
And let the maple's silver gleam 

Be seen upon the plain. 



:JH0 MISSOURI STATE IIURTICUL TUKAL SOCIETY. 



Let elm and ash their shadows fling 

Across the murmuring rills, 
And let the pine's -^olian strings 

Make music on the hills. 

Plant trees and something better leave 

Your daughters and your sons 
Than 'twere to have your name engraved 
On marble shaft or bronze. 

How much nobler — how much more like the example of the great 
Teacher "who went about doing good" — to contribute to the comfort 
and encouragement of the living — to adorn the path-way of the soldier 
in life's struggle — whether as the student of nature or science, pouring 
over his well used volumes in ardent pursuit of knowledge, battling 
against misfortune and poverty, or the hard handed toiling laborer, 
breasting wind and tide, contending against want and oppression, and 
worst of all, against unjust and discriminating legislation — or the teach- 
er, whether of the school room imparting scientific instruction to the 
youth of our country, scattering light and knowledge over the land, or 
the more exalted teacher of righteousness, sowing the seeds of eternal 
life among the erring and vicious at home or the barbarous heathen of 
uncivilized lands abroad, mid scoffs and persecutions — how much better 
to help on the weary traveler through time, than to obstruct and thorn 
the path-way of his progress in life, and then seek to make amends by 
decorating his grave when the struggle ot life is over. How much 
more happiness one flower to the living than all the roses and lilies of 
the floral kingdom to the dead. 

"Friends do not wait, 

Till frozen are my heart's aching chords 
To utter tender and loving words ; 

And if you have some precious flowers to give, 
I would have some of them, while yet I live." 

Would that we could call a halt to the custom so prevalent to-day, 
especially in the world of politics, of tearing down, retarding and slan- 
dering through life, then feigning to cover up by heaping honors upon 
their house of clay. 'Tis said, that 

" Seven cities claimed the Homer, dead. 
Through which the living Homer begged his bread." 



MISCELLANEOUS rAPERS. 381 



It is but miserable comfort at least, poor consolation, indeed, for the 
soldier in life's battle for truth and right, laboring under the lashes of 
persecution, ** The whips and scoffs of time, the oppressor's wrongs, the 
proud man's contumelies," to be rewarded only with the unenvied priv- 
ilege of feeling that when he lays down his arms and ''has shuffled off 
this mortal coil " and gone to his rest, somebody, to keep up the form of 
a useless custom, may, formally, drop a withered flower upon his grave. 

" Oh ! its a sad and bitter world, indeed," exclaimed the exile of 
Erin, " For a man never has any flowers put on his grave until he is 
dead." 

Our Society would teach to labor for the living, to " Trust no future, 
however pleasant. Let the dead past bury its dead." 

" Act, act in the living present, 
Heart within, God overhead." 

I close by appropriating the last stanza of the beautiful and practi- 
cal address of the women's president, at their last national convention : 

" O, friends, I pray to-night, 

Keep not your kisses for my dead, cold brow ; 
The way is lonely, let me feel them now. 

Think gently of me ; I am travel worn, 
My faltering feet are pierced by many a thorn, 

Forgive ! O heart estranged, forgive, I plead ; 
When dreamless rest is mine, I shall not need 

The tenderness for which I long to-night." 



382 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



APPLE CULTURE. 



COST AND VALUE OF AN APl'LE ORCHARD CALCULATED WITH FIGURES. 



BY JACOB FAITH. 



The most important and general culture is the apple that extends 
nearly or quite through the year, by making judicious selections of sum- 
mer, autumn and winter sorts, 

There is no farm crop, which on the average will produce half as 
much income per acre as a good apple orchard. But as it takes five to 
eight years to come into bearing, some people hesitate to plant, re- 
garding the time and expense in a great measure lost. In reply to this 
let us figure on that and see. 

Fifty apple trees is about the number on an acre, but as small trees 
should stand thicker to protect each other from the wind, therefore, plant 
double that amount, as follows: 

lOO trees on an acre costing $ 8 GO 

Planting one acre in lOO trees 2 oo 

Washing or wrapping to keep rabbits and borers from hills. ... 50 

Culture of the one-fourth of an acre 2 00 

Rent the one-fourth acre, the balance three- fourths can be 
planted in cultivated crops, berry vines, castor beans, 

tobacco, etc , 50 

Total, first year $13 00 

2d year, interest at 10 per cent $ i 30 

Rent 50 

Pruning 50 

Culture 2 00 

Washing 50 

Total $ 17 80 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 383 

3d year, interest $ i 75 

Rent 50 

Pruning 50 

Culture 2 00 

Washing 50 

Total $ 23 05 

4th year, interest $ 231 

Rent 50 

Pruning 50 

Culture 2 00 

Washing 50 

Total $ 28 S6 

5th year, interest $ 2 88 

Rent, one-fourth acre 50 

Pruning 70 

Culture 50 

Washing 2 00 

Total $ 35 44 

Credit, the 5th year apple trees commence bearing, say one 
peck to the tree, 100 trees 25 bushel, at 20 cts per bushel 

in the orchard, gives credit, which deduct $ 5 00 

Leaves bal. due 30 44 

6th year, interest 3 01 

Pruning 50 

Clover seed, sowing and plowing 8 00 

Rent, the i acre 2 00 

Total $43 95 

Credit to ^ bu. apples per tree, 50 bu $ 10 00 

Balance due $ 33 95 

7th year, interest $ 3 40 

Pruning 50 

Total $37 85 



'iHi MISSOURI STATE IIURTICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 



Credit I bu. and a pk., 125 $ 25 00 

And to credit to wind fallen apples and clover for hogs 10 00 

Balance due $2 85 

Eighth year, 3 bu. per tree, 300 bu $ 60 00 

Hog pasture 10 00 

Total $70 00 

Deduct bal. due $ 2 85 

Washing and pruning i 00 

Leaves credit for orchard $66 1 5 

Ninth year, 500 bu $ 100 00 

Hog pasture, over pay washing and pruning 10 00 

Leaves total of $176 15 

Tenth year, 700 bu , $ 140 00 

Total $316 15 

The tenth year, one-half, 50, of the trees should be cut out, the 
wood should pay for that work, and the clover turned under, when the 
seed ripen enough to seed the ground again, for which 

Deduct $ 2 00 

Washing and pruning i 00 

Total $ 3 00 

Leaves balance $313 i5 

At this calculation and figures one acre of apple orchard would bring 
$313.15 over the expense that it cost the first ten years. These figures 
both in yield and price have been doubled. I picked over one bushel of 
apples from a five-year-old tree, and over twelve bushels from a ten- 
year-old tree. 

What will a 10 acre more orchard pay with a good selection and 
culture ? But, like corn, one hill is too much for profit, if no care and 
culture is given. 

People are getting more interested in fruit-growing, judging by the 
letters received inquiring what to plant and how to cultivate. 



^MISCELLANEOUS rAPERS. 'dUb 



DISTANCE TO PLANT. 

Remember the above described number. If the object is to have the 
standard apple trees 32x32 feet each way in a (fiamond form instead of 
30 feet in a square. In the planting, say in the row running north and 
south opposite eaclja 30 feet or standard tree, is the tree to be cut out 
when their room is needed. 50 trees on an acre 32x32 feet each way, 
set in a diamond form, are left after the middle tree is cut out would be 
inconvenient for culture, more than the ico planted as described. 

Every day in fruit culture brings new ideas. In all my writing 
about fruit and its cultivation, this is the first paper that I give my 
views in figures, but let each good thought be fitly written, wherewith 
to encourage fruit culture and lessen the labor. So it cannot be said, 
when we are numbered with the dead, that we ate the fruit of trees and 
vines planted by our fathers and in return did not plan for our children 
and successors. 

I wish to leave this world better than I found it, and place on re- 
cord that I have been here, that it may be said, he is missed, but the 
work of our hands, the bloom and fruit on the trees and vines, and ever- 
greens in winter will tell that we have been here. So we should plant 
fruit that will give us pleasure and treasure, to shed their blessings on 
millions when we are no more. 

JACOB FAITH. 



SCIENTIFIC FRUIT CULTURE. 



Editor Rural World : 

I have thought a few ideas on the above subject would not be con- 
sidered unacceptable, and I present them with the hope that some of our 
veteran horticulturists, who are so much better qualified, will take up the 
refrain, and more plainly teach us the way. 

To one who has made a study of this subject, it is not hard to see 
that he who would reap the best results from fruit growing, must adopt • 
very different means in the growth, care and sale of fruits in the future- 

IJ. R. — 25. 



^^0 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



than those in vogue in the past. The fruit grower of the future cannot 
afford to make mistakes that can be avoided by profiting by the mistakes 
and faihires of those who have already made the costly experiment. One 
prominent source of error is in the selection of varieties. He must select 
for extensive planting only such varieties as have proven to be adapted 
to his locality and soil. Not only shall the variety \*e one of established 
character, as regards productiveness, but must have a character in the 
market he would supply. Having made his selections, and planted and 
cared for them, according to methods advocated by our most advanced 
horticulturists, he has now presented to him the greatest problem of all. 
and that is, the gathering, handling and sale of the product of the orchard, 
vineyard and berry patch. It is a mistake to suppose that fruit invaria- 
bly sells at a profit to the grower. There is a very large part that does 
not, and a very small part, indeed, that brings such a price as it would 
under the best conditions. And those conditions are such, that it is 
almost impossible for the average fruit grower to apply them. To call 
attention to this state of affairs, is the intent of this article. That com- 
munity, which has supplied itself with all the modern appliances for the 
preservation of fruits, which means with canning and evaporating estab- 
lishments, with cold storage rooms and refrigerator cars, in a word, are 
prepared to grow, to handle and to preserve fruits in a scientific manner, 
have a measure of success guaranteed them such as but few individuals 
could ever hope to attain, on account of the expense involved. 

Therefore, it .seems absolutely essential that to obtain the best re- 
sults, we must have organization of some kind, either through horticul- 
tural societies or by forming companies with sufficient capital to not 
only-grow fruits extensively, but to be able to supply themselves with 
the best of facilities to care for the same in whatever manner their judg- 
ment at the time, would consider advisable. In order to more plainly 
point out in detail some of the advantges of such a system, we need 
only apply it to the handling of the small fruit crop. With a means at 
hand to can or evaporate strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cherries, 
etc., an over-crowded market need not be dreaded. I am informed by 
a practical canner of 12 years' experience, that any of the above 
fruits can be handled profitably at 5 cents per quart, or $1.60 per bushel. 

In other words, the canner can pay that, and no expense for pack- 
age, no commission, no transportation charges, no stealings ; besides, 
with such facilities, all inferior fruit can be utilized, and none but "extra 
select " sent to market, and it is rare, indeed, when the latter would 
not bring remunerative prices. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 387 



With cold Storages, such fruits as grapes, pears, and apples might 
be held for months in almost perfect condition. Grapes last fall would 
not net the grower i cent per pound. To-day the same fruit is selling on 
our streets at eight or ten times that amount, shipped from the cold 
storage rooms on the shores of Lake Erie to Southwest Missouri. After 
March ist, Jonathan apples that would not bring 25 cents per bushel at 
picking time could be held in perfect condition and sold at this time, for 
three or four times as much. Illustrations could be added indefinitely, 
proving that the time is not far distant when communities that do not 
supply themselves with all these preservative appliances for the care of 
fruits, will be driven out of the business by those who do. ".The world 
do move." This is an unfortunate circumstance to some but to the 
wide-a-wake horticulturists, it is just as he would have it. I trust the 
Rural World, with its extensive acquaintance with those best qualified 
to instruct us on this most important subject, will invite discussion on it, 
and help to usher in this new dispensation in the fruit industry of Mis- 
souri. 

J. G. KINDER. 



report of illinois and iowa state horticultural 

mp:etings. 



BY CriAS. PATTERSON, KIRKSVILLE, MO. 



Again, for the third time, I attended both these meetings, with the 
greatest satisfaction, and think they might as well enroll me for a life 
membership, unless they should conclude to go away out of my reach. 
I am well enough satisfied not to be a regularly appointed delegate as it 
leavts me under no special obligation to give a synopsis of their proceed- 
ings, which, as I could make it, would probably be still more uninterest- 
ing than a rambling report like this. 



388 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

While I le;irn to appreciate these societies more and more, I seem 
to gain a higher estimate of our own society also. I was quite gratified 
to hear our exhibition in St. Louis, very highly spoken of, in one of the 
papers in Illinois, .showing that it will not only be long remembered by 
the man)- tnousands who enjoyed it on the spot, but will be also a mat- 
ter of record in their proceedings. I am glad and proud of our horticul- 
tural society, and especially of our officers. Glad that we have the good 
sense to re-elect them every time, or as long as they do better service 
for the state than any others could, and not consider it merely an honor 
to be passed around in turn. 

Would that our leading and average farmers could see their own 
and the general interest as well as horticulturists do. We could then 
have farmers' institutes somewhat like surrounding states, instead of 
electing men to office who traduce and vilify anyone who tries to urge 
improved farming, and cut off any proposed or existing pittance of ap- 
propriation for the direct benefit of agriculture, and this, not only by rec- 
ognized demagogues, but by bonafide grangers themselves, as was done 
with the State Entomologist. 

The southern two-thirds of Illinois, and cme- third of Iowa, seemed 
to have had as full a crop of apples the past year, as the age and condition 
of trees could possibly yield, just as in our state. Any considerable dis- 
tance north of this zone, there were but few trees left, except of a few 
iron clad varieties, mostly summer and fall. The intensely anxious agi- 
tation and search for hardy varieties for this northern belt, has checked 
or retarded planting far south of it, as well as in the belt itself, which 
last year's crop will retrieve to a great extent. The idea of top-grafting 
favorite varieties on iron clad nursery trees, may be gaining some advo- 
cates, but it is not likely to become generally or extensively adopted. 
The ultimate success in finding or originating iron clads as good as any 
of our old sorts, can not be mistrusted when we know something of their 
extensive and energetic efforts. In fact they have now specimens that 
abundantly prove it can be done. But when we consider the length of 
time required to fully demonstrate all desirable qualities, and the num- 
erous possible discoveries of defects concealed by the ever varying sea- 
sons, etc., etc., our old varieties would seem to have a large field of use- 
fulness yet open before them. 

I was quite surprised to find two men from Union County, nearly 
on the same water-shed as I am, in south central Iowa, who reported 
successful and profitable pear orchards of hundreds of trees. The blight 
had never been destructive, which they attributed to judicious cultiva- 
t on, whatever that ma)' mean. As well as I could learn from them, it 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 089 



means to keep the tree growing in its natural season, and then quit. If 
we understood how to accomplish that, I think we could just as well 
prevent the disastrous effect of arctic winters also. While we may nev- 
er attain this knowledge, even as well as doctors can judge the probable 
course of disease by the symptoms, we' may. at least, turn our attention 
in this direction, and learn, afterwards, how a certain course would have 
prevented disaster. If we commence cultivating early, and never 
neglect it enough to compel the tree to cease growing in the late sum- 
mer, as Prof. Burrill told us in Illinois Society, last year, we may prevent 
the unseasonable, very late, second growth, and leave the tree in good 
condition to withstand climatic changes and severity, instead of inviting 
destruction of any and all kinds. 

It would seem that they could at least grow all the small fruits in 
those higher latitudes that we can, but they certainly have a better ex- 
cuse for not doing it than we have It is considered decidedly unsafe to 
leave any variety of grapes, raspberries and blackberries unprotected in 
winter, as well as strawberries. It is not claimed to be such a formida- 
ble job as I had imagined, especially if commenced and kept up from the 
first year of planting, and I am inclined to believe it would pay well, on 
the average, even south of here, but we might as well tell our people 
that such luxuries are not in their reach, as to instruct them how to do 
this. On selfish principles, I think it would pay some of us to make a 
regular practice of it, as the only successful way, and we would soon 
have a monopoly. 



SOME RARE OR LITTLE KNOWN BIRDS OF MISSOURI. 



BY li. FRANK BUSH. 



Missouri has a large and varied avi-fauna, dui principally to the 
great breadth of territory, from north to south, which gives it a very 
great variety of climate and soil. Its large and diversified Mora fur- 



390 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

nishes food and attraction for many birds, and consequently their animal 
subsistence is greater. Birds of the plains here find a home in the sum- 
mer; birds of the north here find their food in the winter; birds of the 
warm tropical south follow their food, the insects, here in the spring; 
birds from all parts of America are residents here at some season of the 
year, and their number is not greater in summer than in winter, but the 
number of species is larger. Of the birds that I have shot in Jackson 
county, the following are not generally known, yet are very common at 
some season of the year — at least most of them. You may not see them 
yet they make themselves known by their voluble strains, and tender 
earnest songs. This list includes a number of summer residents, who 
come here year after year to build their nests and rear their young, 
whose food is principally insects, but one of this group being granivorous. 
A lesser number of migratory individuals, who are to be seen and heard 
in our borders, the first half of May and the last weeks in September, 
whose sole food is insects, which necessitates their migrating to latitudes 
where their prey abounds. There are included two winter visitors, who 
serve to break the dull, dreary, monotonous winter weather, by their 
lively chirping and sprightly ways. One individual is a permanent resi- 
dent, and may be found at any time of the year. 

Beginning with the summer residents, we may as well head the 
list with that perfect little beauty of a creature, the Golden Warbler. 

PROTONOTARIA CITRIA (Golden Warbler). 

A beautiful little creature, inhabiting shrubbery, very common in 
spring and early summer, but not visible later in the season; certainly 
nesting here, as we collected the eggs of this species last season, and this 
season we found one nest in a hole in a cottonwood snag, which was 
afloat in a little lake near Courtney. 

SEINRUS NOVEBORACENSIS (New York Water-Thrush). 

An inhabitant of low tangled woods near the water, where its 
quavering pc-a, pe a, is oftener heard than its owner is seen. We have 
not seen its nest, but as it stays late into the summer, we infer that it 
does breed here. 

GEOTHLYPIS FORMOSA (Kentucky Warbler). 

In early summer an abundant little warbler in low shrubberies, 
where it gleams like gold as it flits from bush to bush. Although no 
pains are taken to conceal their nest, which is a large shallow affair, we 
have been unsuccessful in finding one. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 391 



GEOTHLYPIS TRICHAS (Maryland Yellow-Throat). 

Like its brother species, preferring underbrush along streams, where 
its hearty song may be heard through the early summer. Its nest is 
rather large and bulky, very carefully hidden, which accounts for non- 
success in finding them. 

EMPIDONAX TRAILLI (Traill's Flycatcher). 

A rather melancholy little inhabitant of woodlands, where its lie- 
ivink, he-wink, is more often the only indication one may have of its 
presence. The nest of this and the next has not been observed as yet. 

EMPIDONAX FLAVIVENTRIS, (Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher). 

A rare little bird here, scarcely distinguishable from the last, but 
whose habits are different. Its note is a soiX. pe-a, slowly repeated. 

COCCYGUS ERYTHROPHTHALMUS (Black-BiUed Cuckoo). 

Not observed here until this season, and then in some numbers, but 
not so abundant as the Yellow-Billed Cuckoo. The nest is very similar, 
but prefers low bushes, and the eggs are somewhat darker. 

SPIZELLA PALLIDA (Clay-Colored Sparrow). 

An early comer, frequenting copses and woods, not very common. 
We have not seen its nest, but it certainly nests here, as it may be 
found late in the summer. 

DENDROECA AESTIVA (Summer Warbler). 

One of the liveliest little songsters of the orchard or the wood, mak- 
ing a pretty, gleaming spot, as it flits from tree to tree in the spring ; its 
nest is a neat, compact little structure, usually saddled in the fork of a 
bush near the ground. 

HELMINTHOPHILA CHRYSOPTERA (Golden-winged Warbler). 

A beautiful little being, inhabiting shrubbery and underbrush, where 
it gleams like a thing of gold, as it darts amid the pale green verdure. 
The nest has not, as yet, been observed. 



392 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



VIREO BELLI (Bell's Greenlct). 

An infrequent inhabitant of shrubbery along the prairies, but not so 
common as the next. The nest of this and all the Greenlets is a neat 
little affair, usually pendant from the branchlet of some bush or low tree. 

VIREO OLIVACEUS (Red-eyed Greenlet). 

A very tireless little songster, whose voluble strains are oftener 
heard than the owner is seen. 

VIREO GILOUS (Warbling Greenlet). 

Of rare occurrence here, and we have not been able to study this 
modest little warbler, w^hose liquid strains tend to soothe the tired ear 
and lull the wearied brain. 

VIREO NOVEBORACENSIS (White-eyed Greenlet). 

A sprightly little inhabitant of woods an,d tangle, much oftener heard 
than seen. 

VIREO FLAVIFROUS (Yellow-throated Greenlet). 

This species resembles the yellow-breasted chat {Jcteria virens), 
whose habits it seems to have also imitated. Occasionally in deep woods. 

Of the strictly migratory species we have not been able to study 
much of their habits, but we can give the names of those taken in this 
county while passing through. 

REGULUS CALENDULA (Ruby-crowned Kinglet). 

Has been collected here for years, and said to nest in this county 
but there must be some mistake about it. It makes its appearance very 
early in April, and we have not observed it later than the first of May. 

GEOTHLYl'is PHILADELPHIA (Mourning Warbler). 

A rare or very local species, not observed in any great abundance, 
but collected here since 1854 at long intervals. Not known to breed in 
this locality, but nesting along the British borders. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS 393 



SETOPHAGA RUTICILLA (American Redstart). 

Appearing in this locality early in May, or even in April, remaining 
till the great host of migratory birds has almost passed, when it follows 
in the rear of the Black Polls. 

HELMINTHOPHILA RUFICAPILLA (Nashville Warbler). 

Appears early in the van of the migratory species, and can only be 
found here for a few days in May. 

DENDROECA CORONATA (Yellow crowned Warbler). 

« 

Abun(3ant during the first few days of May and then it takes its 
flight to the far north. 

DENDROECA STRIATA (Black-poll Warbler). 

Migrates very late in the spring, bringing up the rear of the migra- 
tory species. 

MYRODIOCTES PUSILLUS (Black-capped Warbler). 

An exceedingly handsome little bird, abundant in early spring. For 
want of time we have been unable to study the habits of the.se transient 
visitors, but we know that they are beneficial to man, as they are strictly 
insectivorous. 

We will notice our little winter visitors next. 

SPIZELLA MONTlCOLA (Winter Chip Bird). 

A familiar inhabitant of shrubbery, taking the place of the chip-bird 
in winter, from which it is not distinguished by the country people. 

PASSERELLA ILIACA, var. SCHLSTACCA (Slate-colored Fox-Sparrow). 

Appears here in great numbers in February, with the Fox-spariow, 
but more numerous. At this season of the year, the birds have a decided 
blackish appearance, especially the head, which is nearly all black. 



394 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



The only permanent resident in this locality is the 

SPIIYROPICUS VARIUS (Yellow-belHcd Woodpecker). 

This is usually called sap-sucker, but as farmers apply the term in- 
discriminately to several species of small wood-peckers, we would say 
that it would be well for them to learn to distinguish this species, as it is 
quite injurious to orchards and small fruits. 

We have, perhaps included several species that are known to farm- 
ers generally, but we think there is no record of their having been taken 
in this part of Missouri. 



KIDDER, MO., RAILWAY STATION. 



The cut shown on this page is an illustration of the design pre- 
sented by Prof. M. G. Kern, landscape gardener and western agent of 
the United States Bureau of Forestry, for the improvement of the rail- 
road station grounds at Kidder, Caldwell County, Mo., on the Hannibal 
and St. Joseph railroad. 

The town lies on the north side of the track, and the depot is near 
the western side of the town, as will be seen in the cut. The principal 
business street of the town is next to the road, all the buildings of which 
are on the north side, and is loo feet wide. By Prof. Kern's plan, fifty 
feet of this street and all of the railroad right of way down to the tracks 
is to be graded off and converted into a little park, A winding walk will 
pass through the park and connect with all of the walks on the streets. 
These connections are not properly shown in the cut. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



395 




This plan was laid before W, F. Merrill, General Manager of the H. 
and St. Joe R. R., and heartily approved by him and he promised the 
assistance of one of his civil engineers, who would see that the grading 
was done properly, and also promised that the Kidder section gang 
should do what it could in executing that part of the work. It only re- 
mains, therefore, for the people of Kidder to take hold of the work, do 



396 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



what little grading is necessary, lay out and make the walks, and begin 
the planting of the trees and shrubs. 

This work of ornamenting railway station grounds is a part of the 
work undertaken by the Missouri State Horticultural Society, and it was 
under its auspices that Prof. Kern prepared the design. Kidder Station 
has the honor of being the first that the Society has undertaken to orna- 
ment. If other towns desire to have the advice and assistance of the 
Society in this direction, they should address the Secretary, L. A. Good- 
man, Wcstport, Mo. — Colinans Rural World. 



OUR FAIRS; DO THEY OFFER SUFFICIENT ENCOURAGE- 
MENT TO HORTICULTURE .? 



BY L. A. GOODMAN. 



No, they do not, and I speak of horticulture in its broadest sense ; 
including fruits, flowers, vegetables and ornamentals. 

Yet, you talk to them about increasing the premium list of our fairs 
in the department of horticulture and their cry is, it does not pay ; it 
draws no crowd. We know this is true now and here, for, to make a fail- 
ure, just try a horticultural exhibit here in the west and you will see the 
crowd it will bring. Even the horticultural exhibit made by the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Society a few years ago was a financial failure. 

But this failure is not because people fail to appreciate our fruits or 
flowers or vegetables, for we know that they do appreciate them. 

At the recent exhibition of fruits at St. Louis, it was admitted that 
we had the most instructive, as well as attractive, dispays in the whole 
building. 

But this failure is due to a variety of articles for the people to see 
and admire. Do you believe it } Look at our fat stock shows ; it costs 
thousands of dollars more than they get for admission. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 397 



Look at our displays of manufactures ; it costs ten dollars where 
one is taken in at the gates. Look at our merchants' displays ; they 
never pay. Look at our stock shows ; they never are a financial suc- 
cess. 

I say now that a good fruit and flower show will go nearer paying 
its own expenses than any other single enterprise. 

But what we need to do is not to judge any one of the departments 
of our " fairs " or expositions as the only one which pays. As a whole 
we need all these to make up a good fair or exposition, and it would be a 
poor show at any of our places if all horticultural aud agricultural pro- 
ducts arc to be left out. 

I say then that our horticultural displays are as attractive a feature 
as there is in the whole range of specialities, and that it draws the finer 
thoughts of our people out. 

How, then, can our fairs afford to offer any premiums at all ? Why 
should not our horticultural exhibits be made just as are all other dis- 
plays, for the purpose of advertising. Our merchants, our manufacturers, 
our business men, make their displays without any pay or premiums, why 
should not the horticulturists .-' 

The answer to all these is plain. In our fairs and expositions it is 
well, and is necessary to show all our manufactured articles as also all 
our products. Now, one is the complement of the other, one is needful 
to the other and both are rrecessary to make a complete exhibit. 

Our merchants and manufactures make their exhibit, and reap their 
reward in increased sales and extensive advertising. 

In all exhibits of the products of the soil, no one man or set of men 
reap any real benefit. But all the benefit acrues to the county or dis- 
trict as a whole ; the expense is borne by certain individuals, and they 
are satisfied if, in the end, they receive enough premiums to pay 
expenses. 

I believe that the whole plan of our horticultural displays and the 
premiums offered should be revised. I think that, besides the money 
given by the fair association, we should have a liberal sum appropriated 
by each of our counties to some good, live men to use in making the dis- 
plays and to pay the necessary expenses. 

For all individual effort of what each one grows himself, I think the 
correct plan is to offer premiums, but only so far as their own growing is 
concerned. 

I believe in the line of our fruits these premiums should be offered, 
not wholly by our fair associations, but that each county should use some 



308 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

of the people's money for this very purpose, and at least duplicate many 
of the individual premiums offered by the fair associations. 

Take for instance our large expositions and fairs. Let each county 
offer premiums of about $50 or $100, for displays made by individuals, 
divided up in a systematic and judicious way so that it will bring in a 
good lot of fruits and vegetables. Let ten, fifteen or twenty of our coun- 
ties do this and we would get together some horticultural displays 
worthy miles of travel to see. 

Besides this, let some $50 or $100 be given to some good man of 
the county to use in making a general collection of horticultural products 
for the advertisement of their counties. Some ten, fifteen or twenty 
such county displays, not too large, but neat and compact, would be the 
means of bringing thousands of dollars into their counties, and the people 
would pay for it as it should be, and not a few individuals. 

All this could be arranged in a systematic whole very pleasing and 
very attractive. 

The authority for all this is to be found in Section 4057, Revised 
Statutes of Missouri. 

Besides all this, our counties should be the educators of our people 
in better fruits, better seeds, better plans of growing, better means of 
cultivating, newer varieties, and many other important facts, which our 
people should know to the best development of our interests. 

It is not right, nor is it just, that our fair associations should pay for 
all this valuable information. Our counties should take a prominent hand 
in the amount of money used in our displays, and my word for it, we 
would see less of the gambling games and swindles and of the (so-called) 
only attraction, horse-racing, so prominent in all our western fairs. 

A complete change in our mode of conducting our fairs in this de- 
partment will be a blessing to the people. Let the horse-races be races, 
and let our fairs be displays of our manufactures, live stock, and products 
of our land. 

I look forward to the time when we shall see a great majority of our 
people not only favorable to such a scheme, but interested in it enough 
to come out, not only once, but many times a week to see it. 

I should be glad to see our people as interested in our horticultural 
products as are they in Boston in their horticultural society. A dozen 
or more displays are held by this society each year, and thousands of dol- 
lars are given in premiums, and yet it is all returned to the society by 
the admission of the public to the displays in the payment of a small 
admission fee. 



iMISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 399 

The fact amounts to simply this ; the more people you get inter- 
ested in such matters, the more influence you exert and the greater the 
attendance. When we can get our counties to take hold of this matter, 
through their county courts we will get the influence of many of our 
best producers, and we will see the money ready to pay for all such 
shows. 

I shall be glad to see this change in our premium lists, and also in 
our way of exhibiting. We all dislike to see the petty jealousies which 
are often awakened by the vain competition, and especially between 
different counties of the same state. 

I hope to sec a change in all this order and see the time when in 
all our horticultural shows, each man will do his best, and each county 
will use every effort to make just the very best showing of their products 
it is possible to make and there will be no competition, only such as the 
general public will place on each display as they view it. It will save 
a lot of worry and ill feeling and give much more satisfaction in the 
end. 

In the displays made by our florists, I believe this, by far, the best 
plan. I would take a certain amount of money and divide it among 
them and tell them to make the very best show they can possibly do, 
and put their signs up, over it; thus giving them the best advertisement 
they can possibly get, causing no ill feeling and no competition, and 
leaving each one of the visitors to draw their own conclusion. 

COMPETITION OR EXHIP>1TI0N. 

This is what we want to know. Is it best to have the hot, grab-all 
competition we so often see in our Fairs, or should our shows be made 
a harmonious whole by some systematic, judicious plan of arrangement 
and decoration .-' 

If our Fairs would make every possible arrangement and give every 
possible convenience for our displays, using some of the money now giv- 
en for premiums, for a.ssistance in the displays, it would be a better thing 
for both the " Fairs" and the exhibitors. 

Let our displays be exhibitions of horticultural products, rather 
than competitive shows. 

Let the money be given, and given more liberally, for this purpose 
by the " Fairs," and by our county courts, purely for an exhibition, when 
it is to be made as a whole ; and only for individual premiums on fruits, 
vegetables and flowers. 



400 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Let all the large displays of all these be made more for exhibition 
purposes, and not for competition, and let a liberal amount of money be 
given to those persons or counties who will do this well. 

The following is the section giving the county courts authority to 
appropriate money : 

ARTICLE 2, SECTION 4057 REVISED STATUTES. 

County Court may appropriate money to Society, when : 
The county court of any county in which there shall be a society 
organized according to this article, or any special act of incorporation, 
shall have the power, and may, if it shall be deemed expedient, appro- 
priate out of the county treasury, for the benefit of the society, the sum 
of ($150.00) one hundred and fifty dollars in any one year, and the mon- 
ey so appropriated, shall be drawn by the treasurer of the society, in a 
proper warrant, provided said money shall be annually awarded, by the 
board of directors, in premiums, or expended by them in the purchase 
of premiums, to be known as " the (r ame of county) county court pre- 
miums," to be awarded according to the rules, regulations and by-laws 
of the society; and, provided further, that not more than one such pre- 
mium shall be awarded to the same animal or article of exhibition by 
the same county society. (G. S. 322, § 7.) 



MISCELLANEOUS PArERS. 401 



THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS. 



BY iMISS NELLIE WATKINS, KANSAS CITY, MO. 



" Now, nature hangs her mantle green, 

On every blooming tree, 
And spreads her sheets of daisies white, 

Out o'er the grassy lea." 

First in the season are the Primroses and Snow Drops, which speak 
of hope and purity, and coming thus after the long cold winter, are a fit 
type of the resurrection. I think it was Mrs. Childs, who says: " How 
the heart of man blesses flowers; they are rightly wreathed around the 
cradle, the marriage alter, and the tomb; they should twine around the 
tomb, for their perpetually renewed beauty is a symbol also, of the res- 
urrection; they should festoon the altar, for their beauty and fragrance 
ascend in perpetual worship before the Most High." 

Early in the season do we have the beautiful tulips, clad in purple 
and gold, while in the woods at the same time is the moss-clad violet 
fragrant and concealed, like hidden charity, also denoting faithfulness, 
modesty and rural happiness; in the same family comes the Heartsease, 
and Pansy, for thoughts. 

While none are more beautiful than the stately Lily, in its white pu- 
rity, is so highly indicative of haughty pride, as to take from it much of 
its sweetness; it has yet to learn humility. No matter how beautiful the 
exterior, a heart which is careless of all save itself, will never gain the 
highest reward; best that we learn of the Mignonette, which though sad 
colored and not beautiful, gives forth a sweet perfume of humility and 
care for others; not like the Roses, ot whom it is said: " truth and roses 
have thorns about them, even if they arc royal and sweet, are filled with 
the thorny branches of passion, and that makes nothing, be it flower 
or mortal, fair." It is wisely said: " rule thyself, that you may wisely gov- 
ern others." 

II. R. — 26. 



402 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



We can look to the Daisy for simplicity and unaffected air, as the 
Hyacinth for constancy, with its bells of purple, white and bluc,ringing 
out on the air, a soft peel of music. 

In all this group of flowers do we find the Sensitive plant compan- 
ionless and alone, breathing forth from some quiet corner, sensibility and 
delicate feeling, but, as Shelly says, '' The sensitive plant was the earliest 
up-gathered into the bosom of rest, a sweet child, weary of its delight, 
the feeblest, and yet the favorite, cradled within the embrace of night," 

No one can help being near to Nature, watching thus th-: unfolding 
life in all this floral world ; even the Persian in the far east, delighted in 
their perfume, and wrote his love in nose-gays, while the cupid of the 
ancient Hindoos tipped his arrows with flowers, and orange flowers are a 
bridal crown with us. 

Bonnie May brings us also the yellow Cowslips for pensiveness and 
winning grace, while in the old fashioned gardens of our grand-fathers 
will we find Hollyhocks for ambition, with Periwinkles for pleasures of 
memory ; the Lady-slipper for capricious beauty. Larkspurs for levity, 
while in their tiain comes Sweet William, denoting galLmtry, and the 
Bachelors Button for celibacy, while the Marigolds round out the group 
with grief. 

Now just a bit of the lonely Wall-flower's history. ''It is said, 'twas 
once a bonnie lass, who a sprightly youth did love, and to have it fully 
proved; up she got upon a wall ; but alas she had a fall, where she 
bruised and died ; Jove, in pity of the deed, and her loving, luckless 
speed, turned her into this plant we call now, the flower of the wall." 

In all, if we only look, wall we find some token of their nature an 
example worthy of emulation. "The red rose says be sweet and the 
lily bids be pure, the hardy brave chrisanthemum be patient and endure. 
The violet whisper give, nor grudge nor count the cost The v/oodbine 
keeps on blooming in spite of chill and frost ; and so each gracious 
flower has each a several word, which read together maketh up the mes- 
sage of the Lord." 



MISCELLANEOUS TAPERS. 403 



INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. 



BY GERALD HOLSINGER. 



Within the last twenty years the cry for " industrial education " has 
become almost universal throughout the civilized world. This cry has 
been made to penetrate the innermost hearts of the most conservative 
educational institutions through the astonishing progress made in the 
arts, through the application of scientific principles, the development of 
new industries by the powerful influence exerted by technical science, 
and the awakening of the agricultural classes to their claim of something, 
higher than their old positions. In all schools and in all places the jus- 
tice of the demand is admitted, and now the question is, to what extent 
shall the training of the senses become a part of the education and not 
whether or not it shall form a part. 

There certainly can be no doubt but that you are agreed on the 
main issue, but let us discuss somewhat the application of the idea of 
Industrial Education to Agriculture in general, concerning which there 
is still a great variety of opinion and practice. Such a discussion may 
prove the more interesting as the establishment of experimental stations 
has once more brought out the merits and demerits of the Agricultural 
Colleges. What should be the method of education outside of the home 
and what can be accomplished by this education is not a common mat- 
ter to be understood without much reasoning. But there is one thing 
our farmers and fruit growers do see: that there is something wrong 
with the old educational system; that it does not teach much that bears 
directly upon their life pursuit, but rather seems to have a tendency to 
alienate boys from the farm. 

Now the complaint as to these colleges is well founded, in so much 
as they omit from their teaching the principles that are brought into 
daily use, and also the training of the senses and perceptive faculties. 
But the remedy the farmer applies will not bring about the desired ef- 
fect. He demands that to prevent a diversion of the mind from the 
farm the boy be shut off from the rest of the world, that he may but 
dimly see what other people arc doing or have done in past years. 



404 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCILTY. 

This method can not but create in the boy an intense desire for 
something different. Because the boy desires to go to town it does not 
go to say he loathes work, because in town he will slave as an ill paid 
clerk without expectation of ever being able to secure a home, while on 
a farm he is assured of independence if not opulence. 

Then the question should be, How can farm work be made attract- 
ive? It is said that it is the birth right of every American boy to be a 
possible candidate for the presidency. If this is so, how much more 
right is it for him to choose his vocation. But it is certain you can not 
convert a young man's mind from one place to another by the "rubbing 
in" process. 

There are some who make a common complaint againt the Agri- 
cultural Colleges, viz., that by offering a wider field from which to 
choose than would be used in the study of agriculture, farmer's sons 
are turned away from this pursuit, that is they insist that the boy be en- 
closed in an agricultural atmosphere, lest he be drawn to some other vo- 
cation. This seems to me to be a singular way to elevate the pursuit of 
agriculture. It shows one of two things: either it is objectionable for a 
farmer's son to be anything but a farmer, or farming is too low a pursuit 
to bear comparison with other walks of life, and consequently he must 
not have a look at these occupations. Choose either. The, one is ob- 
noxious and un-American, the other stultifies the claim that farming is 
a high pursuit, and that it makes those engaged in this occupation self- 
reliant and independent. 

Farming, when intelligently carried on, will not suffer when com- 
parison is made with other occupations, but it is where farming is made 
a routine of unprogressive work that it will suffer by the comparison. 
And it will be seen that it is the progressive farmer who allows his son 
to be taught his profession in the full light of modern sciences as is now 
taught in most Agricultural Colleges. 

It seems to me there can be no doubt of the fact that the 6ld sys- 
tem of training is much to blame for the numerous instances in which 
men and women have entirely missed their life vocation, simply be- 
cause they have not been brought face to face with what they were truly 
fitted. In every walk of life we see persons who have no right to be 
there, quack doctors, penny-a-liners, bad poets, worse doctors and kid- 
glove farmers. 

There certainly is an occupation for everybody, and if all arc given a 
good education they are likely to choose the right one, and to succeed. 
But if a boy, born and raised on a farm, does not take readily to farm 
work, it is much better for him to engage in some other business in 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 405 



which he will be a success than a drudge as a farmer or fruit-grower. 
Parents have no right to predestine a child for any particular position 
simply because it was the vocation of their ancestors, and possibly his 
own. But if the boy's views are broadened by training the perceptive 
faculties, the attraction of the farm, viewed intelligently, will keep the 
majority of bo}'S just where they are wanted, and the few who are not 
thus kept had better take up a new line of work than remain in life-long 
dissatisfaction. Then it is by broadening and not by narrowing the 
mind that the evils complained of can be remedied ; or I do not believe 
farm work need be held up by holding boys down to educational manual 
labor just to keep up the habit. This brings up the principle of the 
farm schools of Europe. There are places where farming is taught 
without any principles, but substantially rule of thumb. As if 
this would stop the exodus of boys to the city. But farmers, as a rule, 
do not want this kind of training for their sons, even at a risk of their 
not becoming farmers. In different parts of the United States these 
schools were started. The idea took like fire and as quickly died, for 
the boy and parent alike revolted against any such machine work as the 
agricultural college on the farm school idea. These same schools have 
been compelled to throw out all uninstructecLlabor and to enlarge their 
course until now the subjects taught in these colleges differ but a little 
from those taught in the non-agricultural college. 

It is useless to say that the college farm is the great factor in mak- 
ing practical farmers of the students. I think it is generally admitted 
that they are not, but are intended to serve for illustration and demon- 
stration of principles. A boy on a farm must serve an apprenticeship 
before becomings skilled workman. But where it will take years for a 
raw boy to adapt himself to varying conditions, months only are neces- 
sary for one who has had a thorough course of instruction. Give a boy a 
knowledge of the principles with which he is to work and teach him to 
use his senses and he will care for the rest. 



40fi MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



REMINISCENCES. 



BY W. R. LAUGIILIN, OREGON, MO. 



Grape- growing had been tried and nearly all men had come to be- 
lieve it was a failure. William Penn's experiment made two hundred 
and fifty years ago; another by the Rappites, at New Harmony, In- 
diana ; the French, at Vincennes, and the Swiss at Vevay, all with 
foreign varieties, seemed to leave but little reason for hope, and the 
verdict was that " grapes cannot be raised in America." 

But here and there was a man, or sometimes a woman, who saw the 
woods full of wild grapes, and, sensibly, went to work trying what could 
be done with such varieties as nature had already shown to be suited to 
this continent. 

In a cabin in the woods near the edge of a sandy rolling, Hennepin 
Prairie, in the County of Putnam, and State of Illinois, lived Smiley 
Shepherd. Like many men of whom the world is not worthy, he was 
poor. 

Well do I remember, now fifty years ago, to see him and his family 
regular attendants at the Old Log Meeting House at Union Grove. Their 
team was a yoke of black oxen. Shepherd's health was not good, and, 
of course, his more robust neighbors called him lazy. He was tall, self- 
possessed, reserved and thoughtful. He was one of those who were then 
here and there, working at the grape problem. As he passed among the 
woods, he marked the wild vines that bore the best grapes, and a few of 
these he cultivated where they stood, or moved them to his garden. 

Soon in the history of that variety he procured a vine of the Isabella. 
That vine was one of the wonders of my early boyhood. Trained on a 
horizontal arrangement of poles, perhaps seven feet from the ground, the 
many clusters that seemed to me so huge, of grapes that looked to me so 
large, hung below the frame work, and I was permitted to walk under 
and to see the Glorious Revelation. At Shepherd's suggestion, I held a 
bunch in my hand, and I and the other red-headed boy who had gone 
with me, actually tasted some of those grapes. If they appeared to us 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 407 



to be scarcely less than cannon balls — well, please imagine how they 
tasted. ^ 

Years went by, and Smiley Shepherd's vines increased and his grapes 
became the talk of the country. Sneers changed to inquiries, contempt 
gave place to a rude appreciation, and a few men began to plant a vine 
or two for themselves. 

Shepherd added other varieties to his list, and more and more the 
wonder grew. He ate of the grapes he raised, and drank of the wine he 
made, and became stronger and gained courage. He sold of the products 
of his vineyard, and became less poor. Men came from afar to see, and 
returned home to do as he was doing. 

In the year 1855 and 1856, at the Illinois State Fair, he took the first 
premium for "Greatest Variety of Good Native Grapes," and also for the 
" Best Show of Grapes." The visionary invalid had become famous and 
far better and more important than that he had done a valuable thing for 
his fellow-men. He and other workers on the same line had given suc- 
cess in grape-raising a rare present to a nation. 

Without our Smiley Shepherd we would not have to-day our Hus- 
man, our Munson, nor Bush and Meissner, nor those better varieties 
of grapes that have already taken the place of the ones that were such 
successes half a hundred years ago. 

THERE ARE TWO SIDES 

to the question of the honesty or not of nurserymen. I am not on the 
fence as to that issue, but on both sides of it. On the side of the honest, 
capable nurseryman to uphold him, to vindicate him, and so far as I have 
the ability, and may find the opportunity, to champion his cause. Also 
on the side of the rascally nurseryman, hoping to assist in his destruction 
as such ; ready to expose him and his frauds, tricks and impositions ; 
ready to denounce him when I have found him ; to say to him, " thou 
art the man," or to the people. " there is the man." If my belt is not 
ornamented with his scalp, it shall be my fault, failure or neglect. 

With the well-meaning, incompetent, let us deal not roughly, but 
firmly. His excision is necessary; his retirement is demanded for the 
public good ; a perverted sentiment of mercy for him might leave him 
to carry on his career of mistakes and of misjudgments, which would be 
none the less dangerous to his customers because they were not malici- 
ous. Pity for him and proper regard for his own welfare should move us 
to make sure that he leaves the business and finds his mission in some 
other callintr. 



408 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

It is now more than twenty years that I have been out of the busi- 
ness, but my acquaintance with nurserymen began when I was not half 
grown, and has continued to the present time. 

I have no ax to grind, no boon to crave, no cowardly fear to re- 
strain me. 

At Granville, Putnam county, Illinois, lived a man who was known 
as father — we will call him Father Grimes, but his name was not Grimes, 
and luckily for posterity he was not the father of anybody. Father 
Grimes was a born enthusiast. He had zeal, without brains enough to 
harber much knowledge. He was kind of heart, also of judgment, weak 
and feeble tongued. His perception of colors was not acute, and his taste 
was not discriminating, his view of farms was shadowy, and his grasp of 
principles and his memory of facts were faint. He could read, and did 
read, and I almost think it was a pity he could; but he pored over two 
or three of the old time fruit books, while he had better been raising corn 
and potatoes or looking after poultry. He had learned to bud, and did 
his propagating that way. For miles around he sought out varieties. 
Such orchards as had at that time began to bear were mostly seedlings. 
Returning home with stores of apples collected he drew down his books 
and campared his specimens with their discriptions of varieties. Of course 
they must be something, and that something must be found in those 
books. Some striped seedling of no value, perhaps from a worthless tree 
became an Autumn strawberry, or a Chenango; a yellow apple of some 
size, but -ever so poor in quality, became a Golden Pippin. An apple 
somewhere near the right shape and size, found itself a Baldwin, a Van- 
devere, or a Rhode Island Greening. He hastened to cut his buds to 
suit his names, and staked them in the rows accordingly. Most of Fath- 
er Grimes' small nursery was produced in that manner; and to that mis- 
erably mixed up mess of stuff did scores of men go to get trees to set for 
family orchards . I have no doubt but, when father Grimes knock- 
ed at the gate away above, Peter met him and appointed him a seat 
not high but comfortable. Let us hope that his good intentions formed 
the ground for judgmgnt in his case; but we must regret that many fam- 
ilies after waiting eight or ten years, found their apples very different 
from what they had expected. 

ABOUT THIRTY MILES 

from our place lived another specimen of the frontier nurseryman, another 
development of the times of forty years ago. A rushing farmer, large of 
frame, strong of muscle, sharp and unscrupulous, plausible in his manner, 
of persuasive speech, and of sufficient means. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 409 

He saw nurserymen doing well and planned a big operation for him- 
self. It was easy to get the necessary seed, to plant them in the new 
clean prairie soil, and to graft the roots with what he pleased. He did 
graft them with three or four of the varieties that ne knew made the 
largest and finest looking nursery trees. His stakes were numerous and 
the inscriptions thereon sufificiently various to cover a large list of varie- 
ties, and were chosen to satisfy even those who knew what apples they 
wanted, but of course knew nothing from appearances of the young tree 
as to what they were getting. I saw his nursery at its best, and I have 
never seen finer looking trees. Diligent advertising brought him very 
many customers, and the trees showed so finely, and did so well, that 
they came again the next year and rtiany others came with them. For a 
few years he had a heavy business, in fact became rich. In due time men's 
orchards began to bear, and they found their apples mostly Big Roman- 

ites. But, had calculated on that and by that time was out of the 

business. 

Children were cheated out of the fine apples their parents had told them 
to expect, and began early to lose faith in the human race. Patient, 
toiling women who had waited through long years, were defrauded, and 
strong men cursed the wretch who had done them a far greater wrong 
than to merely steal their money. After all this I stopped once at 

's place. On that pleasant evening he was sitting with his wife 

and two or three of their smaller children on the porch of his large, 
well-furnished house, all looking a picture of health and contentment. 
A few rods away stood his great barn, and ail around, his pastures were 
full of his horses and cattle, while his busy plows were held by other 
hands than his own. As I rode on I asked, " Where is justice .-' " and 
then occurred to me the words addressed to Tam O'Shantcr: 
" Ah Tam, ah Tam, thou'lt get thy fairin. 
In sheol they'll roast thee like a herrin'. " 

ONE MORE INSTANCE, 

and a still greater one, of a fraud that had for years such success as 
what we speak of as a successful fraud may have. 

Not at all because that was his name, but because the word has a 
classical, Greeky sound, I will call him Squeenicks. He was not a 
literary character at all, but he filled the papers with fine-sounding adver- 
tisements written for him by a brainy son of misfortune who worked in 
his nursery for wages, and wrote for him at rates that were at least cheap. 



410 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



As early in the spring of 1858 as trees might be sent by the rivers, 
a relative of mine who lived three miles from the place where we had 
located our nursery in Iowa, received five hundred apple trees from 
Squeenicks. He met them at Forest City, and when he had hauled 
them sixty miles over the wild prairie to his new home asked me to 
come over and see the boxes unpacked. My relative had ordered, and 
had paid for first-class trees ; but when they were spread out on the 
native sod of Iowa — oh, what a sight. My relative was himself an 
excellent judge oi trees, and we saw before us a lot of culls, refuse, and 
unsalable trash. Very few of them had even the outside appearance of 
good trees ; and three-fourths of them were fit for nothing but the brush 
pile and the fire. But they had been paid for and received — the swind- 
ler was hundreds of miles away and there was practically no redress. 

Two or three years after, another man was about to send to the 
same villain for a large bill. I told him of the above case and urged 
him not to send to that man ; but he did send a large order for pear 
trees and some other things, and far worse than threw his money away. 
Still not satisfied, a cemetery association, and individuals joined in 
sending to the sarnc sink hole several hundred dollars for trees, ever- 
greens and shrubbery. Most of the stuff received for that money was 
worthless, but Page county had enough of Squeenicks. 

That man's history is briefly told. The samples of his style that I 
have given here are enough ; and it is only necessary to add that he re- 
treated from his victims and from his business, and now but poorly fills a 
contemptible obscurity. 

I have instanced these three exceptions to prove the rule. Over 
against these three I place a long array of names, too numerous to be 
given. Names of men who love their calling tor its own sake and who 
followed it because they loved it ; men who perseveringly sought out its 
facts and patiently worked out its details ; who would rather give to the 
world a valuable variety of apples than to conquer and rob a province ; 
who could see beauty, smell fragrance, taste flavor, understand values, 
calculate the finer effects and appreciate all these, and to whom such 
work for their families, their neighbors and their kind was high pleasure. 
The confidence of such men in each other is instinctive ; it is spontane- 
ous ; it can be felt in the air. It was a strong expression of " The 
poet of nature " when he wrote " With such as these may I be 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 411 



SAVED OR DAMNED. 

Do we judge the professions solely, or even in great part, by the 
miserable exceptions .'' To many people the very name of "Lawyer' 
is a synonym for everything of trickery, and yet every man who has ob • 
tained, by contact with them, any correct idea of lawyers know that 
there are many of them who live and act in an upper atmosphere where 
is no taint of deceit nor any stain of dishonor. 

Do we fail to trust the physicians we have known for years because 
of the disgraceful crew of noisy quacks, and of shameless empirics who 
buy their diplomas and fill our papers with their conscienceless adver- 
tisements ? 

As a body the clergy of all denominations has very largely the con- 
fidence of the American people, for all the fact that among them may 
once in a while be found a hypocrite or a villian. 

We may safely challenge any just comparison between the estab- 
lished nurserymen aud seedsmen of the United States and the members 
of any of the professions. I do not include the floating frauds who are 
here to-day and yonder to-morrow. They are pirates, they are beasts 
of prey, they are reptiles. Nor the man, rich though he may be, who 
sending out from one place piles fraud upon fraud, year after year, ignor- 
ing exposures, always seeking new victims, peddling his wares by means 
of every new invented cheatery. If he has any parallel among our social 
existences it is the painted harlot. The State Horticulture Society of 
Minnesota did well when, at its meeting of January, 1887, it thoroughly 
overhauled May & Co.; and the State Society of Ohio, when D. M. Fer- 
ry & Co. were effectually discussed. 

It is wonder and pity that more persons do not learn how to bud 
and to graft, to layer and to plant and to handle cuttings and bulbs ; 
but the fact remain that very few of the people will do much of their 
own propagating ; so the nurseryman must handle all these for the 
public ; and the time has passed when we can afford to save our own 
garden seeds. Seedsmen of long experience and of established reputa- 
tion can produce better seeds than we can, and are sending them to us 
cheap enough. Nurserymen and seedsmen, we need them both If one 
or the other cheats us once it is his fault — if he cheats us the second time 
it is our own fault ; and if he ever gets the chance to cheat us again we 
deserve to be cheated. 

From the greatest to the least, first, last and all the time, in all this 
business, there must be no rascality and but few mistakes. Men must 



412 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



tell the truth and be very careful as to their judt^ment; for if once they 
begin to trifle with conscience aud judgment, both will soon be gone and 
finally their business will have gone too. 

The tribunal of public opinion is the highest court in the land. Its 
processes are not executed by sheriffs or by marshals ; its edicts are not 
recorded in a clerk's book ; its verdicts are informal, but its judgments 
are self-executing. No nurseryman's appeal to that court is a safe one 
unless it is just. Then, and not otherwise, may he appeal to truth and 
to time. 



WHICH IS OUR BEST GRAPE ? 



IJY L. GEIGER, I500NVILLE, MO. 



After having examined the leading price lists of the grape nurseries 
in Missouri and from abroad, and considered their merits and the prac- 
ticability of planting at large on our Missouri hills, I am at a loss to tell 
you "which is the best." 

Every kind and every variety has its merits and demerits. Mis- 
souri is a large, a great state, and within its boundaries lays a great 
wealth of undeveloped riches. It is traversed by one of the greatest 
rivers on this Continent, and running eastwardly to the waters of the 
mighty Mississippi, and situated midway between the Atlantic ocean on 
the east, and the great Pacific on the west, between the great lakes on 
the north, and the balmy waters of the Gulf on the south, it is destined 
through its central location to become the metropolitan state of the 
Union. Only sixty-eight years a state and a member of the proud 
union of the States, it has shown to the world its capability of pro- 
ducing the best apple and white wine on this Continent, and the best red 
wine on the globe. At the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, the 
Missouri white wines were all taken by the Chinese Ambassador for the 
royal tables of his Emperor and the nobilitj- of that ancient country, be- 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 413 

cause they were the best of all the white wines exhibited at the firs t 
World's Fair in this country. At the Vienna Exhibition, that great 
world's fair in that historical city on the Danube, the product of Mis- 
souri vineyards, was awarded the first prize as the best red wine, in com- 
petition with all the wines raised in the wine-renowned districts of the 
world. Is this not worth praise enough to make any Missourian proud 
of his State ? And should not this stimulate every vineyardist to greater 
exertion ? Every man has his ups and downs, his trials and tribulations 
in this world, and the vineyardist not excepted. Fifty years' trials in the 
Missouri vineyards bear testimony to that effect. The viticulturist had 
to fight against many adversities; he has to be in constant war with 
birds, insects and disease, and, in spite of so many obstacles, ingenuity, 
incessant industry and perseverance, have helped him to win a glorious 
battle. 

By meditation, observation and experiments, he has learned during 
these past years of failure and diseaase in his vineyards, that great 
lesson, that want of fertilization is the main cause of disease. If we take 
a crop of fruit from our vines year after year, without restoring the 
proper nutriment, as a matter of course, failure, and finally disease must 
set in, and the indolent and lazy vineyardist is at a loss 

Many years ago, a man, connected with a large vineyard, was asked 
the question, "how is that vineyard doing i"" "Oh, he said, it appears to 
be all right, I believe, though it ought to be manured." And for more 
than twenty-five or thiity years there have been crops of fruit taken from 
that vineyard without the least effort to make any use of fertilizers. 
And the large casks in those spacious wine-cellars, which were filled with 
the crop of the year 1874, have never since experienced any such 
amount of wines. Disease has set in. some say Phylloxera; and, in my 
opinion, it is worse than that — it is nothing else but starvation. 

As it is said, "ingenuity helps many a man to overthrow obstacles," 
so in the production of wine. The production of pure wine could not 
meet the demand, consequently the unscrupulous vintner resorted to 
adulteration and overflooded the country with that stuff, damaging the 
interest of viticulture and the sale of a pure article of wine. Besides all 
that, viticulture was damaged by the laws of the land, which prohibit 
the sale of wine in the hands of the producers. It was reported that the 
vineyards were more or less in a state of neglect or carelessness, and 
how could they be otherwise.^ The natural result of such a state of af- 
fairs could not bestow any courage to the vineyardist, hence the neglect. 
It is no wonder, when the sturdy, industrious worker in the vineyard 
turns a cold shoulder to his grapes and seeks another and more remu- 



411 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ncrative field of occupation. 'Well," I hear it said, "you had better 
raipc a market grape and bring your fruit to market in succession." Yes, 
sir, suppose every grape grower of any amount of acres set in grape 
vines (and ii he wants to make the production of grapes his business, he 
must have that) would send his fruit to market, they would overstock the 
market or markets so much the fruit would not bring the cost of trans- 
portation, besides not all the bunches are marketable. Now, what shall 
we do with them.-* And where disease has set in, in the vineyards, and 
spoiled the bunches so they are unfit for market, what then.'' Make 
them into wine is the only alternative. 

Against mildew on the leaf, and rot on the berry, we have applied 
some remedies — but to what extent.'' We have lost our crop, scientific 
observations proved that rot is not caused by stings of insects, but by 
the spores of an injurious fungus, against which there seems to be no 
other remedy, but protection from the contamination of the floating 
spores in the air. We bagged our grapes and the result was good, some 
bunches in paper bags would not ripen, and the canes have not made a 
. healthy and vigorous growth. We thought there must be something 
else to be looked after and we found starvation, want of proper nourish- 
ishment was the cause of that; we then commenced to feed the roots 
and rootlets with the proper fertilizers, such as barn-yard manure, lime, 
wood ashes, bone dust, sulphate of iron and copper, scrapings of our 
town streets, etc. We have sprinkled over the tilled surface of the land 
the liquid of manure from the slaughter houses, and the result was, that 
at our exhibitions and fairs those grapes raised in the open air without 
any protection whatever on such fertilized vineyards, were awarded first 
premiums in competition with those pets, raised under protection or in 
bags. In the discussion on grapes at the meeting of the Missouri State 
Horticultural society, at West Plains, Howell county, a member made 
the remark that a vineyard bears well until about five years old, then 
they begin to rot. And why.'' Because the fertilizing elements proper 
to a healthy production of the grapes are exhausted, and consequently 
starvation and disease. The same gentleman made a sec- 
ond remark that stawberries planted between the rows are a preventive 
of rot. My experience has proven that where strawberries were 
grown in the vineyard grapes rotted the most. As a matter of course, 
they helped impoverish the land, and my vineyard is proof of that. A 
neighboring vineyard changed owners about a year or so ago. Under 
the former owner, the grapes rotted, from year to year, so that the prod • 
uct of grapes did not pay the taxes of that land. The present owner 
commenced to manure and cultivate thoroughly, and at the fruit exhi- 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 315 

bition, last fall, the grapes produced on that fertilized and well cultivated 
land, without any protection, but raised in the opfen air, in competition 
with a great number of the same variety, were the most perfect bunches 
and received first premiums, and the grapes were Labruscas. It is said, 
the higher grape vines are located, or raised on trees, they were not 
effected by rot. Now, on a high bluff, whose feet are washed by the 
turbulent waters of the Missouri river is a vineyard located, and set in 
promiscuous varieties of grapes. The crop on that vineyard was, for 
many years, a good one. In later years, they failed, and rotted badly ; 
a few rods east of it, is about an acre set in Norton and Cynthiana, 
which have produced full crops every year, cultivation or no cultivation, 
and a few rods east of that, on the steep, sloping hillside, facing towards 
the east in an open, wide ravine and the Missouri river, where barely 
soil enough could be found by terraceing to plant the grapevines — there 
never, by no cultivation whatever, was any complaint heard of either 
mildew or rot, and the grapes were Concord. In spite of the spores of 
that injurious fungus floating in all directions, a full crop of fruit of 
healthy and perfect bunches was raised every year, and the land was a 
limestone ledge. We find the same in the animal body, and the human 
constitution. The weak and poor ones are the easiest effected by a pre- 
vailing epidemic, while the well nourished,\ healthy and robust constitu- 
tions withstand the attacks the best. 

Botanists have classified the American grapevines. Catawba and 
Concord are marked Labrusca, Norton and Cynthiana belong in the 
class, Aestivalis, Goethe is a Hybrid and Elvira is a Riparia. They are 
easily distinguished by any viticulturist. Now, the Labruscas have a 
tendency to spread their roots near the surface of the ground, are greedy 
feeders, and are, by reason aforesaid, subject to be irritated by the least 
change of our variable weather. The warm days in early spring cause 
the sap to rise and the buds to swell before the normal time, and are, 
therefore, injured by the late frost and by the ravages of the steel blue 
beetle, which feeds on the swelling bud, and has destroyed the prospect 
for a fruit crop before we are aware of it. 

Varieties which are not hardy enough (and I believe every variety, 
even the hardiest) to withstand the severity of our winters, should be 
pruned in fall and laid down on the ground and covered with coarse lit- 
ter, which is to be held down by throwing a few shovels full of ground 
on it, and should not be raised before the latter part of April or early 
May. 

Norton and Cynthiana send their roots deep in the ground, are later 
in appearance in the spring, and consequently healthier and not so much 



416 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

subjected to the ravages of our insect foe. After knowing how to raise 
the best grape, we may then be able to answer the question, " Which is 
our best grape." 

Once I heard a hotel lady making the remark to her husband — the 
hotel keeper : *' now you always object to buying this or that vegetable, 
we must have it. our boarders want it, they like it, and if we want to 
keep on in business, Ave must furnish them with what suits their taste 
and not yours." And right here runs through my memory what the old 
Romans used to say : " De giistibjis non est disputandiim" 

The best grape for market may not be a good grape either for table 
or wine and vice-versa. 

If we want a market grape, we have to study the wants of that 
market where we want to sell, and accordingly raise the grape to suit it. 
A solid perfect bunch of either black, red or white grapes will attract 
the eye, and sells in any market either at home or abroad. It is said 
the Kansas City market prefers the white grape, and those supplying 
that market will find a very good variety in the Empire State, Martha, 
Niagara and Triumph, or Brighton, Catawba and Goethe in red, and 
Concord in dark colors, these are old, tried, standard grapes, either for 
market or table. But the question is, which is our best grape .■* " 

Since the introduction of the Norton into the Missouri vineyards 
( to my recollection about thirty years), when Mr. George Husm.an, 
then of Hermann, Missouri, read his celebrated essay on grapes before 
the Missouri State Horticultural Society, then in its infancy, meeting at 
the city of St. Louis, and urged zealously the planting it at large as the 
best grape for red wine. And every word spoken in its praise at that 
time was not said in vain. The Norton has proved during those many 
years the best of its kind, and should be planted in every garden, on 
every farm, on every spot of land where a family resides. And a bottle 
of Norton Virginia Seedling wine should find its place beside the family 
medicines in every household of the land. Now, if the Norton is the 
best grape for red wine, which is the best for white wine, for market and 
table .'' A grape which combines these three cardinal qualities, is a 
standard variety in our vineyards, though most of us don't know that. 
It produces a large, showy bunch of a rich, desirable, reddish or copper 
color, ripens about mid-season, catches the eye by the first glance in 
market, is a good shipper and a very good table grape ; it brings a high 
price in market either abroad or at home, and, if made into wine, makes 
a white wine, which is not yet excelled by any produced in this country, 
California not excepted. And this grape is ^thc Catawba, " our best 
grape." 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 



INSECTS. 



SOME FRIENDS OF THE FARMER. 



In concluding a recent buHetin from the New Jersey Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Rev. George D. Hulst, entomologist, says: "It may 
also be an advantage to point out some of the friends of the farmer, 
which, consequently, no farmer should destroy or allow to be destroyed. 
Among these are the toads, which are, under all circumstances, the far- 
mer's friend; moles and field mice probably do a vast deal more good 
than harm, all birds, especially robbins, wrens, thrushes, orioles, cuckoos, 
phebes, bluebirds, woodpeckers, swallows and catbirds. The destruction 
of all these and many others, except for scientific purposes, should be made 
under very heavy penalties, illegal in every state. The house-sparrow, 
known better as the English sparrow, is to be rated an exception. 
This bird is now universally regarded as a nuisance — first because of its 
grain and vegetable destroying propensities; secondly, it drives away 
insect-destroying birds." — Prairie Fanner. 

A NEW REMEDY 

against the woolly aphis louse is just given by D. Cramoisy, in 
the Revue Horticoleiox July, 1888. It consists of pyroligneous acid, rec- 
tified to seven or ei^ht degrees, one thousand grams; salicylic acid, two 
II. R. — 27. 



118 MISSUURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



grams; red oxide of mercury, one gram; fuchsine, one quarter of a gram. 
This solution is diluted with thirty parts of water, when the vegetation 
i.s active, but is used pure in the winter. A month or two after the ap- 
plication of this caustic, the old bark of the tree on which the eggs occur 
falls in powder, and the bark becomes smooth, shiny and of a beautiful 
healthy color. 

SPIDERS AND PLANT INSECTS. 

Repulsive as spiders are to most persons, they perform, according 
to Dr. Keller, of Zurich, an important part in the preservation of forests, 
by defending the trees against the depredations of aphides and insects. 
He has examined a great many spiders, both in their viscera and by 
feeding them in captivity, and has found them to be voracious destroyers 
of these pests; and he believes that the spiders in a particular forest do 
more effective work of this kind than all the insect-eating birds that in- 
habit it. He has verified his views by observations on coniferous trees, 
a few broad-leaved trees and apple trees. 

The evidence that spraying with London purple is a preventive of 
curculio injury grows stronger and stronger. Besides the Ohio Experi- 
ment Station results, already noted in the Garden, Forbes, of Illinois, 
and Cook, of Michigan, have both reached the same conclusion from in- 
dependent experiments. The farmer finds that the curculio feeds upon 
the leaves of the plum before the fruit forms, and consequently may 
readily be reached by early poisoning. 

But care must be taken that the London purple solution is not too 
strong. Plums seem to be more susceptible to scorching than apples. 
One pound of poison to lOO gallons of water is all sufficient, and half 
this strength will probably do equally satisfactory work at less risk ot 
injury to foliage. 

THE APPLE CURCULIO. 

Twenty-five years ago Mr. Walsh wrote that he had always found 
these beetles on the crab and hawthorn, and predicted that they might 
sooner or later make injurious attacks upon the apple. That prediction 
has been amply verified in this and other states. Is is about one-fourth 
of an inch long, of a dull, brown or gray color, with four rust-red humps, 
two on each wing cover. It is smaller than the plum curculio, and has 
a longer and more slender beak. It punctures the apple, both for the 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 419 



purpose of feeding and preparing a place of deposit for its egg. The 
punctures, unlike those of the plum curculio, are small, round and rim- 
med with black. It is single brooded, and undergoes its transformations 
within the apple, where the small wrinkled and humped larva works 
around the core, after a time changing to a translucent white pupa. In 
a short time the adult beetle emerges and cuts its way out of the fruit. 
It can be kept in check by jarring the beetles from the tree, in sum- 
mer, upon a sheet and burning them, and by gathering and destroying 
the infested fruit. 

PLUM CURCULIO. 

In Bulletin No. 4, of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Clarence M. Weed, entomologist, reports some elaborate experiments in 
preventing curculio injury to cherries. We have only space for the fol- 
lowing summary and conclusions: 

1st. These experiments were undertaken to learn what effect the 
application of London purple and lime to cherries soon after the fruit 
forms, would have in preventing the injuries of the plum curculio, or, in 
other words, in lessening the number of wormy cherries. 

2nd. For the carrying on of the experiment a half-acre orchard 
of bearing trees was set aside, and a part of it treated, while the rest was 
left as a check. 

3d. London purple was applied in a water spray, mixed in the pro- 
portion of one-half pound to fifty gallons water. 

4th. Lime was applied in a water spray, mixed in the proportion 
of four quarts to fifty gallons, until the leaves were whitened. 

5th. The cherries were critically examined when nearly ripe, and 
the exact number of specimens injured by the curculio recorded. In this 
way 22,500 cherries were individually cut open and recorded. 

6th. From eight trees, sprayed thrice with London purple, 8,000 
cherries were examined, of which 280, or three fifths per cent, were 
wormy, while from seven companion trees not treated 7,500 were exam- 
ined, of which 1,086 or 14.5 per cent were wormy. This represents a 
saving of 1 1-14 or 75.8 per cent of the fruit liable to injury. 

7th. From two trees, sprayed four times with London purple, 2,000 
cherries were examined, of which sixty-nine or 3.45 per cent were wormy. 

8th. Two quarts of cherries from each of these lots were chemically 
examined at the time of ripening, by Prof. H. A. Weber, and showed no 
trace of arsenic in any form. 



430 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

9th. Five trees, sprayed four times with lime, yielded 465 wormy 
cherries out of 5000 examined, while five check trees yielded 778 wormy 
cherries, from 5000 examined. The percentage of the former was 9.3, 
while that of the latter was 15.6, which gives a perceiitage of benefit 
from the treatment of 40.3. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

These experiments seem to show so far as the results of a single 
season's work with a single variety of cherry can be relied upon : 

1st. That three-fourths of the cherries liable to injury by the plum 
curculio can be saved by two or three applications of London purple in 
a water spray (in the proportion one ounce to five gallons of water) made 
soon after the blossoms fall. 

2nd. That if an interval of a month occurs between the last appli- 
cation and the ripening of the fruit, no danger to health need be appre- 
hended from its use As a precautionary measure, however, I would 
advise in all cases, and especially when there are few rains during this 
interval, that the fruit be thoroughly washed before it is used. 

3d. That lime is not so certain in its preventive effect as London 
purple, saving in these experiments only forty per cent, of the fruit 
liable to injury. 

FOR INSECT ENEMIES. 

Very seasonable is this brief but comprehensive enumeration of 
remedies for injurious insects, and the like: Tobacco smoke kills the 
green f\y; water, the red spider; jarring the curculio; Paris-green and 
water, the codling moth; water, soap and carbolic acid, the bark louse; 
white hellebore, the currant and gooseberry worm; spraying with Paris- 
green and water, the canker worm; wire cloth tied around the base of the 
tree prevents borers; tobacco water kills plant lice; slug shot will keep 
off the turnip fly, cabbage worm and other garden pests; the strawberry 
leaf rollers must be picked off, or a new planting made; the tent cater- 
piller, by cutting off the leaves and branches and burning; cutting off all 
the infected limbs for blight, and knot; sulphur is good for mildew\ — 
Prairie Farmer. 

FIGHTING APPLE-BORERS. 

We again urge upon our readers the desirability or fighting apple- 
borers especially on young trees, and present below the recommenda- 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 431 



tions of Professor S A. Forbes, as to the two principal methods of doing 
this: 

1. Preventing the Laying of Eggs. — This is best accom- 
plished by washing the trunk and larger branches of the tree two or 
three times in summer with a strong solution of soft soap to which has 
been added a little crude carbolic acid. The soil should be evenly 
smoothed down about the base of the tree so that the mixture may reach 
the lower portion of the trunk where the round-headed borer is so apt 
to lay its eggs. Washing soda added to the soft soap until the whole is of 
the consistency of thick paint is also thought to make an excellent wash 
for repelling the beetles. In Central and Southern Illinois the first ap- 
plication should be made about the middle of May, and succeeding ap- 
plications at intervals of about three weeks. 

2. Destroying Eggs and Larv^. — This should be done in Au- 
gust, September and October. By a careful examination of the trees 
during this time the eggs and young larvae may be detected, and 
by the judicious use of a knife they may easily be killed. If the ground 
is smoothed off about the young trees early in the season, the insects in 
the lower part of the trunk are more readily reached; or an excellent 
way is to compel the beetles to lay their eggs where they can be easily 
reached, by mounding the bases of the trees, either with sand, which is 
best as it does not crack open and allow the beetle to deposit below the 
surface, or with ordinary soil. According to Hon. J. W. Robison, for 
many years a successful orchardist in Central Illinois, one man can usu- 
ally examine and kill all borers in five hundred or more trees per day. — 
Prairie Farmer. 



ORNAIVIENTALS. 



WHAT IS SAID OF THEM IN MYTHOLOGICAL STORY. 



THE TREE OF LIFE — THE NORSE WORLD TREE — THE FAMOUS SOMA 
TREE — INDIAN LEGENDS — A CLASSICAL TALE- 
GROVES OF THE GODS — DRUIDS. 



The tree figures in the earHest cosmogonies. In the Garden of 
Eden stood the tree of life, whose fruit would have bestowed perpetual 
youth upon the first pair, and near it was the tree of knowledge, fatal to 
them and to the destiny of man. According to a mediaeval legend, the 
former was transplanted to Abraham's garden, a thousand years after 
the fall of man, and an angel came down to tell him that upon it the 
Redeemer would be sacrified after having descended from it. A Scotch 
tradition assigns to the apple tree the honor of being the tree of knowl- 
edge. 

In Norse cosmogony, the tree plays a still more important part. It is 
here the world tree — Yggdrasil — whose foliage is the clouds, the stars its 
fruit and the sea its bed. At its foot bubbles the fountain of life, and 
from its branches fire was brought to man. Under it sit the three Nornes 
who weave the events of man's life. Its roots extend into the highest 
heaven and into the deepest hell. This tree was an ash, and another 
legend says Odin created Adam, from the ash and Eve from the elm- 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 423 



Like this is the famous Soma tree, which stands on an island in the 
middle of a lake, guarded by fish. From it is distilled the soma or 
amita, the drink of immortality. Near it stands another tree, called the 
inviolate, bearing the seeds of all plants and flowers. In its branches 
are perched the eagles. When one rises a thousand branches break off, 
scattering the seed over the earth. 

Like the Norse world tree, the intelligent oak of Dodona had its 
roots in deepest hell, and a fountain at its foot gave forth the oracular 
sayings of Jupiter. This evergreen oak spoke its thoughts, even when 
cut down, for of it was the intelligent prow of the Argos made. 

The "tree of life" was not merely a figure of speech in ancient be- 
belief. Many Greek and Persian families claim descent from trees. Cad- 
mus sprang from a tree, the Achamenidae claimed a similiar descent, and 
even Mars, according to one legend, was the offspring of a tree. Pliny 
says there stood before the temple of Quirinus, at Rome, two myrtle 
trees — one the patrician, the other the plebeian — and that, as these or- 
ders of society grew or diminished in importance, its tree flourished or 
pined. 

Among savage tribes the tree is often a god. The Ojibways thought 
certain trees were deities, and made offerings to them. The Dacotahs 
worshipped many trees, especially medicine wood. Carolina Indians 
venerated the Youpon, or wild fig tree; the Maj^as recognized a divinity 
in trees; the Tepanecs worshipped them, and Darwin saw a tribe which 
venerated a tree, the home of a deity called VVallechu. They poured 
libations through a hole bored in it, and around it were the bones of 
horses that had been sacrificed. Indian tribes generally worshipped 
trees, and some thought that they sprang from them. Darien tribes 
descended from trees, and some of the Aztecs claimed their origin from 
two trees in a wooded gorge. 

As the tree was the origin of life, it was also thought the home of 
souls after life was ended. P^mpcdocles says souls of the highest virtue 
passed into trees. The old classical tale of Philemon and Baucis 
assigned them a final home in trees as a reward for charity shown to 
Zeus. Another tradition says the penitent Myrrha became a tree, and 
the drops which fall from the bark (myrrh) are her tears. Dante 
traversed a leafless wood, in the bark of every tree of which was impris- 
oned a suicide, and he spoke to Pietrodelle Vigne. The Greek Dryads 
were fabled to have tluir abodes in trees. Ojibway Indians thought 
trees possessed souls, and never cut them, some fearing to pain them. 
In many places in Germany trees are thought to be the first abodes of 
infants, 



424 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Tlic tree of knowledge occurs in popular lore. In north Germany, 
when the ma.ster dies, some one must go into the garden and stand un- 
der a tree and say: "Master is dead," for, if the tree is not informed, 
there will be another death. An Ojibway tale represents a tree as whis- 
pering a tale of love to a certain maiden who dedicates herself to it, dies, 
and is often seen wandering in the forest. According to a Maori myth, 
heaven and earth were once joined in an embrace so close that their 
children had no place to dwell. But Tanemahuta, father of trees, pushed 
them asunder with his branches. These ideas concerning the divinity of 
trees led to their worship in primitive times. 

In the deepest groves abide the gods. Primitive nations inhabited 
the forest, and the tree was their first shelter. The center of the early 
Greek as well as ot the Teutonic dwelling was a tree, around which 
spread the house. Groves were the first temples, and the Gothic church 
is but a grove turned into stone. In old German dialects, temple and 
grove are the same word. Tree worship was the foundation of Ger- 
manic and Celtic religion. Down to the introduction of Christianity in 
the north, the deities were worshipped in sacred groves, and on the 
boughs of the trees hung the heads of sacrificed animals. As late as the 
eleventh century trees were worshipped in many places. The Druids as 
is well known, worshipped and sacrificed in groves, and the oak was a 
sacred tree to them. — F. F. B as sett in Globe-Democrat. 

Dispense with walks and drives, except when they are required for 
the daily comfort of your family. Eschew rustic ornaments, unless of 
the most substantial and unshowy character and in shadozvy locations. 
Avoid spotting your lawn wnth garish carpentry, or plaster or marble 
images of any kind, or those caricatures on nature and art, called rock- 
work, and, finally, by the exquisite keeping of what you have, endeavor 
to create an atmosphere of refinement about your place. — Frank J. 
Scott. 

FLOWER LAWN. 

Now, turn to the flower lawn. Every land owner should have one; 
not a few beds stuck about in the grass for his wife and daughters to get 
misery out of, with a few flowers as part compensation. Find the neat- 
est plot, the prettiest for shrubs and the nicest for seats and walks. Place 
a driveway around it, or hedge it in with evergreens, and devote it to 
shrubs and flowers. Cut beds and make them large, and do not begrudge 
manure of the best. Five or six beds will be enough to begin with, add 
more when needed. Send for roses, gladiolus, geraniums, and plants 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 425 



easily cared foi. In a warm nook, facing southeast, have a good cold- 
frame or hot bed built, and then help your " folks" to keep the whole in 
prime order. A few rustic chairs and hammocks, and you can begin to 
have a home. Eating and raising things to eat and constitute the life of 
too many farmers. — Popular Gardening. 



FLOWERS. 



KEEPING FLOWERS FRESH. 



When cut flowers begin to wilt, they may often be revived by cut- 
tmg off about an inch of the stems and placing the freshly cut end in 
hot water. The colored flowers will generally revive almost instantly, 
and look quite natural, but the white ones will turn yellow. The larger 
and more succulent will yield to this treatment most readily. Placing 
powdered charcoal in the bottom of a vase, then adding water before 
inserting the flowers, will keep them much better and absorb all the in- 
jurious or objectionable gases. They may be kept fresh much longer by 
covering with a glass or something to prevent evaporation from their 
leaves and petals. Hot air hastens their death by taking away their 
moisture. 

PACKING CUT FLOWERS. 

The packing of the choicest and most delicate kinds of cut flowers 
by amateurs and gardeners not used to that branch, is a question of im- 
portance, as, in many instances, they arrive at their destination almost 
useless, often causing serious inconveniences and disappointment to the 
receiver. All who grow for market, understand the easiest and best 



426 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



methods of packing. As we have had some little experience of market 
system, we will give our readers a brief outline how it is carried out. In 
the first place, many of the florists' flowers arc done up in bunches of 12 
sprays in a bunch ; the scarlet, white, antl pink Geraniums should have 
the centre of each bloom, gone over with a gum brush can, or it can be 
done with small stick ; the double varieties do not need it. In making 
up the bunches, cut the stems a good length, tie the ends tightly with 
matting, and just above the tie, put in a good piece of cotton wool to 
keep the trusses well apart ; the same rule applies to Azalea, Bouvardia, 
Pelargonium, &c. A box about six inches deep is the best ; the light- 
made French boxes are principally used by West-end florists. In pack- 
ing bunches, lay them on a sheet of wadding, with a piece between each 
bunch, packing them close, without crushing. Should there not be 
enough to fill the box, the space left must be filled up with some loose 
paper or wadding, so as to make the whole firm ; another layer of tissue 
paper and wool if necessary, so that the cover does not press too tight- 
ly. They will thus travel without the least injury. Other larger and choice 
blooms, such as Orchids, Eucharis, Camellias. Lilies, and large specimens 
of Chrysanthemums, should be packed in layers on cotton wool, in shallow 
boxes, only putting one row, as closely as possible. In the case of Ca- 
mellias, they might overlap a little, with a piece of wool between each ; 
if sending a quantity, about six small boxes can be tied together, as they 
then go as one parcel for rail. Other hardy kinds of flowers, such as 
Asters, Chrysanthemums, of the small kinds, Sweet Peas, Marguerites, 
Sunflowers, Sultans, Zinnias, &c., can be packed in baskets or boxes, in 
about three layers. All out-door flowers should be gathered when dry, 
if possible ; it is a good plan to damp or dip the stems in water before 
packing. 

CHRYSANTHEMUMS. 

There are so many varieties now that the trouble is not to get good 
ones, but to pick out the " best " of these good ones. Those mentioned 
below are all distinct early varieties and will be found well worth grow- 
ing : Elaine, pure white ; Venus, light lilac ; Golden Beverly, bright 
yellow ; Timbal d' Argent, white, anemone flowered ; Juvena, dark 
maroon ; Mad. Andiguier, clear pink, very fine ; Roseum, bright rose ; 
Souce d' Or, deep yellow ; Lakme, light bronze ; Golden Dragon, 
Japanese yellow ; Snowstorm, pale lemon changing to pure white ; 
Red Dragon, dark red ; Nympha^a, pure white, sweet scented. Those 
who wish a larger number of varieties can easily obtain them at any 
good floral establishment. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 427 



JUDGING DESIGNS. 

In selecting a judge of floral designs it is not always safe to infer 
that because a gentleman is a good judge of plants he will do equally- 
well with designs. He may know that the plant is true to name and 
color and free from disease, well grown, etc., but he has lived such a 
wholly practical life, giving all of his time to the growing of plants, that 
he has not cultivated his taste for the beautiful, or devoted much thought 
to the artistic side of our business. This is by no means always the case, 
as there are a great many growers that could teach the dealer how to 
arrange flowers. 

In any case it is important to select gentlemen of refined taste and 
those that can decide between the work of a carpenter and an artist. 
To avoid these mistakes let us decide upon the best points to be consid- 
ered ; for instance, the harmonious arrangement of colors ; the graceful 
arrangement of flowers ; the quality of flowers ; the general effect of the 
design, and, possibly, the practicability of the same ; that is, how far 
would it be useful in our business. This point, I think, would generally 
be entitled to ten, but when we find a florist who attempts to perpetrate 
a monstrosity on a confiding public and expect them to look upon it as 
a work of art, the judges instead of allowing him ten points, which 
should be the standard for all, they would allow say two or possibly zero. 
If the judges see anything in the arrangement of color that they think 
could be improved upon, allow eight, six or whatever they may think 
just. Often the general effect will be good, but on critical examination 
the quality is hardly up to the mark and vice versa ; mark the different 
points accordingly. In this way not only the florist will have some- 
thing to work for, but the judges will have the same advantages in de- 
ciding on the merits of the designs. — American Florist. 



42fl MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



FLOWERS. 



SIGNS OF THE SEASON. 

I broke a spray of willow by the brook, 
When out a jet of sprightly talk it shook: 
"Ho! ho! I'll kiss with blossoms silver-sleek 
That sun-and-wind-browncd cheek !" 

I found an oakling and plucked off his cap, 
When up he sprang from his old nurse's lap: 
"Good-morrow and good-morrow, friend, to you; 
I'm for the sky — adieu !" 

I peered into so many smiling eyes, 
They met my own with glances blithe and wise; 
"You need not look o'erhead — we violets show 
A little heaven below ! " 

I stood beside a shallow meadow pool, 
I watched the fairy shrimps — a twinkling school: 
"We children of the sun and moistened clod 
Come at spring's beck and nod!" 

I started wide awake, and looked about; 
I heard a flicker from his watch-tower shot — 
And "quick-quick, quick-quick, quick-quick, 
quick-quick — quick !" 
His rousing notes fell thick!" ■ 

I saw a musk-rat high floods could not drown. 
Now smoothly swimming through the water brown: 
"I'll build me summer galleries cool and dank 
Beneath the grassy bank!" 

I turned the turf, when out an earthworm rolled, 
Uplifting some loose grains of mellowing mold: 
"I must make haste to stir and break the soil, 
To help good farmers' toil!" 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 429 



I saw a spider stretch her gossamer ropes; 
She told me of her secret plans and hopes: 
"I catch the midge, and tangle in my claws 
Sunbeams and rainbow hues!" 

\ heard a honey-bee that, hovering low 
Above the grass, sang songs of long ago: 
"New year, new flowers, new sweets, new joys — and yet 
The old I'll not forget." — Wide Awake. 



"COME, LET US PLANT THE APPLE TREE." 



BRYANT, 



What plant we in this apple-tree ? 
Buds, which the breath of summer days 
Shall lengthen into leafy sprays ; 
Boughs where the thrush, with crimson breast, 
Shall haunt, and sing, and hide her nest ; 

We plant upon the sunny lea 
A shadow for the noon-tide hours, 
A shelter from the summer shower, 

When we plant the apple-tree. 

What plant we in this apple-tree .-' 
Sweets for a hundred flowery springs 
To load the May wind's restless wings, 
When from the orchard row he pours 
Its fragrance through our open doors ; 

A world of blossoms for the bee, 
Flowers for the sick girl's silent room, 
For the glad infant sprigs of bloom. 

We plant with the apple-tree. 



430 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

What plant we in this applc-trcc ? 
Fruits that shall swell in sunny June 
And redden in the August noon, 
And drop when gentle air comes by 
That fan the blue September sky. 

While children come with shouts of'glee, 
And seek them where the fragrant grass 
Betrays their bed to those who pass 

At the foot of the apple-tree. 

Each year shall give this apple-tree 
A broader flush of roseate bloom, 
A deeper maze of verdurous gloom 
And loosen when the frost-clouds lower. 
The crisp brown leaves in thicker shower ; 

The years shall come, and pass, but we 
Shall hear no longer where we lie 
The summer's song, the autumn's sigh. 

In the boughs of the apple-tree. 



A CURBSTONE SCENE. 



In the shade of a tree, by the street of the city. 

Lay a tired little boy, with the turf for his bed, 
In rags, but no beggar appealing to pity, 

A child of the lowly who toiled for his bread. 
Beside him a handcart stood loaded with fuel, 

Bits of board he had gleaned in the lanes where he crept. 
Till the wheels o'er the pavement dragged heavy and cruel. 

And spent with the strain of his burden, he slept. 

Will any one care, as the many pass nigh him .■* 

A thread-bare, wood-sawyer, bent, wrinkled and old, 
Caught sight of the sleeper, came near and stood by him. 

And read in the picture the story it told. 
Hungry face, scanty raiment, with barely a button, 

Hatless head, naked feet, fretted sore on the stone — 
He fished out a morsel of dry bread and mutton. 

And left him the dinner he'd brought for his own. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 431 



There were eyes bright and merry, eyes tearful and tender, 

On the watch ere the old man had tiptoed away, 
And some, in that meek loan of love and its lender, 

Saw the angel that stooped where the little boy lay. 
And the soul of the child, through the tatters that wound him, 

Drew the souls of the clad and the fed to his side ; 
Young and old brought their blessings to scatter around him, 

And crumbs from the table of God to divide. 

A boy and a man dropped a dime and a dollar, 

Women opened their purses by ones and by twos, 
Willing hands from the mansions, both greater and smaller, 

Brought a jacket, a hat, and a stout pair of shoes. 
All stealthy and silent, with gentle conniving. 

They laid down their gifts with the wood-sawyer's crust. 
And lingered to see, at the sleeper's reviving. 

His bashful thanksgiving smile up from the dust. 

Soon the little boy woke. Was it bounty or plunder 

Spread out at his feet .-' Then a laugh in his ears 
Turned his face where a glance gave the key to the wonder 

And he clasped his new riches with blushes and tears. 
And his helpers had joy that was tender and holy 

When they looked then and after, full many a day, 
Down the street where the toil-ridden child of the lowly 

With his cart and his treasures had trotted away. 

O, hearts that are human are human forever ! 

You may close them in caste, but they beat through the wall. 
Wealth and want own a kinship no breeding can sever. 

And in sorrow the lowest are brothers of all. 
Bound love needs the magic of pity to free it ; 

Men only are selfish because they are blind ; • 

When the poor help the poor, if the whole world could see it, 

The haughty would blush, and the cruel grow kind. 

— TliERON Brown, in Youth's Companion. 



482 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



A PUBLIC SCHOOL IDYL. 



Ram it in, cram it in, 

Children's heads are hollow; 
Slam it in, Jam it in, 

Still there's more to follow — 
Hygiene and history, 
Astronomic mystery, 
Algebra, histology, 
Latin, etymology, 
Botany, geometry, 
Greek and trigenometry — 
Ram it in, cram it in, 

Children's heads are hollow. 

Rap it in, tap it in — 

What are teachers paid for .-' 
Bang it in, slam it in, 

What are children made for ? 
Ancient archaeology, 
Arian philology. 
Prosody, zoology. 
Physics, clinictology. 
Calculus and mathematics. 
Rhetoric and hydrostatics — 
Hoax it in, coax it in. 

Children's heads are hollow, 

Rub it in, club it in. 

All there is of learning: 
Punch it in, crunch it in. 

Quench their childish yearning 
For the field and grassy nook. 
Meadow green and rippling brook; 
Drive such wicked thoughts afar, 
Teach the children that they are 
But machines to cram it in, 
Bang it in, slam it in — 

That their heads are hollow. 



WHAT OTPIERS SAY. 433 



Scold it in, mold it in, 

All that they can swallow; 
Fold it in, hold it in. 

Still there's more to follow. 
Faces pinched, sad and pale, 
Tell the same undying tale — 
Tell of moments robbed from sleep, 
Meals untasted. studies deep. 
Those who've passed the furnace through, 
With aching brow, will tell you 
How the teacher crammed it in, 
Rammed it in, jammed it in. 
Crunched it in, punched it in, 
Rubbed it in, clubbed it in, 
Pressed it in, caressed it in, 
Rapped it in, and slapped it in. 
When their heads were hollow. — Puck. 



EVAPORATING. 



HOW TO SULPHUR FRUIT. 



Concerning the best methods for drying fruit by the sulphuring pro- 
cess, the following information, said by the California Fruit Groiver 
to have been derived from successful experience, is of interest. 

The sulphuring box or closet must be tight jointed all around, with 
the door well battened at the sides, top and bottom, the only opening 
being a vent hole about six inches in diameter in the center of the roof. 
Without the vent there is no current of air, and consequently no even 
distribution of the sulphur fumes, A slide to regulate the draft should 

H. R. — 2^. 



434 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



be set in the vent hole. The width and depth of the sulphuring box 
should be adapted to the size of the trays in use in the drying field. 
For height, eight feet is as great as can be worked conveniently. 

Burn the sulphur outside the box in a charcoal stove, such as is 
used for heating flat-irons, covering the top of the stove with a sheet - 
iron hood tapering to about four inches in diameter, where a pipe of four 
feet in length can be slipped on and off This pipe should lead into the 
bottom of the sulphur box at the center, where the fumes will be deliv- 
ered at the proper temperature to save scorching the lower trays of 
fruit. The hood should have a door to take the sulphur pan in and out. 
To insure a good draft from the stove through the sulphur box, the stove 
should be set below the level of the box, and if the pipe trends upward 
the draft will be increased proportionally. 

For sulphuring, the fruit contained in a box 8 feet high by 3^ feet 
square, two heaping tablespoonsful of powdered sulphur sprinkled upon 
a live coal and burned on a pan set in the stove, with lower draft open 
and hood door closed, is sufficient. Good results have been obtained 
from burning a mixture of two-thirds powdered sulphur, and one-third 
powdered charcoal. From twenty to thirty minutes is as long as 
fruit should remain exposed to the sulphur fumes to avoid deposit of me- 
tallic sulphur, and yet produce a bleaching effect. Practice will train the 
eye to this, keeping in mind that the greener the fruit, the longer the 
exposure that is necessary. 

Where large drying operations are in progress, a row of three sul- 
phuring boxes can be served from one stove, operating them successively 
and having pipes made with sheet-iron caps to cutoff the communication 
with all but the one box which is being sulphured. Caps are better than 
dampers, as they entirely cut off the connections, although involving the 
slight trouble of unjointing the pipe to put the caps on. 

Sulphuring preserves for a long time the bright, rich color of apricots 
and peaches, and the whiteness of apples and pears, and when practiced 
as above described not only imparts no bad flavor to the fruit, but ac- 
tually enhances it by preventing fermentation; on the other hand, over- 
sulphured fruit, however beautiful, retains the sulphur taste to an of- 
fensive degree, proportioned to the extent of the over-sulphuring. — Pop- 
ular Gardening. 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 435 



RECIPES. 



f 
HOW TO USE ARSENICAL POISONS ON ARPLE TREES. 



Editor Rural World: 

I have had to answer so many inquiries as to the solution of arsenic 
to spray apples trees, that I want to use a small space in your paper to 
tell all fruit-growers that it is easy to make a solution of the white ar- 
senic. Don't use more than two and one-half ounces to lOO gallons 
water, and one-half a can of Lewis' lye is sufficient to make a per'"ect 
solution. Better dissolve the lye in a small tub of water, then add the 
arsenic and stir it for a few minutes and it will dissolve perfectly. This 
is reliable and will not burn the foliage. Be very careful that you have 
no trash in the water as it will clog the valve of the pump. Spray during 
a calm, for if there is much wind it will be impossible to reach all parts 
of the tree, and it would be better to do it during clear weather, for 
should it rain immediately after spraying, it would wash all the poison off. 
Be sure and put the poison label (skull and cross bones) on your barrel, 
and put your arsenic where there will be no danger to your family. Re- 
member while you are handling it, you are handling a deadly poison, 
and with this be 'ore your eyes there should be no danger of mistakes. 

A. GOSLIN. 
Holt County, Mo. 

I give the following recipe to keep rabbits, borers, sheep and mice 
from killing trees : Four pounds of sulphur, peck of lime slacked with 
hot water, old soap-suds, and tobacco, (boiled). While hot add one 
gallon gas-tar and one-half gallon of crude carbolic acid. Stir well. 
For summer wash, leave gas-tar out and add in place of it one gallon of 
soft soap, and for old trees with rough bark on. use the water or soap- 
suds to slack the lime with Make the wash the thickness you would 
to wash house or fencing. To keep rabbits from girdling, wash in late 
fall or about the time of frost, and as high as rabbits can reach. For 



483 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL S(JC1ETY. 

summer, wash the List of May or June. If the miller has laid the egg, 
which produces the borer, this wash is death to the egg, and millers will 
not deposit their eggs in a tree thus washed with the wash described. 
Wash the trunk, branches and limbs as far as the rough bark goes. A 
man can wash from 200 to 300 trees a day, with a forty-cent flat paint 
brush. I would not do without this wash for one hundred dollars a 
year. 

• JACOB FAITH. 

FOR BORERS AND RABI5ITS,« 

Pure pine tar i gallon 

Strong soft soap i pound 

Boiled linseed oil i quart 

Tobacco cut up fine I pounds 

Strong sifted ashes i quart 

Pulverized rosin i pound 



SMALL FRUITS. 



Jl^. bruit Grozvers' Journal: 

In a recent number of your most excellent paper I find the obser- 
vations of J. B. Miller on some of the new varieties of strawberries. 
Now for the purpose of contrasting the behavior of some of the same 
varieties in my locality: My soil, I presume, is entirely different 
from his ; my soil is red or mulatto as it is termed by some, well under- 
drained with fhnt and lime stone rock. The Belmont, which he calls 
perfection, is here a good, strong growing plant, no rust or sun scald, 
yields hardly half a crop, of all imaginable shapes from an inch long 
and round to fanshaped seven or eight inches from point to point and 
about one and a half inches across the center. I shall discard it entirely. 
Jewell and Parry quite productive and handsome, too soft to ship, quality 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 437 



only fair, Jewell makes too few plants ; Parry rusts badly some seasons, 
therefore not reliable. Crimson Cluster the best table berry I have, 
not very productive, cannot stand our hot, dry weather. Bubach has 
shown itself the best plant I have, no rust, begins to ripen ten days 
before Belmont, very large, very productive, quality only fair. I think 
it will be a good shipper if I can only prevent it from growing too large. 
The Mammoth fruited with me from fall set potted plants, a very fair 
crop, berries large enough, of good quality, beautiful color, plant not so 
good as the Bubach, a staminate. I hear some one ask have you got the 
much praised Jessie .'' Yes, I have and I think it should bear the name 
of Jewell in place of the plant that does. With one year's trial I think 
more of it than any berry I have ever fruited. I think it far ahead of 
the Crescent in every respect, and time will prove it. I will test it with 
Sucker State, Mr. Miller's favorite berry, next season. I have Sucker 
State plants set the first of last April. They are immense. My exper- 
ience in berry growing is i6 years at Kansas City. I am no originator 
and have come to the same conclusion as Mr. Miller, to buy no more 
high priced plants, and would say to him if he has some promising 
seedlings that are quite early and as good as I suppose the Sucker 
State to be, and he will do to others as he says he wants others to do 
to him, he can send one dozen each of his two seedlings to me if they 
are not both pistilate, and I will give them a fair trial under such re.stric- 
tions as he may dictate. I refer you to President Evans and Secretary 
Goodman, of Missouri State Horticultural Society. 

• W. M. HOPKINS. 
751 East Elm Street, Springfield, Mo. 



438 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



ORCHARDS. 



COMMERCIAL APPLE. 



Apples of greatest commercial value: 

Summer — Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Maiden Blush. 

Fall — Summer Pennock, Rambo, Grimes Pippin. 

Winter — Ben Davis, Winesap, Johnathan, York Imperial. 

Distance apart to plant apple orchard twenty-five to thirty feet, 
owing to lay and quality of land and varieties. 

Proper height for top to form, three to four feet. Reasons why: 
Trees will last longer, won't break near so bad; will not sun scald or 
bark burst so bad as if higher, fruit will be much easier picked. I meas- 
ured a number of our Ben Davis planted sixteen years ago; found them 
from three to five feet. Soundest and best trees are the three feet 
trunks; worst are five feet trunks. I place myself on record in favor 
of the top at three to four feet high. — N. F. Murray. 



SELECT PEARS. 

A correspondent wishes to set out a small pear garden, and asks 
for a select list of a few for a succession, more particularly of such varie- 
ties as are uniformly good and can be depended on every year. In an- 
swer we name as earliest the small Summer Doyenne, a good grower 
and great bearer, but not cf the highest quality, its merits being its ear- 
liness, ripening with the wheat harvest. If the crop is thinned early 
in the season, the pears will be larger, handsomer and better in quality. 
One or two trees will be enough. Next to this is Gifford, an excellent 
pear, but the tree being a slender and crooked grower, it is but little 
raised by nurserymen. It should be worked standard height on some 



WHAT OTHERS SA^ . 439 



straight and vigorous stock. Then follows the Tyson, slow in coming 
into bearing, and afterwards bearing too heavily and requiring thinning. 
Clapp's Favorite ripens between Tyson and Bartlett, a good-sized, hand- 
some pear, hardly first quality, and being liable to rot at the core, should 
be gathered a week before softening. This quality is probably the chief 
reason that it has rather declined in popularity of late years for market. 
The Bartlett, the most popular of all pears, immediately follows, and ri- 
pens at the North early in September, and is always good and never rots 
at the core. Then comes the well known Seckel, the handsome and 
vigorous Boussock, the valuable and productive Howell, the delicious 
Sheldon (when well grown), unexcelled Bosc the uniformerly excellent 
Anjou, the reliable Lawrence, and the Josephine de Malines, which ri- 
peds at midwinter. The season of the later ones will vary in ripening 
a month or two, with the mode of keeping. For dwarfs the Louise and 
the Angouleme will not be omitted. — Country Gent. 



COMMERCIAL ORCHARDS. 



The subject of " Commercial Fruit Growing" was discussed at some 
length by F. R. Palmer, at the Troy, Ohio, meeting, a practical horti- 
culturist of Mansfield. Among the more important points elicited by 
this discussion were the following : Where the soil and location are 
favorable, and where a good market can be conveniently reached, the 
growing of choice fruit for market is a paying industry, but the measure 
of success attained will depend upon the practical knowledge and skill of 
the operator. He must not only be able to make a judicious selection 
of varieties adapted to his soil and climate and to the markets for which 
they are grown, but he must understand and practice the proper modes 
of culture, and also of gathering and marketing the fruit. 

A majority of the failures in fruit growing are made by farmers 
who try to farm extensively at the same time. The time and attention 
that should be given to the fruit is put upon the farm crops, and the 
fruit fails through lack of care. Not one farmer in fifty knows how to 
grow and market fruit '^o as to get the most money out of it. Success- 



440 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ful fruit growing requires more scientific knowledge, reducible to prac- 
tice, as well as more skill in the performance of the work required, than 
is necessary for the same measure of success in the growing of ordinary 
farmcrops. It is blind folly to think of success in commercial fruit 
growing by mere guess-work and blundering in the dark ; it is a useless 
waste ot time and labor. 

An apple orchard, for commercial purposes, should comprise but 
few varieties, and they should be such as are known to be hardy, pro- 
ductive, and adapted to the soil and locality of the grower. The fruit 
should be of good size, handsome appearance, of good keeping qualities, 
and firm enough to ship well. Apples, when gathered, should be handled 
as carefully as eggs. Apples for shipping, should be gathered earlier 
than is customary with most growers. They will not only ship better 
but keep better. When gathered and left in the orchard until barreled, 
they should be piled on clean wheat straw, and covered with corn fodder, 
to protect them from sunshine and to carry off the rain. Never cover 
with straw; the chaff falls down among the apples, sticks to them, and 
greatly injures their appearance. 

To make a success of peach growing, one should select elevated 
sites, and warm, sandy soils, or localities near large bodies of water. In 
most situations a peach orchard should be well cultivated. Keep down 
all weeds and grass, in order to repel the borer, so destructive to peach 
trees. Wash the trunk of the tree with strong suds made of soap and 
carbolic acid, and scatter wood or coal ashes around the roots of the 
tree. 



BIRDS. 



THE SPARROW TEST. 



The pest of the English sparrow is in very deed becoming intolera- 
ble. Multiplying in numbers two or three times a year, they cover a fresh 
area of territory of fully 500,000 square miles every year, they are rap- 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 441 



idly becoming as. great a pest in America as the rabbits are in Australia. 
It is by their vast numbers and their capacity for devouring pretty much 
every thing which they ought not to touch, they become so formidable. 
The United States Department of Agriculture in answer to an inquiry 
to that end, recommends the following method of poisoning them as the 
most effective yet employed: 

Dissolve arseniate of soda in warm water, at the rate of an ounce to 
a pint; pour this upon as much wheat as it will cover (in a vessel which 
can be) closed so as to prevent evaporation, and allow it to soak at least 
twenty-four hours. Dry the wheat so prepared and it is ready for use. 
Three kernels of this will kill. Winter is the best time for operations, 
other birds are then absent and sparrows are hungry, alighting in flocks 
in the streets after passing teams and along railroad tracks, where grain 
is scattered from wagons and cars. Here poisoned wheat may be ad- 
ministered with wholesale destruction to them and little danger of harm 
to anything else. If an occasional pigeon or chicken that has no busi- 
ness abroad should suffer, it is comparatively of little consequence. If 
the great evil is to be abated at all, it must only be required that it be 
done with the least practicable injury and inconvenience. 



GRAPES. 



THE WORDEN GRAPE. 



Eds. Country Gentleman: 

In fruits, vegetables, grains and animal products both producer and 
consumer seem to unite in demanding varieties that combine size beauty, 
hardiness and productiveness with reasonably good quality. In other 
words the varieties that have been the most successful, commercially, 
in the past, have been those that would produce largely under the ordi- 
nary care of average intelligence and environment, and that had good 



4t3 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



enough quality to induce free purchase at a fair price. Sometimes, 
even when the quaHty is not strictly ideal, size, beauty, abundance and 
consequent cheapness combine to make a given variety the favorite, 
both with producer and consumer. •* A beet that will grow is better 
than a cedar of Lebanon that won't grow ! " 

There seems to be, some way, a preconceived notion that product- 
iveness and high quality never go together, and so productiveness in any 
new variety seems to prejudice many at the first against its quality. 
For example, I can distinctly remember when the Peachblow, and later, 
the Rose potato, the Baldwin, Ben Davis, Rome Beauty and King apple, 
the Fultz and Clawson wheat, the Wilson strawberry and the Concord 
grape were each pronounced by connoiseurs to be coarse in quality and 
unfit for general use. But they would produce, and gradually consum- 
ers, even the critical, found that they were really of good, palatable and 
inviting quality, and so these and a few other more recent varieties 
have come to be the chief commercial ones of their kind in their season. 
For example, I think it not an over estimate to say that for the last 
fifteen years more pounds of the Concord grape (or of the Concord type) 
have been sold in the markets of the United States than of all other 
kinds put together, aside from foreign and California grapes. 

The Worden, however, is the grape on which I am most inclined to 
grow enthusiastic. I believe it and the Concord are to be the grapes 
for the million in this latitude, and that the Worden is to lead when it 
becomes as well known as the Concord. The berries are larger, the 
clusters heavier and as compact, the color and bloom fully equal, while 
the vines seem just about as hardy and productive. But the grape itself 
seems to me sweeter, richer and more delicate in flavor — indeed, better 
every way as a table grape than the Concord ; and it is at least a full 
week earlier, and hangs as well on the vines. Almost its only defect is 
one that I notice this year for the first time to any marked extent, and 
which I mention in these columns so as to inquire whether it is really a 
fault of the grape or only of this particular season. It is this, that 
when fully ripe, or a little past ripe, the stems, though tough and strong 
where they join the vines, are brittle further out, so that the clusters are 
liable to break into sections if jarred in picking or handling. The 
grapes themselves do not break off singly ; the branches and even the 
main stem break, each part retaining its grapes. I^ave others in other 
localities and latitudes noticed this fault ? 

I should be glad also of reports and opinions as to the hardiness, 
productiveness, flavor, size and market chances and qualities as com- 
pared with the Concord. It seems to me that here, as soon as it is well 



WHAT OTHERS SAY 443 



known in market, its size, beauty, flavor and early maturity will give it 
an average market value of one to two cents more per pound than the 
Concord, during its entire season, which laps upon that of the Concord 
at least two weeks. 

W. I. CHAMBERLAIN. 
Ames, Iowa. 



SCIENTIFIC. 



STUDIES IN OLD GARDENS. 



The convent garden of the earliest English monks, of which Ven- 
erable Bede, the first historian of our race, tells us in his history, de- 
serves to live in the memory of all English speaking gardeners. In the 
days before the monastery became a place of lazy luxury and idleness, 
its garden was a school of industry and of horticulture, and in it, we have 
reason to believe, arose the names of most of our fruits and flowers. 
The words pear, peach, lettuce, lily, peas, and perhaps others, are defi- 
nitely ascribed by philologists to the Latin words for these objects in- 
troduced by St. Augustine and other Roman missionaries who converted 
the Saxons to Christianity. Moreover, an able English scholar has 
shown that the majority of the English names on the earliest lists of 
flowers arc but "Latin disguised by long familiarity and attrition." — e.g., 
mallow, mint, poppy, rue, laurel, feverfew and rose. Mr. Earle has made 
it probable that in the word "hip," as applied to the briar rose, we have 
the survival of the name by which the flower was known before it was 
called the rose. But he supposes the name "rose" and many other 
Latin names for flowers to have been learned from the Latinized British 
natives. We may, however, regard it at least as possible that they 
were learned of the Latin speaking monks. In any case, the flowers of 



444 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



the monastery garden have a peculiar interest; nor is the fact without 
interest that the early missionaries of our race who converted Germany 
to Christianity carried with them into the German garden and the Ger- 
man language some of the English names for plants and flowers. — Ameri- 
can Garden. 



elemp:nts essential to plant growth. 



Growth in the vegetable as well as animal kingdom is the result of 
the consumption of food. All plants from the tiniest to the giant Red- 
wood, take a portion of their food, organic, as well as the inorganic or 
mineral elements, by the aid of water, from the soil and from the air, by 
the pores in tneir leaves and branches. 

AIR AND WATER. 

The air, composed mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, is the com- 
pound in which all plants live, and from which they derive a large por- 
tion of their food. 

Water, composed of one equivalent of oxygen and one of hydrogen, 
has some properties which deserve careful attention. Its powers as a 
solvent, incorporating into its own mass, both gasses and solids, is truly 
remarkable. It absorbs from the air a portion of oxygen, nitrogen, car- 
bonic acid, or almost any other gaseous substance or vapor it may con- 
tain. Its affinity for certain solids, as lime, ashes, clay, etc., is truly 
wonderful, and the value of manures depends largely on their capability 
of absorbing moisture. Water is the chief medium by which growth el- 
ements are conveyed to the roots, and conveyed in the sap to all parts 
of the plant structure. It also enters the leaf pores of every growing 
thing. 

CARBONIC ACID. 

The compound formed by two equivalents of oxygen and one of 
carbon, is called carbonic acid. Water absorbs a little more than its 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 445 



own bulk of this compound, but like other gases it may be greatly com- 
pressed; so that water may be made to hold several times its own bulk 
of it, as long as the pressure is maintained. 

Carbonic acid is about one-half heavier than common air, hence as- 
cends much more slowly than the elementary gases, and exists in largest 
quantities near the surface of the earth, and spread by the winds over 
great areas, constantly entering into the composition of the air. Though 
on an average it constitutes only the one twenty-five hundredth part of 
the atmosphere yet it may in some localities, as when forests are burned, 
form a greater portion 

In a pure state, carbonic acid is fatal to all plant life, yet, existing 
as it does in the air, it constitutes the greater portion of all plant food, be- 
ing constantly imbibed by the leaves and roots. The experiments of 
De Saussure, as to the effect of carbonic acid, in excess of what is usu- 
ally contained in the air, on plant life, are instructive. The growth of 
plants was stimulated, in the sunshine, when the quantity of this com- 
pound was increased so as to constitute about one-twelfth of the air; 
when it formed two-thirds it ceased to grow, and speedily died when it 
was made one-half. In the shade any increase in this gas in the air 
proved injurious. 

Carbonic acid combines with the alkaline elements, lime, potash, 
soda, etc., to form the carbonates which are in somewhat common use 
as fertilizers. Hence, this compound of the organic elements is indis- 
pensible to plant growth as one of the active forces in the preparation 
of plant food. Whence comes the supply of this.' Science says it is 
produced by fermentation of vegetable sub.stances, generated in the de- 
cay of animal and vegetable matter; perhaps the larger portion results 
from the daily burning of cords of wood, and tons of coal by the 
million. 

AMMONIA. 

Another compound consisting of one of nitrogen and three of hy- 
drogen, is known as ammonia, which exerts a powerful effect on plant 
growth. Water can be made to contain 670 times its own bulk of this 
gas, and this proportion is known also as hartshorn. The pure gas has 
and acrid alkaline taste, and not only kills growing plants, but disor- 
ganizes them. 

All vegetable substances absorb ammonia rapidly, as do even the 
clays of our sub soils when in contact with it. Charcoal will absorb 
about 95 times its own bulk of this compound, and light friable soils, 



446 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



having a considerable portion of organic matter retain a still greater 
portion. 

The most common forms in a commercial way are carbonate, ni- 
trate and muriate of ammonia, which have a direct and favorable influ- 
ence on vegetable life, not only promoting rapidity and luxuriance of 
growth, but in the interior portions causing the substances taken up as 
plant food to separate from some and recombine with other elements, 
and so build up the structure. Uniting successfully with the organic el- 
ements and their principal compounds as the nature of each plant re- 
quires, it seems to be a sort of essential distributive force. 

NITRIC ACID. 

The combination of one of nitrogen with five of oxygen forms nitric 
acid. It derives its name from nitre or saltpetre, being generally ob- 
tained by the distillation of this permanent salt. It imparts a yellow 
color to most animal and vegetable substances. It is not found in a 
pure state, but in the tropical regions it is found in combination with 
lime, soda and potash, and known as nitrate of soda, lime and potash. 
These salts are soluble in water, yet are solid when dry. The nitrates 
of lime, soda and magnesia, so strongly attract moisture from the air 
that in damp weather they are inclined to assume a liquid form, and 
hence, in soils, increase its powers of absorbing and retaining moisture. 
In small quantities these have a salutary effect upon plant growth, es- 
pecially the grasses; yet when a soil has naturally enough of these ele- 
ments to induce the vigorous growth of any plant, the addition of more 
would probably not prove beneficial. 

The most important use which nitric acid has in its relation to soils 
and plant growth, consists in its remarkable solvent powers, for by its 
action the alkaline mineral elements become capable of assuming a 
liquid form, the condition precedent to their being used so as to influ- 
ence and aid plant growth. As it is exhaled by the leaves, its use is 
similar to that of carbonic acid in perfecting the organization. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

Another auxiliary to plant growth is phosphoric acid, which by com- 
bination with potash, lime and soda, constitutes the valuable commercial 
fertilizers, known as the phosphates, which are extensively used. 

All of the compounds treated in this paper are the immediate pro- 
moters of plant growth, being essential to perfect organization, germi- 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 447 



nation of seeds and sustaining^ plant life during all the stages of growth. 
As a more thorough knowledge is gained of the elements employed and 
the natural forces which universally operate in forest, field, and garden, 
better understood will be the nature and needs of every plant cultivated, 
and hence such food and care can be given as it naturally requires. — L. 
A. Simvioiis. 



STUFF AND NONSENSE. 



THOMAS MEEHAN, GERMANTOWN, PA. 



Under and in the name of sanitary science, numerous crimes against 
horticulture are often committed, that bring a blush to the cheek of com- 
mon sense. We all know how it is in gardening, there are scores of j^re- 
tenders to one of real intelligence, and "by the same token" as some of 
the old countrymen would say, charlatans abound in the medical profes- 
sion as well as elsewhere. 

We laugh at the ignorance that prevailed in the olden times. Many 
■old people among us are still young enough to remember, when the whole 
medical profession joined in forbidding a drop of cold water to a fever 
parched lip, and blood-letting was the sovereign remedy for every trouble. 
One or two men who prepared text books so taught, and few had indus- 
try to think for themselves. Is it any better to-day.' We laugh at the 
inability of those of the past, to seethe relation between cause and effect; 
arc we any wiser to day.' 

In the time of Queen Elizabeth, there was a bishop in England very 
fond of horticulture. His name was Grindall. Bishop Grindall was one of 
the first to raise fine grapes under glass. Proud of his grand success he 
sent some to the virgin Queen. Bess very much enjoyed the grapes; 
whether she made a little pig of herself is not told; but a day or two after- 



448 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

wards she was taken sick. It would not do in those days, any more than 
in these, for a doctor to say he didn't know, so it was concluded that those 
grapes must have had the plague about them. It was charged that, 
knowingly having the great plague in his house, yet Grindall sent Her 
Majesty grapes. It was fortunate that the connoisseur sent to examine 
the affair found the bishop's family in a usual state of health, or the ac- 
cused might have lost his head. 

Not long since there was some typhoid fever in a district near Phil- 
adelphia. ''The physicians" — they always put in this ambiguous plural — 
said it "must be" from drinking Schuylkill water-the great river that sup- 
plies the huge city with drink. Then it broke out in a district 400 feet 
above tide-water, and where the water was from a large and particularly 
healthful crystal spring, As it would not do to charge it to water here, 
the trees caught it. "The physicians" declared there were too many of 
them, and a large number of beautiful specimens, some of them of great 
value and variety, fell before the ax or were ruined. 

Not fifty miles from Philadelphia, perhaps nearer New York than 
that city, an unusually intelligent florist undertook to get up a trade in 
aquatic plants. Some billious trouble appeared in the house, and 'the 
physicians" attributed it to the water tanks of the poor florist, and he has 
been literally ordered to leave the place. 

I know a church entirely covered with beautiful vines. It was the 
pride of the district. Some one, who had seen the sun dry a pile of clay, 
started the whim that the shade of the leaves kept the sun from the walls, 
and that the dampness was unhealthful. "The physicians" joined in the 
cry; the beautiful vines were cut away. It was no use tor those who 
had practical experience to say that vines kept the walls dry, — for the 
intelligent horticulturist to point to the innumerable rootlets sucking 
from the walls every particle of moisture, for the antiquarian to tell ot 
ivy-clothed ruins of the old world — ruins still remaining because the 
ivy-dried walls defied the pick of the iconoclost to reduce them. " The 
physicians " had said. The vines had to go. 

Just now the great bugaboo is Bacterium, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and 
an innumerable string of hard words are slung at us by "the physicians," 
and to read what they write for us makes it a wonder that any human 
life is left on our planet; but there are bacteria in dew drops, and more 
of these terrible creatures in the teeth-tartar of everybody's mouth than 
in all the water they drink in a whole life time. 

Flowers are banished from our living rooms. "The physicians" say 
they are unhealthful; especially at night, but the poor consumptive, 
given up to die, takes his tent and camp utensils, sleeps out on the fresh 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 449 



green grass for months, and comes to the flower-banished home a new 
man — but only in time to become the doctor's patient again. 

It is quite sickening to read the miserable twaddle in the daily pa- 
pers, whenever matters connected with horticulture, — especially sanitary 
matters affected by horticulture or the kindred sciences, come before 
them. Here are papers that pride themself on their accuracy; papers 
that have a rule to discharge at once any reporter whose statement of 
every day facts are found in the slightest degree inaccurate; and yet can 
scarcely ever offer a paragraph bearing on horticulture that does not 
teem with error, or even absolute nonsense. 

Is the fault with horticulturists themselves? Do they make it a point 
to keep abreast with the world in the march of general intelligence? 

I will not answer these questions now. I only know that horticul- 
ture affords scope for a greater breadth of human knowledge than any 
other persuit, — and if the true horticulturists would take pride in diffus- 
ing the varied knowledge they ought to possess, not even the crude ipse 
dixit of "the physicians" could lead to the perpetration of the enormities 
I have briefly outlined. — Popular Gardening. 



DO VARIETIES RUN OUT? 



PETER HENDERSON, JERSEY CITY HEIGHTS, N. J. 



If, by the question is meant that varieties of any kind under general 
cultivation run out, I say. No. That, under unfavorable conditions, varie- 
ties 2^X0. apparently less vigorous.than when first originated from seed is cer- 
tain. But it is a run of unfavorable conditions only that can bring about 
such results; such as over propagation from weak cuttings or slips, planted 
in poor soil, or in temperature unsuited to their nature, (such as growing 
hardy plants in tropical latitudes), or in doing anything inimical to the 

H. K. — ?9. 



450 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



nature of the plant. Tims, the Violets, and some of our Carnations, and 
Roses are beginning to lose vigor, and become diseased. No wonder that 
they rebel, when instead of giving them the rest that their nature demands 
in the winter months, they are "forced" without cessation, year after year 
at a winter temperature averaging perhaps 70 degrees, when in their 
natural condition, the temperature is probably 30 degrees less for two or 
three months in winter. 

I believe that there is no such thing as permanent degeneration of 
any fruit flower or vegetable that is propagated by cuttings, grafts or 
roots. Our hardy Concord grape is found, when grown under proper 
conditions, to be just as perfect as when first introduced nearly half a 
century ago, and the foreign grapes, such as the Black Hamburgh and 
many others, are as perfect, even under artificial culture, — but which gives 
them the needed winter rest — -as they were one hundred years ago. 
The Wilson and Sharpless Strawberries and the Early Rose Potato can, 
under the most favorable conditions, be found just as perfect as when 
first introduced. New plants when first sent out, often suffer from over 
propagation, and seem to be weaker than they really are, for example; 
When we sent out the "Sunset" Rose some six or eight years ago, the 
demand for it, necessitated every inch of it being used for propagation, 
which so enfeebled the stock that for two or three years it was generally 
condemned, until its vigorous nature asserted itself, so that now its size 
and coloring are fully up to the original specimen from which it sprung. 

An excellent example of how growing a plant foreign to its nature, 
induces temporary degeneration is found in the Oats, Oats from Eng- 
land, Scotland, or Norway, weighing 44lbs. to the bushel, the first year 
after sowing in our tropical summer, fall to 40 lbs., that product being 
sown the second year, again is further reduced to 35lbs , which again being 
sown the third year falls to the normal weight of our American oats 
which is 28 or 30 lbs. per bushel. Were the culture again reversed, by 
sowing these same oats (which had become degenerated by being grown 
in our climate) in the lower temperature of Britain, they would climb up 
in three years to their normal weight there of 44 lbs. or 46 lbs. per 
bushel. 

This subject is too comprehensive for an ordinary magazine article, 
but I think a large majority of cultivators pf experience will agree with 
me in believing that there is no such thing as permanent degeneration of 
any pla: t, whether increased by seeds or slips, even should the cultiva- 
tion reach into thousands of years. — Popular Gardening. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 451 



PLANT INTERMARRIAGES. 



Nature seems to forbid these in the vegetable world, as distinctly 
as reason, experience and sacred law join with her to forbid them in our 
own world. Dr. Asa Gray, during his life, poured light on the many 
and singular contrivances by which cross-fertilization is provided for 
among plants, and he does not hide his light under a bushel, but gives 
illustrations and explanations so clear- as to be plainly understandable 
with the aid of the very sligtest acquaintance with botany. This use- 
ful study is well worthy of attention, if only to afford a better apprecia- 
tion of the mysteries and wonders of plant-life, which are really as inter- 
esting as an Arabian Night's tale. But the study is worth more than 
this. It is obviously an intent of the Creator that the plants that meet 
us everywhere, and as to which we are continually asking, " What are 
they for.^" should n^t merely be trampled underfoot, but should be made 
subjects of examination. They are, like the rainbow, tokens of promise, 
of hope, of resurrection, and of a brighter, happier world. 

Among the expositions which Dr. Gray gives of Mr. Darwin's de- 
ductions from his wonderful stores of observed facts and test experi- 
ments, the comparisons ingeniously made between the seedling plants of 
exactly equal vigor and age, set in the same pot and same soil; one self- 
or close-fertilized, and the other fertilized by pollen from a distant 
plant — are especially notable. The difference in growth was always 
in favor of the latter, and, in many cases, so great that it seems to 
promise wonders in the way of improving varieties. All of us who are 
dwellers in the country, know that wheat does not sport in varieties or 
mix so freely as Indian corn. The blossom of wheat has been said by 
experienced hybridists to be fertilized before it leaves the sheath, so 
that, in case of this valuable grain, man's aid seems to be wanted, not 
only through all the many perils and risks of its growth in the fields, but 
for the infusion of vigor into the seed through a selection and convey- 
ance of select and non- related pollen. We hear of but few cross-breeders 
who have made wheat a successful subject of their useful skill. Yet it is 
perhaps the plant, above all others in temperate climes, which promises 
the greatest results and the most widespread advantages from efforts in 
this line. W. 



453 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



MANURES. 



EXrERIENCE WITH MANURES AT ROTHAMSTED. 



Sir J. B. Lawes says that a continuously unmanured plot in his grounds 
at Rothamstcd, now yields only lo bushels of wheat per acre, instead of 
about 12, the average of the preceding lo years, or 13, the average of the 
preceding 36 years. The farm yard manure plot, on the other hand, 
yields 38 bushels, of 60 pounds per bushel, against an average of only 
32^, but of nearly 61 pounds per bushel, over the preceding 10 years, 
and of 33| bushels, at 6o\ pounds per bushel, over the preceding 36 
years. That is to say, whilst the unmanured produce is about three 
bushels below its average of 13, the farmyard manure produce is more 
than four bushels above its average of 33|. Again, another plot, which 
receives, besides mineral manures, a liberal, but not excessive, amount 
of salts of ammonia, yields nearly 36 bushels, at 59I pounds per bushel, 
against an average of only 32I bushels at the same weight, over the 
preceding 36 years ; that is, it gives an excess this year of rather over 
three bushels. Another plot, on the other hand, with the same mineral 
manures, but one and a half time as much salts of ammonia as plot sev-. 
en, yields only 35|^ bushels, against its average of 36^ bushels ; that is, 
with the excess of ammonia salts, there is, this year, i^ bushel less than 
its average, and even less than with the smaller amount of salts of am- 
monia. The mineral and nitrate plot, again yields only 33 1 bushels, 
against its average of 36I bushels, showing, therefore, a deficiency of 
three bushels, this year. 

LIQUID MANURES. 

An excellent fertilizer for flowers is made by tying up in a piece of 
canvas, about a teacupful of soot ; immerse in about double its amount 
of soft water, for a few days, and the water is ready for use. It is an 
excellent stimulant, and, if applied carefully, as often as necessary, will 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 453 



brighten up almost any flower, and especially bulbous plants. Another 
cheap manure is prepared by mixing about ^ pound of cow manure with 
two gallons of water. This is applied from once to twice per week, and 
is a very safe fertilizer. 

ASHES FOR STAWBERRIES. 

President J. M. Smith said he put on wood ashes, and his strawber- 
ries averaged 250 bushels to the. acre — -applying about 75 bushels an 
acre. The crops were well manured and cultivated, and in the face of 
drouth and rains, other adverse conditions, the berries brought him over 
$500 an acre. But the average yield with others was not half that sum, 

VALUE OF CULTIVATION. 

Prof Henry said that in California the great remedy for drouth, 
where they are nearly without rain for several months, was surface cul- 
tivation. He asked a man who had a 600-acre orchard, "How often do 
you cultivate that orchard .^ " He said, " I don't know." I said, "Ten 
times ? " He answered, he did not know. I asked, " Twenty times .'' " 
He answertd, " Perhaps ; as soon as the teams go through one way they 
go through the other, and that is kept up during the season, with all 
sorts of implements." He has 82 men working. They thus get along 
without water, and their trees grow right along. 



STONE FRUITS. 



THE GOOD PEACH. 

We send you by this mail a sample of what we think is the coming 
late white peach. It originated near York, Pa., and will be known as 
"Good," in honor of the introducer. It is nearly or quite as late as 
Smock, and much larger, and, being a good white peach, will supply a 

long felt want. 

H. M. ENGLE & SON. 



454 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Remarks : — This is one of the finest peaches we have ever eaten. 
It is nearly three inches in diameter. Skin creamy white with a faint 
crimson blush on one side. Flesh cream colored to the pit, very juicy, 
tender, melting, sweet, sprightly and of the first quality. The .pit is 
nearly free. — Rural New Yorker. 

THE ELBERTA PEACH. 

The Elberta Peach has made great gains in popularity the past sea- 
son, as it became better known and appears to do well north as well as 
south. Marketmen in New York, Philadelphia and Boston indorse it 
highly, and say they obtain prices from one-third to twice as much more 
than for ordinary varieties. It is claimed to ripen at a time when there 
are no other yellow peaches in the market ; before the Crawford Late 
and after Reeves' Favorite has gone. It is large and productive, and 
growers say, the trees have great vigor and hardiness, bearing when very 
young, in some cases when one year old. Good shipping qualities render 
it profitable, while its excellence and beauty cause a ready sale. The 
happy days of peach growers will return again, if its good qualities hold 
out, and it does not deteriorate from the use of weak buds in the desire 
to increase so valuable a stock as this. 

PEACH TREES ON WHITE THORN STOCKS. 

It is not to be supposed that horticulturists have as yet learned all 
that is worth knowing about plant-Hfe, nor discovered all the different 
and possible modes of propagating the various kinds of plants under cul- 
tivation. It has long been supposed that the peach would thrive only 
when budded or grafted on some closely allied stock, such as the almond, 
apricot, plum, or seeflling of its own species ; but we are now informed 
by the Revue Horticale, that the common White Thorn {Cratcegus oxy 
cantJid) may be employed not only as a stock for the peach, but also for 
the plum and almond. It is stated that Mr. E. Lefoit, Secretary- General 
of the Horticultural Society of Arrondissement of Meaux, France, has a 
number of peach trees trained as standards and on walls which are grafted 
on White Thorn stocks, and that the trees are vigorous and productive. 
If the peach will thrive on White Thorn stocks in France, it will do so in 
this country, and probably better on some of our native species of the 
thorn than on the European. Those who are interested in such matters 
should give the thorn stock a trial the coming season and report re- 
sult. 

A. S. F., in American Garden. 



WHAT OTHERS SA^ . 455 



THE FUN OF FARMING. 



Some men think if they only lived on a farm, they would be happy. 
But of course agriculture in books is nicer than it is in the country. I 
suppose somebody has been telling them that the farmer is the only in- 
dependent man on the face of the earth, and that the life of the tiller of 
the soil is one of peace and happiness, with none of the cares of business 
or the wearing rush of the city to drive him to premature old age and 
insane asylums. I have known some farmers, and have a slight idea 
of how much work farmers do. 

I will begin about the ist of January. That is the laziest time of 
the year for them. If our farmer keeps cows, he is obliged to be up 
early in the morning, to get the milking done, and if he keeps a hired 
man, and tries to wake him up in the morning, you would think he had 
taken chloroform. He sleeps so hard he might be kidnapped and given 
a bath without waking him up. After milking, they go into the barn, to 
clean the stables. Does any one know how cold a pitchfork handle is 
on a cold winter's morning.'' It is colder than the supervisor or trustee 
he voted for, on the morning after election. After he has hold of that 
pitchfork about five minutes he begins to wish his parents were born 
on different sides of the globe and had never met each other. Now 
comes the business of watering horses, cows, and all. A farmer never 
suffers for want of exercise. After dinner, he has time to speak to his 
wife, while the hired man chops the wood. 

If there is nothing else to do after dinner, there is always one re- 
source, sprouting potatoes. If there is one thing more delightful than 
another, it is to sit upon a reversed peck measure in the cellar and sprout 
potatoes, hour after hour. 

Plowing must be begun as soon as the frost is out ot the ground, 
and with this real commencement of the farming season, the hard work 
begins. They have been resting all winter to prepare for it ! All 
through the lovely month cf June they expend their time plowing corn. 
Ask a farmer of the beauties of a pastoral life about half an hour before 
noon, while he is navigating through a forty-acre field, and he will get 
mad ; and if you tell him the sun is nearer in winter than in summer, he 
will find it hard to keep his temper. He knows how near the sun is in June 
while playing croquet with a hoe handle and weeds. The potato bug has 



456 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



added another pleasing acldition to the raising of potatoes, for the farmer has 
an opportunity to amuse himself sprinkling them with Paris green and 
water. Then comes haying ; now he works about eighteen hours a day, 
and if he discovers a bumblebee's nest and is made the recipient of their 
practical stings, though he can't find time for revenge, he gives some 
beautiful sentiments on the spur of the moment. After haying, harvest- 
ing, then digging potatoes ; then the corn is to husk, and the cold weath- 
er comes again. Oh, yes, there is lots of (un farming. 

M. T. M. 



AT HOME. 



In an interesting editorial on that much worn subject, " Why 
Young Men Leave the Farm " the Central Christ an Advocate says: 

It is not strange that so many young men are deserting the farm ; 
the only wonder is that so many yet remain. How many farmers are 
there who eat in their dining rooms when they do not have company ; 
who always use the best they have for their own family ; who plant 
flowers about their houses ; who buy games for their children ; who cul- 
tivate social life to the full extent of their opportunities ; who do not 
run down farming as an occupation when seasons are unfavorable ; who 
put on clean clothes after the day's work and pays special attention to 
the nicities of manner and appearance which give charm to family life ; 
who purchase books and family papers ; who plan and execute pleas- 
ant surprises for the home circle ; who encourage their sons to make a 
scientific study of farming ; \vho give them a proprietary interest in the 
farm, and an opportunity now and then to see a little of the world } Is 
it to be wondered at that when these things are considered of but little 
moment young men turn with longing eyes to the cities } 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 45'? 



A BLOOMLESS, SEEDLESS, CORELESS APPLE. 



I am not a rurseryman, but have made some little examination in 
fruits. I have an apple tree of the above description — a stray seedling 
set out in our own orchard when young, and after it began to grow it 
appeared to be a wonder. The tree originated with us in 1866 of un- 
known parentage. Its habit of growth is rather slow. It has heavy, 
round, spreading boughs. The young apple grows out in bunches 
unlike any other apple I ever saw. It never has had a blossom on it. 
It bears full every year a fine, red winter apple. 

The flesh of this apple is of a deep, rich, orange color ; of wonder- 
fully fine aromatic flavor, and it is solid throughout, without seed or 
core. I do not know whether it will duplicate itself, but reason teaches 
us it may. If I understood engrafting I would endeavor to propagate 
this singular apple. Many have come miles to see this tree at blooming 
time. Some have disputed this representation, but it is true. 

Any and all skeptics can consult R. M. Ratcliff, D. D., or any one 
else here. The cause of the phenomenon I know not. 

G. W. ROBINETTE. 

Flag Pond, Va. 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 



The following is a list of the State Agricultural stations: 
STATE. PLACE. 

Alabama. Auburn. 

Arkansas. Fayettcville. 

California. Berkeley. 

Colorado. F"t. Collins. 



458 



MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



Connecticut. 

Dakota. 

Delaware. 

Florida. 

Georgia. 

Illinois. 

Indiana. 

Iowa. 

Kansas. 

Kentucky. 

Louisiana. 

Maine. 

Maryland. 

Massachusetts. 

Michigan. 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi. 

Missouri. 

Nebraska. 

Nevada. 

New Hamshire.. 

New York. 

New York. 

New York. 

North Carolina. 

Ohio. 

Oregon. 

Pennsylvania. 

Rhode Island. 

South Carolina. 

Tennessee. 

Texas'. 

Vermont. 

Virginia. 

W. Virginia. 

Wisconsin. 



New Haven. 
Brookings. 
Newark. 
Lake City. 
Athens. 
Champaign. 
« Lafayette. 
Ames. 
Manhattan. 
Lexington. 
Baton Rouge. 
Orono. 

Agricultural College. 
Amherst. 

Agricultural College. 
St. Anthony Park. 
Agricultural College. 
Columbia. 
Lincoln. 
Reno. 
Hanover. 
New Brunswick. 
Ithaca. 
Geneva. 
Raleigh. 
Columbus. 
Corvalis. 

State College, Center Co. 
Kingston. 
Columbia. 
Knoxville. 
College Station. 
Burlington. 
Blacksburg. 
Morganston. 
Madison. 



Farmers in any state can obtain the reports and bulletins of their 
own station free of charge upon application. The reports and bulletins 
from other states are sometimes sent free, but when the applications be- 
comes so numerous as to be a tax upon the income of the station, a small 



WHAT OTHERS SAY 459 



charge is made, varying from forty cents to fifty cents per year. The 
exact terms upon which a station in another state will furnish bulletins 
may be ascertained by a letter addressed " Experiment Station," at the 
postoffice here given, for the state named. 



AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 



Editors Country Gentleman : 

I was greatly surprised to read the article in Country Ge?itlemaH for 
November 15, from a "Teacher of Agriculture," in reference to manual 
training at agricultural colleges. It is greatly to be regretted that 
" Teacher of Agriculture" did not sign his name. The writer says: '-The 
teaching of practical farm work at a college or school of agriculture is, 
and of necessity must be, a farce and a humbug." Let me say in reply, 
that this college, the Michigan Agricultural, has now existed for thirty 
years. Manual labor has been performed for the whole time, and to-day 
no feature of the college is held in higher regard, I believe, by the faculty. 
Board of Control, and by graduates, than this one of manual labor. And 
when the labor departments have been most successfully managed, no 
feature has been more popular with the students. These tacts certainly 
do not smack of " farce and absurdity." The writer says, the student 
goes to pursue a course in scientific agriculture, and acquire an education 
that will better fit him to conduct farm operations. We, who teach sci- 
ence in these days, would utterly rebel were we required to give up our 
laboratory practice. We demand, that our students shall touch and 
handle the things about which we lecture. This laboratory work is what 
makes live, wide-awake,' enthusiastic students. Agriculture takes in all 
science, and has a literature rich and comprehensive, and its manual op- 
erations are very varied and complex. How much more then does the 
teacher of agriculture need a laboratory — his broad fields — to illustrate, 
vivify, and make interesting what he teaches ! 

The next sentence contains a confession from '-Teacher of Agri- 
culture." which is very significent. " The chances are that the student 



4C0 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



knows more about the manual operations of farm work tlian the profes- 
sor of agriculture." Just here lies the difficulty. Students very .soon 
"size up" their teacher, and no failing are they .so slow to condone as in- 
competency. It is not difficult to see how any department in a college 
will prove a " farce and a humbug," when its professor knows less than his 
students. The fact is, the professor in Agriculrure, like the professor in 
geology, should know well all the sciences. And more, he should know 
thoroughly all the most approved methods of farm management and 
manipulation, and should be a mechanical genius, so as to readily see the 
principles underlying farm machinery. Such an one will have no trouble 
to interest his pupils. 

The writer quoted speaks of the time spent in manual operations 
as wasted. We have had professors at this college from many of the 
colleges of the country, and they invariably report as good class-room 
work here as anywhere ; yet our students are employed in manual labor 
three hours a day. The fact is, the students need that much exercise. 
Here all get it. In other schools some get none, while others engage in 
athletic sports and often work so hard as to utterly ruin their physical 
strength. Is it not better for the student to have this regular employ- 
ment, and to work off the greater part of the surplus physical energy in 
some wholesome, useful labor ? We have found it so here decidedly. 

The writer says: " College catalogues are full of nonsense about 
dignifying labor." I have yet to see such a. catalogue ; yet I supposed I 
was pretty familiar with these documents. But why " nonsense .-' " I 
say, it is manly to labor with the hands, as well as with the brain. All 
useful labor is praiseworthy ; but let a student work four years during 
the most impressible part of his life solely with his brain, with not a 
.stroke of manual labor, and it is nonsense to ever expect him to take to 
it naturally after graduating. 

Fifty per cent, of our graduates have gone into manual labor pur- 
suits — mostly on to farms. Why this unique experience .-' I believe, it 
comes from our labor system ; in truth, I feel sure it is this. I say, dig- 
nify both brain labor and hand labor. Those colleges that regard the 
one only, have not made farmers. 

The writer says, that the manual dexterity is easily gained. Then 
why does the professor remain more ignorant than the green freshman .'' 
But I think he is wrong. There are manual methods and manual meth- 
ods. Every farm community shows most graphically the need of better 
training among our farmers in just this matter of manual dexterity. 

It is stated, again, that hard manual labor in the afternoon is poor 
preparation for study at night. Our experience. contradicts this in toto. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 461 



Our students are unanimous in the opinion that the work is no hindrance 
to study. The exercise is no more than good, vigorous health, and the 
best mental effort requires. Our students are not only exceptionally 
good in the class-room, but they are everywhere praised for their vigor- 
ous physiques. We believe, our labor system deserves much of the 
credit. 

That student labor can be made in the highest sense productive and 
economical no one argues. Not, however, because the students regard 
it as " a farce ; " but to have a large number of laborers for three hours 
per day, and many of them persons who know nothing of farm work, is 
not just the arrangement one would desire, if money alone was the ob- 
ject. But colleges are not to make money, they are to develop strong, 
disciplined men. And for agricultural colleges to attract students, and 
send their graduates on to farms, they must, as experience has fully proved, 
use manual labor as one important factor of their work. Our critic fur- 
ther asserts, that during the summer months, when all the studies in nat- 
ural science can be best prosecuted and farm management is at its height, 
these teachers drop their work for two months' holiday, because other 
institutions do so. That is just what we do not do. We think the sum- 
mer months our harvest time, and we all stick to the plow-handles. Nor 
do our students complain, but give as good lessons even in dog-days as 
at any time. I can hardly see how an agricultural college can hope for 
success, except as it has its I'^'ng vacation in winter, when nature, with 
which agriculture has to do, is at rest. Surely in our northern states any 
other plan would seem anomalous and absurd. The winter vacation 
also gives the poor student opportunity to teach, and thus some of our 
brightest and most promising students are enabled to finish the course. 
I quite agree with our critic in his conclusions under this head. Summer 
vacations at an agricultural college do seem " utterly ridiculous." As well 
might the farmer take a vacation just at the dawn of the harvest season. 
But why " ridiculous," unless the farm and garden are to be made ad- 
juncts in the work of teaching ? 

It is farther stated that farmers' sons avoid the agricultural colleges, 
"because a young man seeking an education seeks to be more than a 
hewer of wood and a drawer of water, and because they perceive that 
this demagogical cry about dignifying labor is really a belittling of 
mental culture." Surely our critic should investigate before he writes. 
Farmers' sons do not avoid real agricultural colleges. For years the bur- 
den of our cry has been "where can we put our students ?" True, not 
all of these are farmers' sons, but a large majority arc. I think the same 
is true of Kansas, Mississippi, Iowa and other colleges that are truly ag- 



462 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

ricultural. The colleges that beg in vain for agricultural students are 
those which have no manual labor. This is a fact which investigation 
will demonstrate to any person. I believe the "demagogical cry" is all 
imaginary; at least, I have been very deeply interested in agricultural 
colleges for more than twenty-five years, and I have never heard it. I 
am pained to believe that too many regard hand labor "as really a be- 
littling of mental culture." It is to be regretted that there are any such. 
I think they are out of p'ace on American soil. 

In reply to the critic's closing paragraph about manual labor being 
a "travesty on work, and an absolute waste of valuable time," I can only 
say we find the reverse to be true. Our college has always insisted on 
the manual labor feature. To-day our faculty and graduates are as one 
man in speaking its praise. We believe it is this that has filled our halls 
with exceptionally earnest capable young men; that has made our col- 
lege the pride of the State Grange and farmers of the state; that has 
sent such a surprisingly large proportion of its graduates on to farms, 
and has been more influential than any other one thing in determining 
the future of the large number of our graduates that are now acting as 
professors in agricultural colleges, and that are employed in the several 
experimental stations. Twenty-eight of our graduates are professors in 
agricultural colleges or state universities, twenty-three are members of 
experimental stations, and five are directors of such stations; while two 
are presidents of colleges.; Surely this is not a bad .showing for a college 
that graduated its first class in 1861. This manual labor reminds us of 
Grant's whisky which Lincoln wished more ol his generals would drink. 

A. J. COOK. 

Michigan Ag'l College. 



UTILITY OF EXHIBITION OF FRUITS. CEREALS, ETC. 



Agricultural fairs, horticultural fairs, stock shows, etc., when well 
done and well patronized, have in them a value not usually appreciated 
by the masses, nor easily estimated by a careful observer. Not valu- 
able mainly to stockholders or managers of such "Fair Associations" — 
a large proportion are not remunerative, financially, as an enterprise, 
nor even self-sustaining always. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 463 



THE PAY IS TO PATRONS. 

Citizens of a good county do not esimate the value of their annual 
fair by the aggregate amount of liberal premiums awarded them. The 
benefits come as of " bread cast upon the waters," to be gathered after- 
ward. At these fairs the best animals of improved breeds of sheep, 
cattle, horses, etc., are seen by large numbers of farmers, who naturally 
compare their common plug horses with finer, better animals, and resolve 
to make improvement in their stables ; and so of all stock shown, noth- 
ing is so convincing as to plainly see the difference. 

HOW IT WORKS. 

Where a good fair or stock show is run a few years, the result will 
be observed all over the county in the improving character of pigs, 
poultry, sheep, cattle and horses. Scrub cows are abandoned for better 
milkers, the farmers' improved teams show the blood of a better breed. 
He caught it at the fair, is "breeding" up all his stock and finds it pays 
largely. So of the field products, by comparison we learn which is the 
best corn, wheat, oats or other grains, find thus the earliest, largest and 
best potatoes and other vegetables, and at once determine to have the 
best varieties of all these and to practice the best methods to procure 
largest yields. Thus the farmer finds the value of his county fair in his 
fields in larger crops of better grains, grasses and other products. 

These agricultural gatherings yield 

AN ANNUAL SOCIAL VALUE, 

that is also above the size of the average premium. Horticulturists 
find the exhibition of their attractive, beautiful fruits, one of the most 
efficient factors in multiplying the number of orchards and fruit growers 
in the country. A well handled, good display of perfect, well colored 
fruits is most enthusing — an appeal, irresistible to the good sense of 
hundreds, who, standing by such display tables, determine to plant an 
orchard and grow similar fruit. 

In such exhibits, experienced fruit men are able to compare many 
varieties of the same kind, and are aided in choosing, more wisely, the 
best to plant. 

BEGINNERS IN THE FRUIT BUSINESS 

are in some danger of being misled, by a grand display of a hundred 
varieties of apples or more, into a desire to plant them all, or as many 



464 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

as possible, and specially th<# very largest specimens impress them, so 
that lists are made on the spot, of the names of the " big ones,", and 
they will in this way be led to plant most of such as pay small profit ; 
for it is a fact that our largest show apples will not yield as much profit 
as will varieties of the small or medium size. We think 

THE PRIME UTILITY 

or value of an exhibition of apples or other fruits docs not consist in the 
largest possible display of all the varieties attainable. lUit a show of 
select varieties of the most profitable to grow, it would seem, would 
constitute the best object lesson. 

ENCOUR.\GE THE BEST. 

We have often thought fair associations, horticultural societies, etc., 
should not encourage multiplicity of varieties (many of them without 
merit) by offering their largest premiums for the largest collection, but 
instead let it be a liberal premium for the best collection for certain pur- 
poses and so of single plates, offering premiums for only the merito- 
rious, and discouraging all shy bearers, poor quality, bad keepers, etc. 

The value of these fruit shows is apparent in the increase and 
improvement of fruits in counties where samples of best fruits are exhib- 
ited annually, or even monthy, during the faithful work of horticultural 
societies year after year. 

We hope to see fruit show, stock shows and agricultural fairs still 
patronized more all over Missouri, and so well done as to develop and 
distribute their chief good to the largest possible number. 

JOT. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 465 



THE WONDERFUL CROP OF MISSOURI APPLES. 



THE VARIETIES THAT ARE FAVORITES. 



The apple crop of North Missouri this year, exceeds that of any 
other season in the memory of the oldest resident, or in the history of 
the state. The season was a propitious one, and as a result, the mag- 
nificent orchards for which this Providence-favored section is noted, are 
now presenting busy scenes. The large trees are almost borne to the 
earth by their weight of fruit, and the quality of the product is pro- 
nounced unexcelled. Contrary to the usual order of things, the beauti- 
ful crop has in no way diminished the value of the fruit on the market 
for every apple that has been grown in North Missouri this summer 
now commands a sa'e and at a price not to be sneezed at. 

In Mexico there have established for the season's business, commis- 
sion merchants, who buy all the apples of the fall and winter varieties 
raised for miles around. Gathered in the streets about their places of 
business, from an early hour until late in the afternoon, can be seen the 
wagons of farmers, heavily loaded with apples. So great is the supply 
that large forces of men are necessary to receive all of the fruit for sale, 
and as fast as a wagon bed is unfreighted, another load slips into its place. 
And so for days and days this t' affic has been going on and for weeks it 
will not end. 

A representative of the Ledger dropped in on one of these 
merchants this morning and when the gentleman found a moment of 
leisure he was asked to tell something of his business. He kindly con- 
sented and said : 

"This business is not exactly a new one, but in its present form is 
quite novel. I have bought apples and shipped them from this point, 
season after season for many years, but I cannot remember any 
time that the crop was so good as now. Y<5u .see the extent 
of the business this morning and we have only started. I may 

\\. K. — 30. 



460 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

say. From now until the close of the season I expect to barrel and ship 
nearly six hundred bushels of apples daily. I keep a large force of 
men at work here unloading from the wagons, sorting and barreling the 
fruit. All apples with the slightest indication of unsoundness, are 
thrown aside and disposed of at once to the local trade, before rot sets 
in. They are good for present consumption, but might ruin a whole 
shipment by being allowed to remain with the sound fruit. Besides my 
force here at the house, I have a number of men at work in the country, 
who pick, sort and barrel the apples in the orchard." 

" What are the favorite varieties and what prices do they com- 
mand .''" 

" These," answered the merchant, pointing to a barrel of deep, rich, 
red apples, " are known as the Ben Davis variety. They seem to be the 
most plentiful, but the demand for them, even this good season, is 
greater than the supply. The Ben Davis is a fine winter apple and a 
good cooker. The Willow Twig, an apple larger than the Ben Davis, 
is also much in favor. It is green, with a tinge of red on the side. The 
Winesap is a small, dark, red apple, with a white, juicy meat and has 
many admirers. The Roman Beauty looks like the Willow Twig, but is 
a large variety and equally good. These four varieties are most sought 
after, but when the old Missouri Geneting commence to come in the 
demand for them will exceed that of all the other varieties I have 
named combined. Greenings and Pippins are good fall varieties, but 
cannot be classed as standard. I send all my apples direct to Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, but some of the dealers in this section ship to St. Louis 
and Chicago. We are paying 25 to 40 cents for apples and are buying 
all we can get. If you want to know anything more about apples, 
come around when I am not so busy and I will tell you something 
about grafting, orchard culture and the apple business in general," 

The reporter thanked the gentleman and left the place loaded 
down with juicy Winesaps, delicious Rambos and a profusion of Pippins, 
Willow- Twigs and Roman Beauties. — Mexico (Mo.) Ledger. 



WTtAT OTHERS SAY. 467 



OUTCOME OF THE FRUIT SHOW. 



It would not surprise us at all, indeed it is one of the things we 
confidently expect and predict, that consequent upon the great show 'of 
fruit now on exhibition at the St. Louis Exposition, within five years, 
trains of special cars will be loaded in Southern Missouri and the fruit 
go direct to the seaboard, and thence to Europe in the original pack- 
ages. We have demonstrated beyond the shadow of a doubt that Mis- 
souri is in the centre of the "fruit belt," that here soil and climate are 
unsurpassed, and that in no other state can the same quantity and qual- 
ity be periodically produced . These incontrovertible facts will add to 
the number and size of our commercial orchards, give zest to the ge- 
nius and the enterprise of the orchardist in competing for the production 
of the best, and create a demand for our fruit from all parts of our own 
country and from Europe. 

This is no wild fancy of a visionary brain. It is a cold statement 
based upon bare facts. The evidence is here before our eyes, and see- 
ing is believing. 

Here w^e have five hundred and twenty varieties of apples shown 
on three thousand different plates, the show kept up forty days in 
succession, and yet two-thirds of the state are not represented. It is 
mainly the result of individual enterprise in which not more than a dozen 
local horticultural societies take part. The state gives it no aid and the 
railroads no help as they do in Arkansas and Kansas; it is therefore the 
outcome of the energy and the enterprise of earnest men who, knowing 
their business, have the most implicit confidence in the result when op- 
portunity is afforded them of open competition with the world. 

Missouri horticulturists owe a debt of gratitude to J. C. Evans 
and L. A. Goodman, president and secretary, respectively, of the State 
Horticultural Society, for the long and arduous work involved in bring- 
ing the show to perfection, and the self-denying manner in which they 
have personally superintended all the arrangements and remained with 
it from the begmning. To D. S Holman, the efficient treasurer, who also 
has personally remained with and assisted them, similar credit is due. 
There are other enterprising men whose names might be mentioned in 
this connection, men who assisted in furnishing the fruit, in collecting, 
picking and shipping it, and at times being present here spending time 



468 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIKTY. 

and money in perfecting the great work, but our space will not now per- 
mit their enumeration. They shall not go unnoticed, however. The 
names of all who have contributed to the success of this enterprise must 
be placed upon record that when the fiist train of refrigerator cars loaded 
with our choicest fruits pulls out of South Missouri before the year 1895 
they may be called together to witness the grand outcome of the mis- 
sionary work they are doing to-day. 

We have said in the past that Missouri had room for hundreds of 
thousands of farmers from other states less favorably situated, but she 
does not need them half as badly as they need her. Within the years 
past millions of well-to-do, intelligent men have passed by and through 
the state who might better far have stayed here; they have gone farther 
and fared worse; they are now begging their way back to a decent soil 
and an habitable climate. — Rjiral World. 



PRACTICAL AND POETICAL BIRD LIFE. 



BY MARY IIOLSINGER, ROSEDALE, K.\S. 



[Read before the August meeting of the Missouri Valley Horticul- 
tural Society.] 

As students of everything pertaining to successful fruit growing, 
the members of this society have studied carefully the food and habits 
of our feathered songsters in order to determine their exact relation to 
horticulture. Yet I wonder how many of us have looked beyond their 
utility, and the pleasure which they give us, to think that these same 
musicians are of mpre than passing interest to the people far removed 
from vineyards and cherry orchards. 

We have learned that besides being on the farm as consumers of 
insects, caterpillars and surplus small fruits, the birds have another and 
loftier mission which they fulfill in the grand concerts with which they 



WHAT OTHERS SAV. 469 



greet the world every summer's morning", and later by the evening ves- 
pers which they bring to the tired farmer's door. But have we ever 
paused in. an interlude of the singing to think that there are others 
whose life and whose work would be incomplete without these same 
birds ? For what, indeed, would poetry be without the birds ? What 
could the poet use as a substitute were these serial singers to be sud- 
denly wiped out of existence ? 

Resting under the friendly shade of a stout-hearted tree, you have 
looked out upon the surrounding summer landscape. You have noted the 
thriving field, the ripening grain, the perfumed flowers, and you have 
noted how peaceful and quiet was all summer life about you, not a 
breath stirring, not even a bird singing to break the stillness— not a bird 
singing ? Oh yes ! Now that you begin to listen for them there are one, 
two and three chirping cheerily from an adjacent grove, seemingly not 
in the least offended because you overlooked them before. 

In the same cheery way the bird sings in poetry. You may not 
notice him but you would miss him were he not there. Never yet has 
there been produced a true and beautiful word picture of a summer 
scene but the bird and his singing have been lovingly noted. Thus 
Longfellow in his poem "Autumn" makes mention of them in this way: 

"Through the trees 
A golden robin moves. The purple finch, 
That on wild cherry and red cedar feeds, 
A winter bird comes with its plaintive whistle 
And pecks by the witch hazel while aloud 
From cottage roofs the warbling blue bird sings'." 

Lowell, in painting his beautiful picture of autumn in ' An Indian 
Summer Reverie," amid descriptions of hills, valleys, trees and sky brings 
in these suggestive lines: 

"Far distant sounds the hidden chickadee, 
"The sobered robin, hunger silent now, 
Seeks cedar berries blue, his autumn cheer." 

Not even disdaining to mention a less romantic bird he writes of 

"The cock's shrill trump that tells of scattered corn. 
Passed breezily on by all his flapping mates." 

Farther on his eyes arc raised above the frost tinted trees and he 
notes: 

"Silently overhead the hen hawk sails, 

With watchful measuring eye and far his quarry waits." 



470 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Does not even this simple line, 

"A single crow a single caw lets fall.^' 

Suggest the early autumn day in all its peace and beauty? 

Not willing at any time to slight his favorite of all his feathered 
friends he adds, 

"Meanwhile that devil-may-care, the bobolink, 
Remembering duty in mid quaver stops, 

Just ere he sweeps o'er rapture's tremulous brink, 
And twixt the mirrows most demurely drops, 

A decorous bird of business, who provides 

For his brown mate and fledglings six besides, 

And looks from right to left, a farmer mid his crops." 

Nor is the picture yet complete without the dallying plough boy. 

"Who, with each sense shut fast except the eye. 
Creeps close and scares the jay he hoped to shoot." 

The poet no more than the fruit grower is averse to showing his 
partiality for a particular bird, nor does he hesitate to make special men- 
tion of the birds he loves. With a few exceptions each fluttering beauty 
has a friend who loves him best, to whom he sings his sweetest songs 
and who in return, pens the happiest thoughts when he is the subject. 

First of all in the springtime comes the robin, called "the forerunner 
of the spring" the same robin-red-breast who 

" Sings so sweetly in the falling of the year" 

and with its glad, clear carol bids good cheer to all the fresh young life 
about him. There is a pretty story told in rhyme by Whittier which 
tells that this merciful bird carries dew in its tiny bill to drop on the sad 
souls tortued in the "fiery-pit." 

"You can see the marks on his red-breast still, 

Of the fires that scorch as he drops it in." 
Then the poet, always ready to draw a lesson for himself adds: 

" Each good thought is a drop wherewith 
To cool and lessen the fire of hell." 

Only a few days later comes the bluebird and begins "prophesying 
spring," his mellow, sweet toned warble making him a general favorite 
in the United States. He is accused of being vain of the rich sky-blue 
coat which he wears, but I think he is prouder of the six pale blue eggs 
which his busy little wife cares for so tenderly. 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 471 



A little later on other birds fully as beautiful and with quite as good 
voices, though these receive the gladdest welcome because the earliest 
visitors. Among them is the Biltimore oriole whom some one has pret- 
tily called a "glance of summer fire." With his brilliant plumage, agree- 
able song and active habits he soon makes himself at home in our 
hearts as well as in our orchards. He was christened Baltimore, we are 
told, from the resemblance of his plumage to livery of Lord Baltimore. 

The lark, for many years a great favorite in Europe, has endeared 
himself to us since he has taken out his naturalization papers here. He 
has a habit of sending forth his sweetest song while ascending to a great 
height in clear weather. It is this habit which has caused the poet 
always to speak of him as singing at " Heaven's gate." 

The blue-jay with all his vaunted beauty has hardly a friend among 
us all. The farmer denounces him as a plunderer and murderer. Those 
not acquainted with his domestic habits find the keynote to his character 
in his sharp, screaming voice. Few, indeed, are the rhymers who sing 
his praises. 

The cat bird and his cousin, the mocking bird, are said to be among 
the best singers in America, especially the latter, whose reputation is 
world wide. 

The cuckoo, the "merry brown thrush," the brave little chickadee 
and the Quaker wren are all modest, well behaved, sprightly birds, going 
about their daily tasks with such a cheerful, contented mien which many 
of their human friends would do well to copy. 

The crow, the blackbird and even the despised hawk have their 
friends among human kind. The latter is defended by Mr. Warner who 
mentions only two varieties out of eight which he considers detrimental 
to the farmer's interests, the others feeding mostly on insects and small 
rodents. 

The blackbird takes it upon himself to assist the crow in superin- 
tending the farmer's corn fields, but both birds, it is thought, eat very 
little grain till it has ripened in the fall when they have earned a share 
by protecting it from insects and worms through the long summer 
months. 

Jim Crow derives his surname from his cry of "caw," though just 
how it has been so perverted we can hardly tell. However, his voice 
is less harsh here than across the Atlantic, vvherc he was named years 
ago, and this undoubtedly makes a difference. 

Hated and persecuted for his unappreciated services in the corn 
field, he has the further misfortune to be the emblem of contention. 



472 MISSOURI STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Many arc the disputes settled only b)- the customary " picking a 
crow. " 

As an expression of liumiliation eatinj^ crow has about the same 
meaning as eating humble pie. The significance is said to have had its 
origin during the civil war, coming about in this way. A private in a 
certain Pennsylvania regiment got permission to go hunting. During 
the day he was unfortunate enough to shoot a pet crow belonging to 
a planter who came in sight just as the shot was fired. Seizing the gun 
which the unlucky hunter had rested against a tree he thundered, 
" You will eat that crow or die." There being no escape the soldier be- 
gan sulkily to devour his unpalatable capture. When he had eaten a 
part the planter relenting said : ' You've done pretty well ; here, take 
your gun and get off right smart." The soldier no sooner had the gun 
in his own hands than he turned it suddenly upon the late victor, ex- 
claiming, " Now you cat the rest of that crow or I'll shoot you on the 
spot." 

Astonished and helpless the planter meekly obeyed. Visiting the 
camp a few days later, he was politely greeted by the smiling soldier. 
" Do you know him .^" inquired an officer of his visitor. "O yes," was 
the pleasant reply, " we dined together last week . " 

The well-known English sparrow, once courted in all parts of the 
country is now as diligently persecuted. It is admitted that he has san- 
itary habits, that he is an invaluable assistant in cleaning the city 
streets, but on the other hand dark and dreadful tales are told of him — 
how nothing prevents his inroads on seeds and grain, how he torments, 
whips and even kills the sweeter song birds, how he appropriates every- 
thing for his own selfish wants. From many quarters the harsh decis- 
ion comes, "The sparrow must go" — but the sparrow will not go. 

Poor little sparrow ! Plucky, sociable, restless, troublesome little 
sparrow. Could you but be contented with a share of this world's 
goods ; could you but learn to control your temper better, could you 
only learn to be more generous, more polite in your dealings with men 
and birds you would save yourself a vast amount of trouble, as many a 
larger biped would do. 

Blithest and most of all our song birds is the bobolink, who comes 
in the spring from the West Indies and begins singing with such volu- 
bility and hilarity that the listener cannot fail to find the spring enthu- 
siasm throbbing in his own veins. " He chants out," says Wilson, "such 
a jingling medley of short, variable notes, uttered with such seeming 
confusion and rapidity that it seems as if half a dozen birds of different 



WHAT OTHERS SAY. 473 



kinds were singing all at once." Perhaps the old nursery ditty expresses 
it quite as well. It runs in this wise : 

" Bobolink, 'olink, 'olink, 

One would think so fast you gabble, 

That you never stop to think, 

Bobolink, 'olink, 'olink. 

No one thinks you're any wiser 

Though your tongue keeps running so." 

Whitticr calls the bobolink the 

"Jolliest of our birds of singing." 
Lowell tells of his love for June, 

"The pearl of the New England year," 

and his feathered friend, in these words: 

" A week ago the sparrow was divine. 
The bluebird, shifting his light load of song 
^'rol'n post to post along the cheerless fence. 
Was as a rhymer ere the post came. 

The bobolink has come, and like the soul 
Of the sweet season vocal in a bird, 
Gurgles in ecstacy we know not what 
Save June! Dear June! Nozv God be praised 
for JuneT 

Bryant has written a poem entitled "Robert of Lincoln," so gay and 
rollicking that we almost hear the merry bird notes in reading those of 
the poet. The history of the bird's life through an entire summer is 
given in the poem beginning: 

"Merrily swinging on brier and weed. 
Near to the nest of his little dame, 
. Over the mountain side or mead, 

Robert of Lincoln is telling his name." 

Ikit the last stanza begins thus: 

"Summer wanes; the children are grown; 

Fun and frolic no more he knows; 
Robert of Lincoln's a humdrum crone." 

The poet tells the truth. The bobolink s